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Clinical Microbiology in Pharmacy Education: A Practice-based Approach

    Authors: Olla Wasfi1, Mary Power2, Roderick A. Slavcev1,*
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    Affiliations: 1: School of Pharmacy and; 2: The Centre for Teaching Excellence, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, Ontario, CANADA
    AUTHOR AND ARTICLE INFORMATION AUTHOR AND ARTICLE INFORMATION
    • Published 20 December 2010
    • *Corresponding author. Mailing address: School of Pharmacy, University of Waterloo, 200 University Ave. W., Waterloo, Ontario, Canada N2L 3G1. Phone: 519-888-4567 x. 21301. Fax: 519-888-7910. E-mail: slavcev@uwaterloo.ca.
    • Copyright © 2010 American Society for Microbiology
    Source: J. Microbiol. Biol. Educ. December 2010 vol. 11 no. 2 135-139. doi:10.1128/jmbe.v11i2.220
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    Abstract:

    The increasing incidence of multi-drug resistant pathogenic bacteria, alongside viral and fungal human pathogens, supports the argument that skills in microbiology and infectious disease diagnosis, treatment and prevention are of growing global importance to be held among primary care clinicians.

    In Canada, inevitable future astronomical health care costs largely due to an aging population, have forced eyes upon pharmacists as one of (if not) the primary clinical professions to accommodate the growing need to accommodate patient access to health care while maintaining lower health care costs. As such, the role of pharmacists in health care is expanding, punctuating the need to enhance and improve Pharmacy education. Accurate assessment of the current gaps in Pharmacy education in Canada provides a unique opportunity for a new Pharmacy School at the University of Waterloo to establish a non-traditional, outcomes-based model to curricular design. We are applying this iterative curriculum assessment and design process to the establishment of a Medical Microbiology program, deemed as a prominent gap in former Pharmacy educational training programs.

    A pilot study was carried out distributing a comprehensive survey to a local group of pharmacists practicing in a variety of settings including: hospital, clinic, community, independent, industry and government, to assess perceived gaps in Pharmacy microbiology and infectious disease education. Preliminary findings of the surveys indicate that practitioners feel under-qualified in some areas of microbiology. The results are discussed with respect to a curricular redesign model and next steps in the process of curricular design are proposed.

Key Concept Ranking

Infectious Diseases
0.5138574
Natural Selection
0.45361117
Pathogenic Bacteria
0.4176771
Human Pathogens
0.4176771
0.5138574

References & Citations

1. Austin Z, Ensom M2008Education of pharmacists in CanadaAm J Pharm Educ72Article 128.10.5688/aj7206128190022752576414 http://dx.doi.org/10.5688/aj7206128
2. Beach WJ, Cooper JW, Franciso GE, Langford RA1998An integrated infectious disease course for an entry-level Doctor of Pharmacy curriculumAm J Pharm Educ62296301
3. Centers for Disease Control and PreventionGet smart: know when antibiotics workAvailable from: http://www.cdc.gov/getsmart/antibiotic-use/anitbiotic-resistance-faqs.html
4. Harman JR2001Handbook of pharmacy health education2nd ed.The Pharmaceutical PressLondon, UK
5. Ho SSS, Kember D, Lau CB, Au Yeung MM, Leung DY, Chow MS2009An outcomes-based approach to curriculum development in PharmacyAm J Pharm Educ73Article 14. [online] http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2690866/10.5688/aj730114 http://dx.doi.org/10.5688/aj730114
6. Nelson KE, Williams CM2007Infectious disease epidemiology: theory and practiceJones and Bartlett LearningSudbury, MA
7. Ryan G, Hanrahan J, Krass I, Sainsbury E, Smith L2009Best practices assessment to guide curricular change in a Bachelor of Pharmacy ProgramAm J Pharm Ed73Article 12 [online] https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2690863/
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2010-12-20
2017-07-21

Abstract:

The increasing incidence of multi-drug resistant pathogenic bacteria, alongside viral and fungal human pathogens, supports the argument that skills in microbiology and infectious disease diagnosis, treatment and prevention are of growing global importance to be held among primary care clinicians.

In Canada, inevitable future astronomical health care costs largely due to an aging population, have forced eyes upon pharmacists as one of (if not) the primary clinical professions to accommodate the growing need to accommodate patient access to health care while maintaining lower health care costs. As such, the role of pharmacists in health care is expanding, punctuating the need to enhance and improve Pharmacy education. Accurate assessment of the current gaps in Pharmacy education in Canada provides a unique opportunity for a new Pharmacy School at the University of Waterloo to establish a non-traditional, outcomes-based model to curricular design. We are applying this iterative curriculum assessment and design process to the establishment of a Medical Microbiology program, deemed as a prominent gap in former Pharmacy educational training programs.

A pilot study was carried out distributing a comprehensive survey to a local group of pharmacists practicing in a variety of settings including: hospital, clinic, community, independent, industry and government, to assess perceived gaps in Pharmacy microbiology and infectious disease education. Preliminary findings of the surveys indicate that practitioners feel under-qualified in some areas of microbiology. The results are discussed with respect to a curricular redesign model and next steps in the process of curricular design are proposed.

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Figures

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FIGURE 1

Pharmacist’s perception of qualification discussing microbiology and infectious disease. Summarized results of responses to survey questions regarding feelings of under-qualification in discussing microbiology or infectious diseases with (A) patients, (B) fellow health care professional, and (C) recommending alternative treatment options. Approximately 60% of respondents feel under-qualified in these areas frequently or sometimes. [Ethics approval for questionnaire was obtained from the University of Waterloo, Office of Research Ethics, ORE # 15747.]

Source: J. Microbiol. Biol. Educ. December 2010 vol. 11 no. 2 135-139. doi:10.1128/jmbe.v11i2.220
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FIGURE 2

Areas in microbiology requiring more training or understood proficiently. Survey summaries of subdisciplines of microbiology that respondents feel they understand proficiently or require more training in. Bacteriology is the most understood (96%) and yet 48% feel they still require further training. Fewer than 25% feel they understand the other areas proficiently. [Ethics approval for questionnaire was obtained from the University of Waterloo, Office of Research Ethics, ORE # 15747.]

Source: J. Microbiol. Biol. Educ. December 2010 vol. 11 no. 2 135-139. doi:10.1128/jmbe.v11i2.220
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Image of FIGURE 3

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FIGURE 3

Strategic course alignment. Effective delivery of knowledge requires strategic and meaningful alignment of the course’s learning objectives, teaching approaches and delivery techniques, and formative/summative assessment methods. Primary course goals have been closely aligned with assessments and teaching methods to confer an effective learning environment.

Source: J. Microbiol. Biol. Educ. December 2010 vol. 11 no. 2 135-139. doi:10.1128/jmbe.v11i2.220
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