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Brewing Bokashi: Strengthening Student Skills in Dilution Theory through Fermentation Analysis

    Author: Robert E. Zdor1
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    Affiliations: 1: Department of Biology, Andrews University, Berrien Springs, MI 49104
    AUTHOR AND ARTICLE INFORMATION AUTHOR AND ARTICLE INFORMATION
    • Published 04 May 2016
    • ©2016 Author(s). Published by the American Society for Microbiology.
    • [open-access] This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International license (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/legalcode), which grants the public the nonexclusive right to copy, distribute, or display the published work.

    • Supplemental materials available at http://asmscience.org.jmbe
    • Corresponding author. Mailing address: Department of Biology, Andrews University, Price Hall Room 216, Berrien Springs, MI 49104. Phone: 269-471-6696. E-mail: zdor@andrews.edu.
    Source: J. Microbiol. Biol. Educ. May 2016 vol. 17 no. 2 294-296. doi:10.1128/jmbe.v17i2.1080
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    Abstract:

    One of the basic microbiological techniques that students should master is that of using dilution theory to calculate the levels of bacteria in a fluid. This tip reports on using a rice water-milk fermentation mixture termed Bokashi as an easily implemented exercise in the basic microbiological lab to give students multiple opportunities to use dilution theory. Due to the shifts in bacterial community composition over time, a variety of microbes can be cultured using selective and nonselective media. Microscopic observation and the use of GEN III microplates to determine the collective phenotypic pattern of the mixture both give additional opportunities for students to hone their skills in bacterial analysis. Due to the decrease in the pH of the mixture over time, the notion of acid tolerance in bacteria can be explored and assessed using the microplate. By performing multiple rounds of serial dilutions and spread plating, students can practice their skill at using dilution theory several times over the course of the exercise.

Key Concept Ranking

Lactic Acid Bacteria
0.44632918
Selective Media
0.4127345
0.44632918

References & Citations

1. Allen M, Gyure R2013An undergraduate laboratory activity demonstrating bacteriophage specificityJ Microbiol Biol Educ14849210.1128/jmbe.v14i1.534238583573706169 http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/jmbe.v14i1.534
2. deMan J, Rogosa M, Sharpe M1960A medium for the cultivation of lactobacilliJ Appl Bacteriol2313013510.1111/j.1365-2672.1960.tb00188.x http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2672.1960.tb00188.x
3. March J, Jensen K, Porter N, Breakwell D2011Authentic active learning activities demonstrating the use of serial dilutions and plate countsJ Microbiol Biol Educ1215215610.1128/jmbe.v12i2.316236537593577249 http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/jmbe.v12i2.316
4. Muthaura C, Musyimi D, Ogur J, Okello S2010Effective microorganisms and their influence on growth and yield of pigweed (Amaranthis dubians)J Agricultural Biol Sci51722
5. Pei-Sheng Y, Hui-Lian Z2002Influence of EM bokashi on nodulation, physiological characters and yield of peanut in nature farming fieldsJ Sustain Agric1910511210.1300/J064v19n04_10 http://dx.doi.org/10.1300/J064v19n04_10
6. Singh A2007Effective microorganismsThe Canadian Organic GrowerSummer issue3536
7. Slonczewski J, Foster J2009Microbiology: an evolving scienceNortonNew York, NY
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/content/journal/jmbe/10.1128/jmbe.v17i2.1080
2016-05-04
2017-09-25

Abstract:

One of the basic microbiological techniques that students should master is that of using dilution theory to calculate the levels of bacteria in a fluid. This tip reports on using a rice water-milk fermentation mixture termed Bokashi as an easily implemented exercise in the basic microbiological lab to give students multiple opportunities to use dilution theory. Due to the shifts in bacterial community composition over time, a variety of microbes can be cultured using selective and nonselective media. Microscopic observation and the use of GEN III microplates to determine the collective phenotypic pattern of the mixture both give additional opportunities for students to hone their skills in bacterial analysis. Due to the decrease in the pH of the mixture over time, the notion of acid tolerance in bacteria can be explored and assessed using the microplate. By performing multiple rounds of serial dilutions and spread plating, students can practice their skill at using dilution theory several times over the course of the exercise.

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FIGURE 1

Spread plates (0.1 mL fluid/plate) from a bokashi fermentation mixture. (A) Colonies on nutrient agar from the initial fermentation of rice water for 7 days. (B) Colonies on MRS agar from the fermentation of milk/rice water for 7 days.

Source: J. Microbiol. Biol. Educ. May 2016 vol. 17 no. 2 294-296. doi:10.1128/jmbe.v17i2.1080
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