1887

An Evidence-Based Guide for Ethics Instruction

    Author: Muriel J. Bebeau1
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    Affiliations: 1: Department of Primary Dental Care, School of Dentistry, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN 55455
    AUTHOR AND ARTICLE INFORMATION AUTHOR AND ARTICLE INFORMATION
    • Published 15 December 2014
    • Supplemental materials available at http://jmbe.asm.org
      aHere the term is not used in the narrow sense that suggests a dichotomy between knowing and doing.
      bRest and colleagues ( 12 ) argue against the usual tripartite view that assumes that the elements to be studied and assessed are attitudes, knowledge, and behavior. When researchers have attempted to study the connection among these elements, they usually do not find significant connections and are left with the conclusion that attitudes have little to do with knowing and behavior is often devoid of thinking and feeling. A more profitable approach, as Rest proposed, and as illustrated by studies cited herein, is to study functional processes that must arise to produce behavior.
    • Corresponding author. Mailing address: Department of Primary Dental Care, School of Dentistry, University of Minnesota, 515 Delaware SE, Minneapolis, MN 55455. Phone: 612-625-4633. Fax: 612-626-6096. E-mail: bebea001@umn.edu.
    • ©2014 Author(s). Published by the American Society for Microbiology.
    Source: J. Microbiol. Biol. Educ. December 2014 vol. 15 no. 2 124-129. doi:10.1128/jmbe.v15i2.872
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    Abstract:

    Drawing from multiple sources of evidence, this paper updates previous descriptions (IOM, 2002) of measurement strategies and teaching techniques to promote four theoretically derived abilities thought to be necessary conditions for the responsible conduct of research. Data from three samples (exemplary professionals, professionals disciplined by a licensing board, and graduates who completed an ethics program designed to promote the four interrelated abilities) suggest that development of a that is consistent with the norms and values of a profession is the driving force that gives rise to , and . Evidence from the cited studies supports the usefulness of the theoretical model to (a) deconstruct summary judgments about character and see them as abilities that can be assessed and developed; (b) guide the design assessments that are sensitive to the effects of interventions; and (c) augment previous IOM recommendations for the development of meaningful learning activities.

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References & Citations

1. Anderson M 2001 What would get you in trouble: Doctoral students’ conceptions of science and its norms Proceedings of the ORI Conference on Research on Research Integrity Office of Research Integrity Washington, DC
2. Bebeau MJ 2002 The Defining Issues Test and the Four Component Model: contributions to professional education J. Moral Educ. 1 3 271 295 10.1080/0305724022000008115 http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/0305724022000008115
3. Bebeau MJ 2006 Evidence-based character development 47 86 Kenny N, Shelton W Lost virtue: Professional character development in medical education: vol. 10 Advances in Bioethics Elsevier Oxford, UK 10.1016/S1479-3709(06)10004-7 http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S1479-3709(06)10004-7
4. Bebeau MJ 2009 Enhancing professionalism using ethics education as part of a dental licensing board’s disciplinary action: Part 1 An evidence-based process J. Am. Coll. Dent. 76 2 38 50 19743688
5. Bebeau MJ 2009 Enhancing professionalism using ethics education as part of a dental licensing board’s disciplinary action: Part 2 Evidence the process works J. Am. Coll. Dent. 76 3 32 45 19928366
6. Bebeau MJ, Rest JR 1982 The dental ethical sensitivity test Center for the Study of Ethical Development University of Minnesota Minneapolis, MN
7. Bebeau MJ, Faber-Langendoen K 2014 Remediating lapses in professionalism 103 127 Kalet A, Chou C Remediation in medical education Springer Science New York, NY 10.1007/978-1-4614-9025-8_7 http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4614-9025-8_7
8. Bebeau MJ, Thoma SJ 2013 Moral motivation in different professions 475 498 Heinrichs K, Oser F, Lovat T Handbook of Moral Motivation Sense Publishers Rotterdam, The Netherlands 10.1007/978-94-6209-275-4_26 http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-94-6209-275-4_26
9. Bebeau MJ, Monson VE 2008 Guided by theory, grounded in evidence: a way forward for professional ethics education 557 582 Nucci L, Narvaez D Handbook of moral and character education Routledge Hillsdale, NJ
10. Bebeau MJ, Monson VE 2012 Professional identity formation and transformation across the life span 135 163 McKee A, Eraut M Learning Trajectories, Innovation and Identity for Professional Development Springer New York, NY 10.1007/978-94-007-1724-4_7 http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-94-007-1724-4_7
11. Bebeau MJ, Rest JR, Yamoor CM 1985 Measuring dental students’ ethical sensitivity J Dent Educ 49 225 235 3857273
12. Bebeau MJ, Rest JR, Narvaez D 1999 Beyond the promise: a perspective on research in moral education Educ. Res. 28 4 18 26 10.3102/0013189X028004018 http://dx.doi.org/10.3102/0013189X028004018
13. Brabeck MM, Sirin S 2001 The racial ethical sensitivity test: computer disk version (REST-CD) Boston College Chestnut Hill, MA
14. Colby A, Damon W 1992 Some do care: contemporary lives of moral commitment Free Press New York, NY
15. Fisher BA, Zigmond MJ 2001 Promoting responsible conduct in research through ‘survival skills’ workshops: some mentoring is best done in a crowd Sci Eng Ethics 7 563 587 10.1007/s11948-001-0014-x http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11948-001-0014-x
16. Hamilton NW, Monson VE, Organ JM 2013 Empirical evidence that legal education can foster student professionalism/professional formation to become an effective lawyer U. St. Thomas Law J Retrieved from http://ssrn.com/abstract=2205447
17. Institute of Medicine (IOM) 2002 Integrity in scientific research Institute of Medicine National Research Council Washington, DC
18. Institute of Medicine (IOM) 2002 Outcome measures for assessing integrity in the research environment 143 166 N. R. C. Committee on Assessing Integrity in Research Environments, Institute of Medicine Integrity in scientific research Institute of Medicine National Research Council Washington DC
19. Institute of Medicine (IOM) 2002 Promoting integrity in research through education 84 111 N. R. C. Committee on Assessing Integrity in Research Environments, Institute of Medicine Integrity in scientific research Institute of Medicine National Research Council Washington DC 84 86
20. Rest JR 1983 Morality 556 629 Mussen PH, Flavell J, Markman E Handbook of child psychology 3 Cognitive development 4th ed Wiley New York, NY
21. Rule JT, Bebeau MJ 2005 Dentists who care: Inspiring stories of professional commitment Quintessence Chicago, IL
22. Sirin SR, Brabeck MM, Satiani A, Rogers-Serin L 2003 Validation of a measure of ethical sensitivity and examination of the effects of previous multicultural and ethics courses on ethical sensitivity Ethics Behav. 13 3 221 235 10.1207/S15327019EB1303_02 http://dx.doi.org/10.1207/S15327019EB1303_02
23. Thoma SJ, Bebeau MJ 2013 Moral motivation and the four component model 49 68 Heinrichs K, Oser F, Lovat T Handbook of Moral Motivation Sense Publishers Rotterdam, The Netherlands 10.1007/978-94-6209-275-4_4 http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-94-6209-275-4_4
24. Thoma SJ, Bebeau MJ, Frichand A 2014 Identifying the bad is more difficult than the good. Evidence from intermediate concept measures of moral judgment Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Educational Research Association Philadelphia, PA
25. You D, Bebeau MJ 2012 Gender differences in the ethical competence of professional school students J Dent Educ 76 1137 1149 22942409
26. You D, Maeda Y, Bebeau MJ 2011 Gender differences in moral sensitivity: a meta-analysis Ethics Behav. 21 4 263 282 10.1080/10508422.2011.585591 http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10508422.2011.585591
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/content/journal/jmbe/10.1128/jmbe.v15i2.872
2014-12-15
2017-08-17

Abstract:

Drawing from multiple sources of evidence, this paper updates previous descriptions (IOM, 2002) of measurement strategies and teaching techniques to promote four theoretically derived abilities thought to be necessary conditions for the responsible conduct of research. Data from three samples (exemplary professionals, professionals disciplined by a licensing board, and graduates who completed an ethics program designed to promote the four interrelated abilities) suggest that development of a that is consistent with the norms and values of a profession is the driving force that gives rise to , and . Evidence from the cited studies supports the usefulness of the theoretical model to (a) deconstruct summary judgments about character and see them as abilities that can be assessed and developed; (b) guide the design assessments that are sensitive to the effects of interventions; and (c) augment previous IOM recommendations for the development of meaningful learning activities.

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