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Visualizing the Cardiac Cycle: A Useful Tool to Promote Student Understanding

    Author: Ivan Shun Ho1
    VIEW AFFILIATIONS HIDE AFFILIATIONS
    Affiliations: 1: Department of Biological Sciences, Kingsborough Community College, Brooklyn, NY, 11235
    AUTHOR AND ARTICLE INFORMATION AUTHOR AND ARTICLE INFORMATION
    • Published 19 May 2011
    • *Corresponding author. Mailing address: Department of Biological Sciences, The City University of New York - Kingsborough Community College, 2001 Oriental Boulevard, Brooklyn, NY 11235. Phone: (718) 368-4997. Fax: (718) 368-4873. E-mail: Ivan.Ho@kingsborough.edu.
    • Copyright © 2011, American Society for Microbiology
    Source: J. Microbiol. Biol. Educ. May 2011 vol. 12 no. 1 56-58. doi:10.1128/jmbe.v12i1.261
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    Abstract:

    The cardiac cycle is an important concept presented in human anatomy and physiology courses. At Kingsborough Community College, all Allied Health majors taking Anatomy & Physiology must understand the cardiac cycle to grasp more advanced concepts. Contemporary textbooks illustrate the cardiac cycle’s concurrent events via linear models with overlapping line segments as physiological readouts. This presentation is appropriate for reference but, in the interactive classroom the promotion of understanding through clear, concise visual cues is essential. Muzio and Pilchman created a diagram to summarize events of the cardiac cycle. After discussions with one of the authors, I modified the diagram to aid visualization of the cycle and emphasize it as a repetitive, continuous process. A flow diagram presenting the portions of the cycle individually and progressively was also constructed. Three labeled phases are made from the diagram, based on grouped events occurring at different points. The simple, compartmentalized, cyclical diagram presented here promotes understanding of the cardiac cycle visually.

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References & Citations

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2. Berne RM, Levy MN 2001 Cardiovascular physiology 8th ed The Mosby Company Saint Louis, MO
3. Bransford JD, Brown AL, Cocking RR 1999 How people learn: Brain, mind, experience, and school National Academic Press, Committee on Learning Research and Educational Practice Washington, DC
4. Holliday WG 1990 Textbook illustrations: fact or filler? Science Teacher 57 27 29
5. Lee YC 2001 Construction of heart models using simple air pumps J Bio Educ 36 42 44 10.1080/00219266.2001.9655794 http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00219266.2001.9655794
6. Marieb EN, Hoehn K 2010 Human anatomy & physiology 8th ed Pearson Benjamin Cummings San Francisco, CA
7. Martini F, Ober WC, Nath JL 2008 Fundamentals of anatomy & physiology 8th ed Benjamin Cummings San Francisco, CA
8. Mayer RE 1993 Illustrations that instruct Advances in Instructional Psychol 4 253 284
9. Mayer RE, Bove W, Bryman A, Mars R, Tapangco L 1996 When less is more: meaningful learning from visual and verbal summaries of science textbook lessons J Educ Psychol 88 64 73 10.1037/0022-0663.88.1.64 http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0022-0663.88.1.64
10. Michael JA 2001 In pursuit of meaningful learning Adv Physiol Educ 25 145 158
11. Modell HI, Michael JA 1993 Promoting active learning in the life science classroom: defining the issues Ann NY Acad Sci 701 1 7 10.1111/j.1749-6632.1993.tb19770.x http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1749-6632.1993.tb19770.x
12. Modell HI 2007 Helping students make sense of physiological mechanisms: the “view from the inside.” Adv Physiol Educ 31 186 192 10.1152/advan.00079.2006 17562909 http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/advan.00079.2006
13. Muzio J, Pilchman P 1976 Human anatomy and physiology: a complete self-study program Burgess Publishing Minneapolis, MN
14. Saladin K 2009 Anatomy and physiology: the unity of form and function McGraw Hill Science New York, NY
15. Schuell TJ 1986 Cognitive conceptions of learning Rev Educ Res 56 411 436
16. Vasu ES, Howe AC 1989 The effect of visual and verbal modes of presentation on children’s retention of images and words J Res Sci Teach 26 401 07 10.1002/tea.3660260505 http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/tea.3660260505
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/content/journal/jmbe/10.1128/jmbe.v12i1.261
2011-05-19
2017-08-20

Abstract:

The cardiac cycle is an important concept presented in human anatomy and physiology courses. At Kingsborough Community College, all Allied Health majors taking Anatomy & Physiology must understand the cardiac cycle to grasp more advanced concepts. Contemporary textbooks illustrate the cardiac cycle’s concurrent events via linear models with overlapping line segments as physiological readouts. This presentation is appropriate for reference but, in the interactive classroom the promotion of understanding through clear, concise visual cues is essential. Muzio and Pilchman created a diagram to summarize events of the cardiac cycle. After discussions with one of the authors, I modified the diagram to aid visualization of the cycle and emphasize it as a repetitive, continuous process. A flow diagram presenting the portions of the cycle individually and progressively was also constructed. Three labeled phases are made from the diagram, based on grouped events occurring at different points. The simple, compartmentalized, cyclical diagram presented here promotes understanding of the cardiac cycle visually.

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Figures

Image of FIGURE 1

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FIGURE 1

Schematic cardiac cycle diagram with color coding. Four concentric circles create four distinct, color-coded layers, each representing atria (A), ventricles (V), atrioventricular valves (AV), and semilunar valves (SL), as shown. Time unit = second (s). Beginning of the cycle (0.0 s) coincides with the end of the cycle (0.8 s). At any time point or interval, the parts of the heart exhibit specific actions to mediate completion of the cycle. Activities of the four heart chambers and four heart valves can be seen through their arrangement. At 0.2 s, the AV valves snap shut, giving the first heart sound (S1). At 0.45 s, the SL valves close due to ventricular diastole, causing the second heart sound (S2).

Source: J. Microbiol. Biol. Educ. May 2011 vol. 12 no. 1 56-58. doi:10.1128/jmbe.v12i1.261
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Image of FIGURE 2

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FIGURE 2

Progressive Presentation of the Cardiac Cycle Diagram. The cardiac cycle is divided into three phases based on events occurring at certain time points. Progressive presentation of each portion of the cycle is indicated by arrows. Formerly shown portions are obscured for distinction from the currently presenting portion. When the third portion is demonstrated and explained, the complete diagram is presented in full again, providing a traditional whole-part-whole-learning approach.

Source: J. Microbiol. Biol. Educ. May 2011 vol. 12 no. 1 56-58. doi:10.1128/jmbe.v12i1.261
Download as Powerpoint

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