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Introductory Biology Textbooks Under-Represent Scientific Process

    Authors: Dara B. Duncan1, Alexandra Lubman2, Sally G. Hoskins1,*
    VIEW AFFILIATIONS HIDE AFFILIATIONS
    Affiliations: 1: Biology Dept., City College of CUNY, New York, NY 10031; 2: Bard High School Early College Manhattan, 525 E Houston St., New York NY 10002
    AUTHOR AND ARTICLE INFORMATION AUTHOR AND ARTICLE INFORMATION
    • Published 01 December 2011
    • *Corresponding author. Mailing address: Department of Biology, City College of the City University of New York, 160 Convent Ave., New York, NY 10031. Phone: 212-650-8213. Fax: 212-650-8585. E-mail: shoskins@ccny.cuny.edu.
    • Copyright © 2011 American Society for Microbiology
    Source: J. Microbiol. Biol. Educ. December 2011 vol. 12 no. 2 143-151. doi:10.1128/jmbe.v12i2.307
MyBook is a cheap paperback edition of the original book and will be sold at uniform, low price.
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    Abstract:

    Attrition of undergraduates from Biology majors is a long-standing problem. Introductory courses that fail to engage students or spark their curiosity by emphasizing the open-ended and creative nature of biological investigation and discovery could contribute to student detachment from the field. Our hypothesis was that introductory biology books devote relatively few figures to illustration of the design and interpretation of experiments or field studies, thereby de-emphasizing the scientific process.

    To investigate this possibility, we examined figures in six Introductory Biology textbooks published in 2008. On average, multistep scientific investigations were presented in fewer than 5% of the hundreds of figures in each book. Devoting such a small percentage of figures to the processes by which discoveries are made discourages an emphasis on scientific thinking. We suggest that by increasing significantly the illustration of scientific investigations, textbooks could support undergraduates’ early interest in biology, stimulate the development of design and analytical skills, and inspire some students to participate in investigations of their own.

Key Concept Ranking

Inclusions
0.9535391
Proteins
0.75508624
MicroRNA
0.75
0.9535391

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org.apache.jasper.servlet.JspServlet.service(JspServlet.java:259) at javax.servlet.http.HttpServlet.service(HttpServlet.java:790) at io.undertow.servlet.handlers.ServletHandler.handleRequest(ServletHandler.java:86) at io.undertow.servlet.handlers.FilterHandler.handleRequest(FilterHandler.java:82) at io.undertow.servlet.handlers.security.ServletSecurityRoleHandler.handleRequest(ServletSecurityRoleHandler.java:62) at io.undertow.servlet.handlers.ServletDispatchingHandler.handleRequest(ServletDispatchingHandler.java:36) at io.undertow.server.handlers.PredicateHandler.handleRequest(PredicateHandler.java:43) at io.undertow.server.handlers.PredicateHandler.handleRequest(PredicateHandler.java:43) at io.undertow.server.handlers.PredicateHandler.handleRequest(PredicateHandler.java:43) at io.undertow.servlet.handlers.ServletInitialHandler.dispatchRequest(ServletInitialHandler.java:250) at io.undertow.servlet.handlers.ServletInitialHandler.dispatchToServlet(ServletInitialHandler.java:199) at io.undertow.servlet.spec.RequestDispatcherImpl.include(RequestDispatcherImpl.java:279) at org.apache.jasper.runtime.JspRuntimeLibrary.include(JspRuntimeLibrary.java:940) at org.apache.jasper.runtime.PageContextImpl.doInclude(PageContextImpl.java:639) at org.apache.jasper.runtime.PageContextImpl.include(PageContextImpl.java:633) at com.ingenta.jsp.skins.SkinUtils.include(SkinUtils.java:516) at com.ingenta.jsp.page.PageBodyTag.invokeTemplate(PageBodyTag.java:277) at com.ingenta.jsp.page.PageBodyTag.doTag(PageBodyTag.java:254) at org.apache.jsp.WEB_002dINF.jsp.journal.article_jsp._jspx_meth_p_005fbody_005f0(article_jsp.java:785) at org.apache.jsp.WEB_002dINF.jsp.journal.article_jsp._jspx_meth_auth_005flicence_005f0(article_jsp.java:248) at org.apache.jsp.WEB_002dINF.jsp.journal.article_jsp._jspService(article_jsp.java:161) at org.apache.jasper.runtime.HttpJspBase.service(HttpJspBase.java:69) at javax.servlet.http.HttpServlet.service(HttpServlet.java:790) at 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io.undertow.servlet.handlers.ServletInitialHandler.dispatchRequest(ServletInitialHandler.java:250) at io.undertow.servlet.handlers.ServletInitialHandler.dispatchToPath(ServletInitialHandler.java:193) at io.undertow.servlet.spec.RequestDispatcherImpl.forward(RequestDispatcherImpl.java:160) at org.apache.struts2.dispatcher.ServletDispatcherResult.doExecute(ServletDispatcherResult.java:164) at org.apache.struts2.dispatcher.StrutsResultSupport.execute(StrutsResultSupport.java:186) at com.opensymphony.xwork2.DefaultActionInvocation.executeResult(DefaultActionInvocation.java:371) at com.opensymphony.xwork2.DefaultActionInvocation.invoke(DefaultActionInvocation.java:275) at org.apache.struts2.interceptor.debugging.DebuggingInterceptor.intercept(DebuggingInterceptor.java:256) at com.opensymphony.xwork2.DefaultActionInvocation.invoke(DefaultActionInvocation.java:246) at com.opensymphony.xwork2.interceptor.DefaultWorkflowInterceptor.doIntercept(DefaultWorkflowInterceptor.java:167) at com.opensymphony.xwork2.interceptor.MethodFilterInterceptor.intercept(MethodFilterInterceptor.java:98) at com.opensymphony.xwork2.DefaultActionInvocation.invoke(DefaultActionInvocation.java:246) at com.opensymphony.xwork2.validator.ValidationInterceptor.doIntercept(ValidationInterceptor.java:265) at org.apache.struts2.interceptor.validation.AnnotationValidationInterceptor.doIntercept(AnnotationValidationInterceptor.java:68) at com.opensymphony.xwork2.interceptor.MethodFilterInterceptor.intercept(MethodFilterInterceptor.java:98) at com.opensymphony.xwork2.DefaultActionInvocation.invoke(DefaultActionInvocation.java:246) at com.opensymphony.xwork2.interceptor.ConversionErrorInterceptor.intercept(ConversionErrorInterceptor.java:138) at com.opensymphony.xwork2.DefaultActionInvocation.invoke(DefaultActionInvocation.java:246) at com.opensymphony.xwork2.interceptor.ParametersInterceptor.doIntercept(ParametersInterceptor.java:239) at com.opensymphony.xwork2.interceptor.MethodFilterInterceptor.intercept(MethodFilterInterceptor.java:98) at com.opensymphony.xwork2.DefaultActionInvocation.invoke(DefaultActionInvocation.java:246) at com.opensymphony.xwork2.interceptor.ParametersInterceptor.doIntercept(ParametersInterceptor.java:239) at com.opensymphony.xwork2.interceptor.MethodFilterInterceptor.intercept(MethodFilterInterceptor.java:98) at com.opensymphony.xwork2.DefaultActionInvocation.invoke(DefaultActionInvocation.java:246) at com.opensymphony.xwork2.interceptor.StaticParametersInterceptor.intercept(StaticParametersInterceptor.java:191) at com.opensymphony.xwork2.DefaultActionInvocation.invoke(DefaultActionInvocation.java:246) at org.apache.struts2.interceptor.MultiselectInterceptor.intercept(MultiselectInterceptor.java:73) at com.opensymphony.xwork2.DefaultActionInvocation.invoke(DefaultActionInvocation.java:246) at org.apache.struts2.interceptor.CheckboxInterceptor.intercept(CheckboxInterceptor.java:91) at com.opensymphony.xwork2.DefaultActionInvocation.invoke(DefaultActionInvocation.java:246) at org.apache.struts2.interceptor.FileUploadInterceptor.intercept(FileUploadInterceptor.java:252) at com.opensymphony.xwork2.DefaultActionInvocation.invoke(DefaultActionInvocation.java:246) at com.opensymphony.xwork2.interceptor.ModelDrivenInterceptor.intercept(ModelDrivenInterceptor.java:100) at com.opensymphony.xwork2.DefaultActionInvocation.invoke(DefaultActionInvocation.java:246) at com.opensymphony.xwork2.interceptor.ScopedModelDrivenInterceptor.intercept(ScopedModelDrivenInterceptor.java:141) at com.opensymphony.xwork2.DefaultActionInvocation.invoke(DefaultActionInvocation.java:246) at com.opensymphony.xwork2.interceptor.ChainingInterceptor.intercept(ChainingInterceptor.java:145) at com.opensymphony.xwork2.DefaultActionInvocation.invoke(DefaultActionInvocation.java:246) at com.opensymphony.xwork2.interceptor.PrepareInterceptor.doIntercept(PrepareInterceptor.java:171) at com.opensymphony.xwork2.interceptor.MethodFilterInterceptor.intercept(MethodFilterInterceptor.java:98) at com.opensymphony.xwork2.DefaultActionInvocation.invoke(DefaultActionInvocation.java:246) at com.opensymphony.xwork2.interceptor.I18nInterceptor.intercept(I18nInterceptor.java:161) at com.opensymphony.xwork2.DefaultActionInvocation.invoke(DefaultActionInvocation.java:246) at org.apache.struts2.interceptor.ServletConfigInterceptor.intercept(ServletConfigInterceptor.java:164) at com.opensymphony.xwork2.DefaultActionInvocation.invoke(DefaultActionInvocation.java:246) at com.opensymphony.xwork2.interceptor.AliasInterceptor.intercept(AliasInterceptor.java:193) at com.opensymphony.xwork2.DefaultActionInvocation.invoke(DefaultActionInvocation.java:246) at com.opensymphony.xwork2.interceptor.ExceptionMappingInterceptor.intercept(ExceptionMappingInterceptor.java:189) at com.opensymphony.xwork2.DefaultActionInvocation.invoke(DefaultActionInvocation.java:246) at 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io.undertow.servlet.handlers.FilterHandler$FilterChainImpl.doFilter(FilterHandler.java:132) at com.pub2web.webutils.web.filter.locator.LocatorFilter.doFilter(LocatorFilter.java:80) at io.undertow.servlet.core.ManagedFilter.doFilter(ManagedFilter.java:60) at io.undertow.servlet.handlers.FilterHandler$FilterChainImpl.doFilter(FilterHandler.java:132) at com.pub2web.webutils.web.filter.ContentBrowsingHistoryFilter.doFilter(ContentBrowsingHistoryFilter.java:125) at io.undertow.servlet.core.ManagedFilter.doFilter(ManagedFilter.java:60) at io.undertow.servlet.handlers.FilterHandler$FilterChainImpl.doFilter(FilterHandler.java:132) at com.pub2web.webutils.web.filter.rewrite.UrlRewriterFilter.doFilter(UrlRewriterFilter.java:281) at io.undertow.servlet.core.ManagedFilter.doFilter(ManagedFilter.java:60) at io.undertow.servlet.handlers.FilterHandler$FilterChainImpl.doFilter(FilterHandler.java:132) at com.pub2web.webutils.web.filter.BrowsingHistoryFilter.doFilter(BrowsingHistoryFilter.java:125) at io.undertow.servlet.core.ManagedFilter.doFilter(ManagedFilter.java:60) at io.undertow.servlet.handlers.FilterHandler$FilterChainImpl.doFilter(FilterHandler.java:132) at com.pub2web.webutils.web.filter.UserAgentWrapFilter.doFilter(UserAgentWrapFilter.java:159) at io.undertow.servlet.core.ManagedFilter.doFilter(ManagedFilter.java:60) at io.undertow.servlet.handlers.FilterHandler$FilterChainImpl.doFilter(FilterHandler.java:132) at com.pub2web.cache.providers.monitoredehcache.MonitoredehcacheFilter.doFilter(MonitoredehcacheFilter.java:33) at io.undertow.servlet.core.ManagedFilter.doFilter(ManagedFilter.java:60) at io.undertow.servlet.handlers.FilterHandler$FilterChainImpl.doFilter(FilterHandler.java:132) at com.pub2web.contenttools.web.filter.ContentAdminModelInjectionFilter.doFilter(ContentAdminModelInjectionFilter.java:69) at org.springframework.web.filter.DelegatingFilterProxy.invokeDelegate(DelegatingFilterProxy.java:237) at org.springframework.web.filter.DelegatingFilterProxy.doFilter(DelegatingFilterProxy.java:167) at io.undertow.servlet.core.ManagedFilter.doFilter(ManagedFilter.java:60) at io.undertow.servlet.handlers.FilterHandler$FilterChainImpl.doFilter(FilterHandler.java:132) at com.ingenta.servlet.filter.AbstractFilter.doFilter(AbstractFilter.java:120) at io.undertow.servlet.core.ManagedFilter.doFilter(ManagedFilter.java:60) at io.undertow.servlet.handlers.FilterHandler$FilterChainImpl.doFilter(FilterHandler.java:132) at com.pub2web.webutils.web.filter.ConditionalHeaderFilter.doFilter(ConditionalHeaderFilter.java:42) at io.undertow.servlet.core.ManagedFilter.doFilter(ManagedFilter.java:60) at io.undertow.servlet.handlers.FilterHandler$FilterChainImpl.doFilter(FilterHandler.java:132) at com.pub2web.journalproduct.web.filter.ThrottlingFilter.doFilter(ThrottlingFilter.java:104) at com.pub2web.journalproduct.web.filter.BypassableThrottlingFilter.doFilter(BypassableThrottlingFilter.java:136) at io.undertow.servlet.core.ManagedFilter.doFilter(ManagedFilter.java:60) at io.undertow.servlet.handlers.FilterHandler$FilterChainImpl.doFilter(FilterHandler.java:132) at com.pub2web.webutils.web.filter.EncodingFilter.doFilter(EncodingFilter.java:82) at io.undertow.servlet.core.ManagedFilter.doFilter(ManagedFilter.java:60) at io.undertow.servlet.handlers.FilterHandler$FilterChainImpl.doFilter(FilterHandler.java:132) at io.undertow.servlet.handlers.FilterHandler.handleRequest(FilterHandler.java:85) at io.undertow.servlet.handlers.security.ServletSecurityRoleHandler.handleRequest(ServletSecurityRoleHandler.java:62) at io.undertow.servlet.handlers.ServletDispatchingHandler.handleRequest(ServletDispatchingHandler.java:36) at org.wildfly.extension.undertow.security.SecurityContextAssociationHandler.handleRequest(SecurityContextAssociationHandler.java:78) at io.undertow.server.handlers.PredicateHandler.handleRequest(PredicateHandler.java:43) at io.undertow.servlet.handlers.security.SSLInformationAssociationHandler.handleRequest(SSLInformationAssociationHandler.java:131) at io.undertow.servlet.handlers.security.ServletAuthenticationCallHandler.handleRequest(ServletAuthenticationCallHandler.java:57) at io.undertow.server.handlers.PredicateHandler.handleRequest(PredicateHandler.java:43) at io.undertow.security.handlers.AbstractConfidentialityHandler.handleRequest(AbstractConfidentialityHandler.java:46) at io.undertow.servlet.handlers.security.ServletConfidentialityConstraintHandler.handleRequest(ServletConfidentialityConstraintHandler.java:64) at io.undertow.security.handlers.AuthenticationMechanismsHandler.handleRequest(AuthenticationMechanismsHandler.java:58) at io.undertow.servlet.handlers.security.CachedAuthenticatedSessionHandler.handleRequest(CachedAuthenticatedSessionHandler.java:70) at io.undertow.security.handlers.SecurityInitialHandler.handleRequest(SecurityInitialHandler.java:76) at io.undertow.server.handlers.PredicateHandler.handleRequest(PredicateHandler.java:43) at org.wildfly.extension.undertow.security.jacc.JACCContextIdHandler.handleRequest(JACCContextIdHandler.java:61) at io.undertow.server.handlers.PredicateHandler.handleRequest(PredicateHandler.java:43) at io.undertow.server.handlers.PredicateHandler.handleRequest(PredicateHandler.java:43) at io.undertow.servlet.handlers.ServletInitialHandler.handleFirstRequest(ServletInitialHandler.java:261) at io.undertow.servlet.handlers.ServletInitialHandler.dispatchRequest(ServletInitialHandler.java:248) at io.undertow.servlet.handlers.ServletInitialHandler.access$000(ServletInitialHandler.java:77) at io.undertow.servlet.handlers.ServletInitialHandler$1.handleRequest(ServletInitialHandler.java:167) at io.undertow.server.Connectors.executeRootHandler(Connectors.java:199) at io.undertow.server.HttpServerExchange$1.run(HttpServerExchange.java:761) at java.util.concurrent.ThreadPoolExecutor.runWorker(ThreadPoolExecutor.java:1142) at java.util.concurrent.ThreadPoolExecutor$Worker.run(ThreadPoolExecutor.java:617) at java.lang.Thread.run(Thread.java:745) Caused by: java.net.URISyntaxException: Illegal character in opaque part at index 44: info:doi/10.1002/(SICI)1098-237X(199901)83:1<33::AID-SCE2>3.0.CO;2-Z at java.net.URI$Parser.fail(URI.java:2848) at java.net.URI$Parser.checkChars(URI.java:3021) at java.net.URI$Parser.parse(URI.java:3058) at java.net.URI.(URI.java:588) at java.net.URI.create(URI.java:850) ... 220 more
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/content/journal/jmbe/10.1128/jmbe.v12i2.307
2011-12-01
2017-05-28

Abstract:

Attrition of undergraduates from Biology majors is a long-standing problem. Introductory courses that fail to engage students or spark their curiosity by emphasizing the open-ended and creative nature of biological investigation and discovery could contribute to student detachment from the field. Our hypothesis was that introductory biology books devote relatively few figures to illustration of the design and interpretation of experiments or field studies, thereby de-emphasizing the scientific process.

To investigate this possibility, we examined figures in six Introductory Biology textbooks published in 2008. On average, multistep scientific investigations were presented in fewer than 5% of the hundreds of figures in each book. Devoting such a small percentage of figures to the processes by which discoveries are made discourages an emphasis on scientific thinking. We suggest that by increasing significantly the illustration of scientific investigations, textbooks could support undergraduates’ early interest in biology, stimulate the development of design and analytical skills, and inspire some students to participate in investigations of their own.

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