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Tracking the Resolution of Student Misconceptions about the Central Dogma of Molecular Biology

    Authors: Amy G. Briggs1,*, Stephanie K. Morgan1, Seth K. Sanderson1, Molly C. Schulting1, Laramie J. Wieseman1
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    Affiliations: 1: Department of Biology, Beloit College, Beloit, WI 53511
    AUTHOR AND ARTICLE INFORMATION AUTHOR AND ARTICLE INFORMATION
    Source: J. Microbiol. Biol. Educ. December 2016 vol. 17 no. 3 339-350. doi:10.1128/jmbe.v17i3.1165
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    Abstract:

    The goal of our study was to track changes in student understanding of the central dogma of molecular biology before and after taking a genetics course. Concept maps require the ability to synthesize new information into existing knowledge frameworks, and so the hypothesis guiding this study was that student performance on concept maps reveals specific central dogma misconceptions gained, lost, and retained by students. Students in a genetics course completed pre- and posttest concept mapping tasks using terms related to the central dogma. Student maps increased in complexity and validity, indicating learning gains in both content and complexity of understanding. Changes in each of the 351 possible connections in the mapping task were tracked for each student. Our students did not retain much about the central dogma from their introductory biology courses, but they did move to more advanced levels of understanding by the end of the genetics course. The information they retained from their introductory courses focused on structural components (e.g., protein is made of amino acids) and not on overall mechanistic components (e.g., DNA comes before RNA, the ribosome makes protein). Students made the greatest gains in connections related to transcription, and they resolved the most prior misconceptions about translation. These concept-mapping tasks revealed that students are able to correct prior misconceptions about the central dogma during an intermediate-level genetics course. From these results, educators can design new classroom interventions to target those aspects of this foundational principle with which students have the most trouble.

Key Concept Ranking

Gene Expression
0.8652685
Genetic Code
0.8051804
RNA Polymerase
0.6333333
DNA
0.59685415
0.8652685

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io.undertow.servlet.spec.RequestDispatcherImpl.include(RequestDispatcherImpl.java:279) at org.apache.jasper.runtime.JspRuntimeLibrary.include(JspRuntimeLibrary.java:940) at org.apache.jasper.runtime.PageContextImpl.doInclude(PageContextImpl.java:639) at org.apache.jasper.runtime.PageContextImpl.include(PageContextImpl.java:633) at com.ingenta.jsp.skins.SkinUtils.include(SkinUtils.java:516) at com.ingenta.jsp.page.PageBodyTag.invokeTemplate(PageBodyTag.java:277) at com.ingenta.jsp.page.PageBodyTag.doTag(PageBodyTag.java:254) at org.apache.jsp.WEB_002dINF.jsp.journal.article_jsp._jspx_meth_p_005fbody_005f0(article_jsp.java:785) at org.apache.jsp.WEB_002dINF.jsp.journal.article_jsp._jspx_meth_auth_005flicence_005f0(article_jsp.java:248) at org.apache.jsp.WEB_002dINF.jsp.journal.article_jsp._jspService(article_jsp.java:161) at org.apache.jasper.runtime.HttpJspBase.service(HttpJspBase.java:69) at javax.servlet.http.HttpServlet.service(HttpServlet.java:790) at org.apache.jasper.servlet.JspServletWrapper.service(JspServletWrapper.java:366) at org.apache.jasper.servlet.JspServlet.serviceJspFile(JspServlet.java:326) at org.apache.jasper.servlet.JspServlet.service(JspServlet.java:259) at javax.servlet.http.HttpServlet.service(HttpServlet.java:790) at io.undertow.servlet.handlers.ServletHandler.handleRequest(ServletHandler.java:86) at io.undertow.servlet.handlers.FilterHandler.handleRequest(FilterHandler.java:82) at io.undertow.servlet.handlers.security.ServletSecurityRoleHandler.handleRequest(ServletSecurityRoleHandler.java:62) at io.undertow.servlet.handlers.ServletDispatchingHandler.handleRequest(ServletDispatchingHandler.java:36) at io.undertow.server.handlers.PredicateHandler.handleRequest(PredicateHandler.java:43) at io.undertow.server.handlers.PredicateHandler.handleRequest(PredicateHandler.java:43) at io.undertow.server.handlers.PredicateHandler.handleRequest(PredicateHandler.java:43) at io.undertow.servlet.handlers.ServletInitialHandler.dispatchRequest(ServletInitialHandler.java:250) at io.undertow.servlet.handlers.ServletInitialHandler.dispatchToPath(ServletInitialHandler.java:193) at io.undertow.servlet.spec.RequestDispatcherImpl.forward(RequestDispatcherImpl.java:160) at org.apache.struts2.dispatcher.ServletDispatcherResult.doExecute(ServletDispatcherResult.java:164) at org.apache.struts2.dispatcher.StrutsResultSupport.execute(StrutsResultSupport.java:186) at com.opensymphony.xwork2.DefaultActionInvocation.executeResult(DefaultActionInvocation.java:371) at com.opensymphony.xwork2.DefaultActionInvocation.invoke(DefaultActionInvocation.java:275) at org.apache.struts2.interceptor.debugging.DebuggingInterceptor.intercept(DebuggingInterceptor.java:256) at com.opensymphony.xwork2.DefaultActionInvocation.invoke(DefaultActionInvocation.java:246) at com.opensymphony.xwork2.interceptor.DefaultWorkflowInterceptor.doIntercept(DefaultWorkflowInterceptor.java:167) at 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io.undertow.servlet.core.ManagedFilter.doFilter(ManagedFilter.java:60) at io.undertow.servlet.handlers.FilterHandler$FilterChainImpl.doFilter(FilterHandler.java:132) at com.pub2web.webutils.web.filter.UserAgentWrapFilter.doFilter(UserAgentWrapFilter.java:159) at io.undertow.servlet.core.ManagedFilter.doFilter(ManagedFilter.java:60) at io.undertow.servlet.handlers.FilterHandler$FilterChainImpl.doFilter(FilterHandler.java:132) at com.pub2web.cache.providers.monitoredehcache.MonitoredehcacheFilter.doFilter(MonitoredehcacheFilter.java:33) at io.undertow.servlet.core.ManagedFilter.doFilter(ManagedFilter.java:60) at io.undertow.servlet.handlers.FilterHandler$FilterChainImpl.doFilter(FilterHandler.java:132) at com.pub2web.contenttools.web.filter.ContentAdminModelInjectionFilter.doFilter(ContentAdminModelInjectionFilter.java:69) at org.springframework.web.filter.DelegatingFilterProxy.invokeDelegate(DelegatingFilterProxy.java:237) at org.springframework.web.filter.DelegatingFilterProxy.doFilter(DelegatingFilterProxy.java:167) at io.undertow.servlet.core.ManagedFilter.doFilter(ManagedFilter.java:60) at io.undertow.servlet.handlers.FilterHandler$FilterChainImpl.doFilter(FilterHandler.java:132) at com.ingenta.servlet.filter.AbstractFilter.doFilter(AbstractFilter.java:120) at io.undertow.servlet.core.ManagedFilter.doFilter(ManagedFilter.java:60) at io.undertow.servlet.handlers.FilterHandler$FilterChainImpl.doFilter(FilterHandler.java:132) at com.pub2web.webutils.web.filter.ConditionalHeaderFilter.doFilter(ConditionalHeaderFilter.java:42) at io.undertow.servlet.core.ManagedFilter.doFilter(ManagedFilter.java:60) at io.undertow.servlet.handlers.FilterHandler$FilterChainImpl.doFilter(FilterHandler.java:132) at com.pub2web.journalproduct.web.filter.ThrottlingFilter.doFilter(ThrottlingFilter.java:104) at com.pub2web.journalproduct.web.filter.BypassableThrottlingFilter.doFilter(BypassableThrottlingFilter.java:136) at io.undertow.servlet.core.ManagedFilter.doFilter(ManagedFilter.java:60) at io.undertow.servlet.handlers.FilterHandler$FilterChainImpl.doFilter(FilterHandler.java:132) at com.pub2web.webutils.web.filter.EncodingFilter.doFilter(EncodingFilter.java:82) at io.undertow.servlet.core.ManagedFilter.doFilter(ManagedFilter.java:60) at io.undertow.servlet.handlers.FilterHandler$FilterChainImpl.doFilter(FilterHandler.java:132) at io.undertow.servlet.handlers.FilterHandler.handleRequest(FilterHandler.java:85) at io.undertow.servlet.handlers.security.ServletSecurityRoleHandler.handleRequest(ServletSecurityRoleHandler.java:62) at io.undertow.servlet.handlers.ServletDispatchingHandler.handleRequest(ServletDispatchingHandler.java:36) at org.wildfly.extension.undertow.security.SecurityContextAssociationHandler.handleRequest(SecurityContextAssociationHandler.java:78) at io.undertow.server.handlers.PredicateHandler.handleRequest(PredicateHandler.java:43) at io.undertow.servlet.handlers.security.SSLInformationAssociationHandler.handleRequest(SSLInformationAssociationHandler.java:131) at io.undertow.servlet.handlers.security.ServletAuthenticationCallHandler.handleRequest(ServletAuthenticationCallHandler.java:57) at io.undertow.server.handlers.PredicateHandler.handleRequest(PredicateHandler.java:43) at io.undertow.security.handlers.AbstractConfidentialityHandler.handleRequest(AbstractConfidentialityHandler.java:46) at io.undertow.servlet.handlers.security.ServletConfidentialityConstraintHandler.handleRequest(ServletConfidentialityConstraintHandler.java:64) at io.undertow.security.handlers.AuthenticationMechanismsHandler.handleRequest(AuthenticationMechanismsHandler.java:58) at io.undertow.servlet.handlers.security.CachedAuthenticatedSessionHandler.handleRequest(CachedAuthenticatedSessionHandler.java:70) at io.undertow.security.handlers.SecurityInitialHandler.handleRequest(SecurityInitialHandler.java:76) at io.undertow.server.handlers.PredicateHandler.handleRequest(PredicateHandler.java:43) at org.wildfly.extension.undertow.security.jacc.JACCContextIdHandler.handleRequest(JACCContextIdHandler.java:61) at io.undertow.server.handlers.PredicateHandler.handleRequest(PredicateHandler.java:43) at io.undertow.server.handlers.PredicateHandler.handleRequest(PredicateHandler.java:43) at io.undertow.servlet.handlers.ServletInitialHandler.handleFirstRequest(ServletInitialHandler.java:261) at io.undertow.servlet.handlers.ServletInitialHandler.dispatchRequest(ServletInitialHandler.java:248) at io.undertow.servlet.handlers.ServletInitialHandler.access$000(ServletInitialHandler.java:77) at io.undertow.servlet.handlers.ServletInitialHandler$1.handleRequest(ServletInitialHandler.java:167) at io.undertow.server.Connectors.executeRootHandler(Connectors.java:199) at io.undertow.server.HttpServerExchange$1.run(HttpServerExchange.java:761) at java.util.concurrent.ThreadPoolExecutor.runWorker(ThreadPoolExecutor.java:1142) at java.util.concurrent.ThreadPoolExecutor$Worker.run(ThreadPoolExecutor.java:617) at java.lang.Thread.run(Thread.java:745) Caused by: java.net.URISyntaxException: Illegal character in opaque part at index 44: info:doi/10.1002/(SICI)1098-2736(199904)36:4<475::AID-TEA5>3.0.CO;2-O at java.net.URI$Parser.fail(URI.java:2848) at java.net.URI$Parser.checkChars(URI.java:3021) at java.net.URI$Parser.parse(URI.java:3058) at java.net.URI.(URI.java:588) at java.net.URI.create(URI.java:850) ... 220 more
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java.lang.IllegalArgumentException: Illegal character in opaque part at index 44: info:doi/10.1002/(SICI)1098-237X(199704)81:2<193::AID-SCE5>3.0.CO;2-A at java.net.URI.create(URI.java:852) at com.pub2web.openurl.web.ArticleContextObjectEntityFactory.getContextObjectEntity(ArticleContextObjectEntityFactory.java:101) at com.pub2web.openurl.web.SequentialContentItemContextObjectEntityFactory.getContextObjectEntity(SequentialContentItemContextObjectEntityFactory.java:47) at com.pub2web.openurl.web.taglib.OutboundUrlTag.getReferent(OutboundUrlTag.java:294) at com.pub2web.openurl.web.taglib.OutboundUrlTag.buildContextObject(OutboundUrlTag.java:212) at com.pub2web.openurl.web.taglib.OutboundUrlTag.getCoinsSpan(OutboundUrlTag.java:178) at com.pub2web.openurl.web.taglib.OutboundUrlTag.doEndTag(OutboundUrlTag.java:155) at org.apache.jsp.tag.web.jp.reference_tag._jspx_meth_openurl_005foutboundurl_005f0(reference_tag.java:894) at org.apache.jsp.tag.web.jp.reference_tag._jspx_meth_c_005fforEach_005f0(reference_tag.java:236) at org.apache.jsp.tag.web.jp.reference_tag._jspx_meth_c_005fif_005f0(reference_tag.java:147) at org.apache.jsp.tag.web.jp.reference_tag.doTag(reference_tag.java:100) at org.apache.jsp.WEB_002dINF.jsp.journal.article_jsp._jspx_meth_jp_005freference_005f0(article_jsp.java:3534) at org.apache.jsp.WEB_002dINF.jsp.journal.article_jsp._jspx_meth_c_005fif_005f13(article_jsp.java:2586) at org.apache.jsp.WEB_002dINF.jsp.journal.article_jsp.access$24(article_jsp.java:2521) at org.apache.jsp.WEB_002dINF.jsp.journal.article_jsp$Helper.invoke0(article_jsp.java:4501) at org.apache.jsp.WEB_002dINF.jsp.journal.article_jsp$Helper.invoke(article_jsp.java:4663) at com.ingenta.jsp.page.InvokeFragmentTag.doTag(InvokeFragmentTag.java:139) at org.apache.jsp.WEB_002dINF.jsp.asm.template_jsp._jspx_meth_p_005fdoBody_005f0(template_jsp.java:2716) at org.apache.jsp.WEB_002dINF.jsp.asm.template_jsp.access$31(template_jsp.java:2705) at org.apache.jsp.WEB_002dINF.jsp.asm.template_jsp$Helper.invoke0(template_jsp.java:4389) at org.apache.jsp.WEB_002dINF.jsp.asm.template_jsp$Helper.invoke(template_jsp.java:4609) at com.ingenta.util.tagext.SimpleTagHandler.writeTagBody(SimpleTagHandler.java:196) at com.ingenta.util.tagext.SimpleTagHandler.doTag(SimpleTagHandler.java:140) at com.ingenta.jsp.page.PageTemplateTag.doTag(PageTemplateTag.java:55) at org.apache.jsp.WEB_002dINF.jsp.asm.template_jsp._jspx_meth_p_005ftemplate_005f0(template_jsp.java:132) at org.apache.jsp.WEB_002dINF.jsp.asm.template_jsp._jspService(template_jsp.java:107) at org.apache.jasper.runtime.HttpJspBase.service(HttpJspBase.java:69) at javax.servlet.http.HttpServlet.service(HttpServlet.java:790) at org.apache.jasper.servlet.JspServletWrapper.service(JspServletWrapper.java:366) at org.apache.jasper.servlet.JspServlet.serviceJspFile(JspServlet.java:326) at org.apache.jasper.servlet.JspServlet.service(JspServlet.java:259) at javax.servlet.http.HttpServlet.service(HttpServlet.java:790) at io.undertow.servlet.handlers.ServletHandler.handleRequest(ServletHandler.java:86) at io.undertow.servlet.handlers.FilterHandler.handleRequest(FilterHandler.java:82) at io.undertow.servlet.handlers.security.ServletSecurityRoleHandler.handleRequest(ServletSecurityRoleHandler.java:62) at io.undertow.servlet.handlers.ServletDispatchingHandler.handleRequest(ServletDispatchingHandler.java:36) at io.undertow.server.handlers.PredicateHandler.handleRequest(PredicateHandler.java:43) at io.undertow.server.handlers.PredicateHandler.handleRequest(PredicateHandler.java:43) at io.undertow.server.handlers.PredicateHandler.handleRequest(PredicateHandler.java:43) at io.undertow.servlet.handlers.ServletInitialHandler.dispatchRequest(ServletInitialHandler.java:250) at io.undertow.servlet.handlers.ServletInitialHandler.dispatchToServlet(ServletInitialHandler.java:199) at io.undertow.servlet.spec.RequestDispatcherImpl.include(RequestDispatcherImpl.java:279) at org.apache.jasper.runtime.JspRuntimeLibrary.include(JspRuntimeLibrary.java:940) at org.apache.jasper.runtime.PageContextImpl.doInclude(PageContextImpl.java:639) at org.apache.jasper.runtime.PageContextImpl.include(PageContextImpl.java:633) at com.ingenta.jsp.skins.SkinUtils.include(SkinUtils.java:516) at com.ingenta.jsp.page.PageBodyTag.invokeTemplate(PageBodyTag.java:277) at com.ingenta.jsp.page.PageBodyTag.doTag(PageBodyTag.java:254) at org.apache.jsp.WEB_002dINF.jsp.journal.article_jsp._jspx_meth_p_005fbody_005f0(article_jsp.java:785) at org.apache.jsp.WEB_002dINF.jsp.journal.article_jsp._jspx_meth_auth_005flicence_005f0(article_jsp.java:248) at org.apache.jsp.WEB_002dINF.jsp.journal.article_jsp._jspService(article_jsp.java:161) at org.apache.jasper.runtime.HttpJspBase.service(HttpJspBase.java:69) at javax.servlet.http.HttpServlet.service(HttpServlet.java:790) at org.apache.jasper.servlet.JspServletWrapper.service(JspServletWrapper.java:366) at org.apache.jasper.servlet.JspServlet.serviceJspFile(JspServlet.java:326) at org.apache.jasper.servlet.JspServlet.service(JspServlet.java:259) at javax.servlet.http.HttpServlet.service(HttpServlet.java:790) at io.undertow.servlet.handlers.ServletHandler.handleRequest(ServletHandler.java:86) at io.undertow.servlet.handlers.FilterHandler.handleRequest(FilterHandler.java:82) at io.undertow.servlet.handlers.security.ServletSecurityRoleHandler.handleRequest(ServletSecurityRoleHandler.java:62) at io.undertow.servlet.handlers.ServletDispatchingHandler.handleRequest(ServletDispatchingHandler.java:36) at io.undertow.server.handlers.PredicateHandler.handleRequest(PredicateHandler.java:43) at io.undertow.server.handlers.PredicateHandler.handleRequest(PredicateHandler.java:43) at io.undertow.server.handlers.PredicateHandler.handleRequest(PredicateHandler.java:43) at io.undertow.servlet.handlers.ServletInitialHandler.dispatchRequest(ServletInitialHandler.java:250) at io.undertow.servlet.handlers.ServletInitialHandler.dispatchToPath(ServletInitialHandler.java:193) at io.undertow.servlet.spec.RequestDispatcherImpl.forward(RequestDispatcherImpl.java:160) at org.apache.struts2.dispatcher.ServletDispatcherResult.doExecute(ServletDispatcherResult.java:164) at org.apache.struts2.dispatcher.StrutsResultSupport.execute(StrutsResultSupport.java:186) at com.opensymphony.xwork2.DefaultActionInvocation.executeResult(DefaultActionInvocation.java:371) at com.opensymphony.xwork2.DefaultActionInvocation.invoke(DefaultActionInvocation.java:275) at org.apache.struts2.interceptor.debugging.DebuggingInterceptor.intercept(DebuggingInterceptor.java:256) at com.opensymphony.xwork2.DefaultActionInvocation.invoke(DefaultActionInvocation.java:246) at com.opensymphony.xwork2.interceptor.DefaultWorkflowInterceptor.doIntercept(DefaultWorkflowInterceptor.java:167) at com.opensymphony.xwork2.interceptor.MethodFilterInterceptor.intercept(MethodFilterInterceptor.java:98) at com.opensymphony.xwork2.DefaultActionInvocation.invoke(DefaultActionInvocation.java:246) at com.opensymphony.xwork2.validator.ValidationInterceptor.doIntercept(ValidationInterceptor.java:265) at org.apache.struts2.interceptor.validation.AnnotationValidationInterceptor.doIntercept(AnnotationValidationInterceptor.java:68) at com.opensymphony.xwork2.interceptor.MethodFilterInterceptor.intercept(MethodFilterInterceptor.java:98) at com.opensymphony.xwork2.DefaultActionInvocation.invoke(DefaultActionInvocation.java:246) at com.opensymphony.xwork2.interceptor.ConversionErrorInterceptor.intercept(ConversionErrorInterceptor.java:138) at com.opensymphony.xwork2.DefaultActionInvocation.invoke(DefaultActionInvocation.java:246) at com.opensymphony.xwork2.interceptor.ParametersInterceptor.doIntercept(ParametersInterceptor.java:239) at com.opensymphony.xwork2.interceptor.MethodFilterInterceptor.intercept(MethodFilterInterceptor.java:98) at com.opensymphony.xwork2.DefaultActionInvocation.invoke(DefaultActionInvocation.java:246) at com.opensymphony.xwork2.interceptor.ParametersInterceptor.doIntercept(ParametersInterceptor.java:239) at com.opensymphony.xwork2.interceptor.MethodFilterInterceptor.intercept(MethodFilterInterceptor.java:98) at com.opensymphony.xwork2.DefaultActionInvocation.invoke(DefaultActionInvocation.java:246) at com.opensymphony.xwork2.interceptor.StaticParametersInterceptor.intercept(StaticParametersInterceptor.java:191) at com.opensymphony.xwork2.DefaultActionInvocation.invoke(DefaultActionInvocation.java:246) at org.apache.struts2.interceptor.MultiselectInterceptor.intercept(MultiselectInterceptor.java:73) at com.opensymphony.xwork2.DefaultActionInvocation.invoke(DefaultActionInvocation.java:246) at org.apache.struts2.interceptor.CheckboxInterceptor.intercept(CheckboxInterceptor.java:91) at com.opensymphony.xwork2.DefaultActionInvocation.invoke(DefaultActionInvocation.java:246) at org.apache.struts2.interceptor.FileUploadInterceptor.intercept(FileUploadInterceptor.java:252) at com.opensymphony.xwork2.DefaultActionInvocation.invoke(DefaultActionInvocation.java:246) at com.opensymphony.xwork2.interceptor.ModelDrivenInterceptor.intercept(ModelDrivenInterceptor.java:100) at com.opensymphony.xwork2.DefaultActionInvocation.invoke(DefaultActionInvocation.java:246) at com.opensymphony.xwork2.interceptor.ScopedModelDrivenInterceptor.intercept(ScopedModelDrivenInterceptor.java:141) at com.opensymphony.xwork2.DefaultActionInvocation.invoke(DefaultActionInvocation.java:246) at com.opensymphony.xwork2.interceptor.ChainingInterceptor.intercept(ChainingInterceptor.java:145) at com.opensymphony.xwork2.DefaultActionInvocation.invoke(DefaultActionInvocation.java:246) at com.opensymphony.xwork2.interceptor.PrepareInterceptor.doIntercept(PrepareInterceptor.java:171) at com.opensymphony.xwork2.interceptor.MethodFilterInterceptor.intercept(MethodFilterInterceptor.java:98) at com.opensymphony.xwork2.DefaultActionInvocation.invoke(DefaultActionInvocation.java:246) at com.opensymphony.xwork2.interceptor.I18nInterceptor.intercept(I18nInterceptor.java:161) at com.opensymphony.xwork2.DefaultActionInvocation.invoke(DefaultActionInvocation.java:246) at org.apache.struts2.interceptor.ServletConfigInterceptor.intercept(ServletConfigInterceptor.java:164) at com.opensymphony.xwork2.DefaultActionInvocation.invoke(DefaultActionInvocation.java:246) at com.opensymphony.xwork2.interceptor.AliasInterceptor.intercept(AliasInterceptor.java:193) at com.opensymphony.xwork2.DefaultActionInvocation.invoke(DefaultActionInvocation.java:246) at com.opensymphony.xwork2.interceptor.ExceptionMappingInterceptor.intercept(ExceptionMappingInterceptor.java:189) at com.opensymphony.xwork2.DefaultActionInvocation.invoke(DefaultActionInvocation.java:246) at org.apache.struts2.impl.StrutsActionProxy.execute(StrutsActionProxy.java:54) at org.apache.struts2.dispatcher.Dispatcher.serviceAction(Dispatcher.java:563) at org.apache.struts2.dispatcher.ng.ExecuteOperations.executeAction(ExecuteOperations.java:77) at org.apache.struts2.dispatcher.ng.filter.StrutsPrepareAndExecuteFilter.doFilter(StrutsPrepareAndExecuteFilter.java:99) at com.pub2web.webutils.web.filter.FilterWrapper.doFilter(FilterWrapper.java:124) at io.undertow.servlet.core.ManagedFilter.doFilter(ManagedFilter.java:60) at io.undertow.servlet.handlers.FilterHandler$FilterChainImpl.doFilter(FilterHandler.java:132) at com.pub2web.accesscontrol.web.filter.AuditFilter.doFilter(AuditFilter.java:61) at io.undertow.servlet.core.ManagedFilter.doFilter(ManagedFilter.java:60) at io.undertow.servlet.handlers.FilterHandler$FilterChainImpl.doFilter(FilterHandler.java:132) at com.pub2web.authentication.servlet.ImplicitAuthenticationFilter.doFilter(ImplicitAuthenticationFilter.java:230) at io.undertow.servlet.core.ManagedFilter.doFilter(ManagedFilter.java:60) at io.undertow.servlet.handlers.FilterHandler$FilterChainImpl.doFilter(FilterHandler.java:132) at com.pub2web.contenttools.filter.ModificationInfoFilter.doFilter(ModificationInfoFilter.java:162) at io.undertow.servlet.core.ManagedFilter.doFilter(ManagedFilter.java:60) at io.undertow.servlet.handlers.FilterHandler$FilterChainImpl.doFilter(FilterHandler.java:132) at com.pub2web.contenttools.filter.WeblogMonthFilter.doFilter(WeblogMonthFilter.java:107) at io.undertow.servlet.core.ManagedFilter.doFilter(ManagedFilter.java:60) at io.undertow.servlet.handlers.FilterHandler$FilterChainImpl.doFilter(FilterHandler.java:132) at com.pub2web.contenttools.filter.RdfsLabelFilter.doFilter(RdfsLabelFilter.java:100) at io.undertow.servlet.core.ManagedFilter.doFilter(ManagedFilter.java:60) at io.undertow.servlet.handlers.FilterHandler$FilterChainImpl.doFilter(FilterHandler.java:132) at com.ingenta.servlet.filter.AbstractFilter.doFilter(AbstractFilter.java:120) at io.undertow.servlet.core.ManagedFilter.doFilter(ManagedFilter.java:60) at io.undertow.servlet.handlers.FilterHandler$FilterChainImpl.doFilter(FilterHandler.java:132) at com.cj.trim.trimFilter.doFilter(Unknown Source) at io.undertow.servlet.core.ManagedFilter.doFilter(ManagedFilter.java:60) at io.undertow.servlet.handlers.FilterHandler$FilterChainImpl.doFilter(FilterHandler.java:132) at com.pub2web.plugin.sales.geolocation.web.consumption.filter.PointOfConsumptionCountryFilter.doFilter(PointOfConsumptionCountryFilter.java:197) at io.undertow.servlet.core.ManagedFilter.doFilter(ManagedFilter.java:60) at io.undertow.servlet.handlers.FilterHandler$FilterChainImpl.doFilter(FilterHandler.java:132) at com.pub2web.platform.geolocation.web.filter.GeolocationFilter.doFilter(GeolocationFilter.java:97) at io.undertow.servlet.core.ManagedFilter.doFilter(ManagedFilter.java:60) at io.undertow.servlet.handlers.FilterHandler$FilterChainImpl.doFilter(FilterHandler.java:132) at com.ingenta.servlet.filter.NameFilter.doFilter(NameFilter.java:199) at io.undertow.servlet.core.ManagedFilter.doFilter(ManagedFilter.java:60) at io.undertow.servlet.handlers.FilterHandler$FilterChainImpl.doFilter(FilterHandler.java:132) at com.ingenta.servlet.filter.AbstractFilter.doFilter(AbstractFilter.java:120) at io.undertow.servlet.core.ManagedFilter.doFilter(ManagedFilter.java:60) at io.undertow.servlet.handlers.FilterHandler$FilterChainImpl.doFilter(FilterHandler.java:132) at com.ingenta.servlet.filter.NameFilter.doFilter(NameFilter.java:199) at io.undertow.servlet.core.ManagedFilter.doFilter(ManagedFilter.java:60) at io.undertow.servlet.handlers.FilterHandler$FilterChainImpl.doFilter(FilterHandler.java:132) at com.pub2web.accesscontrol.web.filter.ActivatedUserFilter.doFilter(ActivatedUserFilter.java:130) at io.undertow.servlet.core.ManagedFilter.doFilter(ManagedFilter.java:60) at io.undertow.servlet.handlers.FilterHandler$FilterChainImpl.doFilter(FilterHandler.java:132) at com.pub2web.webutils.web.filter.locator.LocatorFilter.doFilter(LocatorFilter.java:80) at io.undertow.servlet.core.ManagedFilter.doFilter(ManagedFilter.java:60) at io.undertow.servlet.handlers.FilterHandler$FilterChainImpl.doFilter(FilterHandler.java:132) at com.pub2web.webutils.web.filter.ContentBrowsingHistoryFilter.doFilter(ContentBrowsingHistoryFilter.java:125) at io.undertow.servlet.core.ManagedFilter.doFilter(ManagedFilter.java:60) at io.undertow.servlet.handlers.FilterHandler$FilterChainImpl.doFilter(FilterHandler.java:132) at com.pub2web.webutils.web.filter.rewrite.UrlRewriterFilter.doFilter(UrlRewriterFilter.java:284) at io.undertow.servlet.core.ManagedFilter.doFilter(ManagedFilter.java:60) at io.undertow.servlet.handlers.FilterHandler$FilterChainImpl.doFilter(FilterHandler.java:132) at com.pub2web.webutils.web.filter.BrowsingHistoryFilter.doFilter(BrowsingHistoryFilter.java:125) at io.undertow.servlet.core.ManagedFilter.doFilter(ManagedFilter.java:60) at io.undertow.servlet.handlers.FilterHandler$FilterChainImpl.doFilter(FilterHandler.java:132) at com.pub2web.webutils.web.filter.UserAgentWrapFilter.doFilter(UserAgentWrapFilter.java:159) at io.undertow.servlet.core.ManagedFilter.doFilter(ManagedFilter.java:60) at io.undertow.servlet.handlers.FilterHandler$FilterChainImpl.doFilter(FilterHandler.java:132) at com.pub2web.cache.providers.monitoredehcache.MonitoredehcacheFilter.doFilter(MonitoredehcacheFilter.java:33) at io.undertow.servlet.core.ManagedFilter.doFilter(ManagedFilter.java:60) at io.undertow.servlet.handlers.FilterHandler$FilterChainImpl.doFilter(FilterHandler.java:132) at com.pub2web.contenttools.web.filter.ContentAdminModelInjectionFilter.doFilter(ContentAdminModelInjectionFilter.java:69) at org.springframework.web.filter.DelegatingFilterProxy.invokeDelegate(DelegatingFilterProxy.java:237) at org.springframework.web.filter.DelegatingFilterProxy.doFilter(DelegatingFilterProxy.java:167) at io.undertow.servlet.core.ManagedFilter.doFilter(ManagedFilter.java:60) at io.undertow.servlet.handlers.FilterHandler$FilterChainImpl.doFilter(FilterHandler.java:132) at com.ingenta.servlet.filter.AbstractFilter.doFilter(AbstractFilter.java:120) at io.undertow.servlet.core.ManagedFilter.doFilter(ManagedFilter.java:60) at io.undertow.servlet.handlers.FilterHandler$FilterChainImpl.doFilter(FilterHandler.java:132) at com.pub2web.webutils.web.filter.ConditionalHeaderFilter.doFilter(ConditionalHeaderFilter.java:42) at io.undertow.servlet.core.ManagedFilter.doFilter(ManagedFilter.java:60) at io.undertow.servlet.handlers.FilterHandler$FilterChainImpl.doFilter(FilterHandler.java:132) at com.pub2web.journalproduct.web.filter.ThrottlingFilter.doFilter(ThrottlingFilter.java:104) at com.pub2web.journalproduct.web.filter.BypassableThrottlingFilter.doFilter(BypassableThrottlingFilter.java:136) at io.undertow.servlet.core.ManagedFilter.doFilter(ManagedFilter.java:60) at io.undertow.servlet.handlers.FilterHandler$FilterChainImpl.doFilter(FilterHandler.java:132) at com.pub2web.webutils.web.filter.EncodingFilter.doFilter(EncodingFilter.java:82) at io.undertow.servlet.core.ManagedFilter.doFilter(ManagedFilter.java:60) at io.undertow.servlet.handlers.FilterHandler$FilterChainImpl.doFilter(FilterHandler.java:132) at io.undertow.servlet.handlers.FilterHandler.handleRequest(FilterHandler.java:85) at io.undertow.servlet.handlers.security.ServletSecurityRoleHandler.handleRequest(ServletSecurityRoleHandler.java:62) at io.undertow.servlet.handlers.ServletDispatchingHandler.handleRequest(ServletDispatchingHandler.java:36) at org.wildfly.extension.undertow.security.SecurityContextAssociationHandler.handleRequest(SecurityContextAssociationHandler.java:78) at io.undertow.server.handlers.PredicateHandler.handleRequest(PredicateHandler.java:43) at io.undertow.servlet.handlers.security.SSLInformationAssociationHandler.handleRequest(SSLInformationAssociationHandler.java:131) at io.undertow.servlet.handlers.security.ServletAuthenticationCallHandler.handleRequest(ServletAuthenticationCallHandler.java:57) at io.undertow.server.handlers.PredicateHandler.handleRequest(PredicateHandler.java:43) at io.undertow.security.handlers.AbstractConfidentialityHandler.handleRequest(AbstractConfidentialityHandler.java:46) at io.undertow.servlet.handlers.security.ServletConfidentialityConstraintHandler.handleRequest(ServletConfidentialityConstraintHandler.java:64) at io.undertow.security.handlers.AuthenticationMechanismsHandler.handleRequest(AuthenticationMechanismsHandler.java:58) at io.undertow.servlet.handlers.security.CachedAuthenticatedSessionHandler.handleRequest(CachedAuthenticatedSessionHandler.java:70) at io.undertow.security.handlers.SecurityInitialHandler.handleRequest(SecurityInitialHandler.java:76) at io.undertow.server.handlers.PredicateHandler.handleRequest(PredicateHandler.java:43) at org.wildfly.extension.undertow.security.jacc.JACCContextIdHandler.handleRequest(JACCContextIdHandler.java:61) at io.undertow.server.handlers.PredicateHandler.handleRequest(PredicateHandler.java:43) at io.undertow.server.handlers.PredicateHandler.handleRequest(PredicateHandler.java:43) at io.undertow.servlet.handlers.ServletInitialHandler.handleFirstRequest(ServletInitialHandler.java:261) at io.undertow.servlet.handlers.ServletInitialHandler.dispatchRequest(ServletInitialHandler.java:248) at io.undertow.servlet.handlers.ServletInitialHandler.access$000(ServletInitialHandler.java:77) at io.undertow.servlet.handlers.ServletInitialHandler$1.handleRequest(ServletInitialHandler.java:167) at io.undertow.server.Connectors.executeRootHandler(Connectors.java:199) at io.undertow.server.HttpServerExchange$1.run(HttpServerExchange.java:761) at java.util.concurrent.ThreadPoolExecutor.runWorker(ThreadPoolExecutor.java:1142) at java.util.concurrent.ThreadPoolExecutor$Worker.run(ThreadPoolExecutor.java:617) at java.lang.Thread.run(Thread.java:745) Caused by: java.net.URISyntaxException: Illegal character in opaque part at index 44: info:doi/10.1002/(SICI)1098-237X(199704)81:2<193::AID-SCE5>3.0.CO;2-A at java.net.URI$Parser.fail(URI.java:2848) at java.net.URI$Parser.checkChars(URI.java:3021) at java.net.URI$Parser.parse(URI.java:3058) at java.net.URI.(URI.java:588) at java.net.URI.create(URI.java:850) ... 220 more
39. Piaget J1968Le structuralismePresses Universitaires de FranceParis, France
40. Rebich S, Gautier C2005Concept mapping to reveal prior knowledge and conceptual change in a mock summit course on global climate changeJ Geosci Educ5335510.5408/1089-9995-53.4.355 http://dx.doi.org/10.5408/1089-9995-53.4.355
41. Redfield RJ2012“Why do we have to learn this stuff?”—a new genetics for 21st century studentsPLoS Biol10e1000135610.1371/journal.pbio.1001356 http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pbio.1001356
42. Regis A, Albertazzi PG, Roletto E1996Concept maps in chemistry educationJ Chem Educ73108410.1021/ed073p1084 http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/ed073p1084
43. Ruiz-Primo MA, Schultz SE, Li M, Shavelson RJ2001Comparison of the reliability and validity of scores from two concept-mapping techniquesJ Res Sci Teach3826027810.1002/1098-2736(200102)38:2<260::AID-TEA1005>3.0.CO;2-F http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/1098-2736(200102)38:2<260::AID-TEA1005>3.0.CO;2-F
java.lang.IllegalArgumentException: Illegal character in opaque part at index 38: info:doi/10.1002/1098-2736(200102)38:2<260::AID-TEA1005>3.0.CO;2-F at java.net.URI.create(URI.java:852) at com.pub2web.openurl.web.ArticleContextObjectEntityFactory.getContextObjectEntity(ArticleContextObjectEntityFactory.java:101) at com.pub2web.openurl.web.SequentialContentItemContextObjectEntityFactory.getContextObjectEntity(SequentialContentItemContextObjectEntityFactory.java:47) at com.pub2web.openurl.web.taglib.OutboundUrlTag.getReferent(OutboundUrlTag.java:294) at com.pub2web.openurl.web.taglib.OutboundUrlTag.buildContextObject(OutboundUrlTag.java:212) at com.pub2web.openurl.web.taglib.OutboundUrlTag.getCoinsSpan(OutboundUrlTag.java:178) at com.pub2web.openurl.web.taglib.OutboundUrlTag.doEndTag(OutboundUrlTag.java:155) at org.apache.jsp.tag.web.jp.reference_tag._jspx_meth_openurl_005foutboundurl_005f0(reference_tag.java:894) at org.apache.jsp.tag.web.jp.reference_tag._jspx_meth_c_005fforEach_005f0(reference_tag.java:236) at org.apache.jsp.tag.web.jp.reference_tag._jspx_meth_c_005fif_005f0(reference_tag.java:147) at org.apache.jsp.tag.web.jp.reference_tag.doTag(reference_tag.java:100) at org.apache.jsp.WEB_002dINF.jsp.journal.article_jsp._jspx_meth_jp_005freference_005f0(article_jsp.java:3534) at org.apache.jsp.WEB_002dINF.jsp.journal.article_jsp._jspx_meth_c_005fif_005f13(article_jsp.java:2586) at org.apache.jsp.WEB_002dINF.jsp.journal.article_jsp.access$24(article_jsp.java:2521) at org.apache.jsp.WEB_002dINF.jsp.journal.article_jsp$Helper.invoke0(article_jsp.java:4501) at org.apache.jsp.WEB_002dINF.jsp.journal.article_jsp$Helper.invoke(article_jsp.java:4663) at com.ingenta.jsp.page.InvokeFragmentTag.doTag(InvokeFragmentTag.java:139) at org.apache.jsp.WEB_002dINF.jsp.asm.template_jsp._jspx_meth_p_005fdoBody_005f0(template_jsp.java:2716) at org.apache.jsp.WEB_002dINF.jsp.asm.template_jsp.access$31(template_jsp.java:2705) at org.apache.jsp.WEB_002dINF.jsp.asm.template_jsp$Helper.invoke0(template_jsp.java:4389) at org.apache.jsp.WEB_002dINF.jsp.asm.template_jsp$Helper.invoke(template_jsp.java:4609) at com.ingenta.util.tagext.SimpleTagHandler.writeTagBody(SimpleTagHandler.java:196) at com.ingenta.util.tagext.SimpleTagHandler.doTag(SimpleTagHandler.java:140) at com.ingenta.jsp.page.PageTemplateTag.doTag(PageTemplateTag.java:55) at org.apache.jsp.WEB_002dINF.jsp.asm.template_jsp._jspx_meth_p_005ftemplate_005f0(template_jsp.java:132) at org.apache.jsp.WEB_002dINF.jsp.asm.template_jsp._jspService(template_jsp.java:107) at org.apache.jasper.runtime.HttpJspBase.service(HttpJspBase.java:69) at javax.servlet.http.HttpServlet.service(HttpServlet.java:790) at org.apache.jasper.servlet.JspServletWrapper.service(JspServletWrapper.java:366) at org.apache.jasper.servlet.JspServlet.serviceJspFile(JspServlet.java:326) at org.apache.jasper.servlet.JspServlet.service(JspServlet.java:259) at javax.servlet.http.HttpServlet.service(HttpServlet.java:790) at io.undertow.servlet.handlers.ServletHandler.handleRequest(ServletHandler.java:86) at io.undertow.servlet.handlers.FilterHandler.handleRequest(FilterHandler.java:82) at io.undertow.servlet.handlers.security.ServletSecurityRoleHandler.handleRequest(ServletSecurityRoleHandler.java:62) at io.undertow.servlet.handlers.ServletDispatchingHandler.handleRequest(ServletDispatchingHandler.java:36) at io.undertow.server.handlers.PredicateHandler.handleRequest(PredicateHandler.java:43) at io.undertow.server.handlers.PredicateHandler.handleRequest(PredicateHandler.java:43) at io.undertow.server.handlers.PredicateHandler.handleRequest(PredicateHandler.java:43) at io.undertow.servlet.handlers.ServletInitialHandler.dispatchRequest(ServletInitialHandler.java:250) at io.undertow.servlet.handlers.ServletInitialHandler.dispatchToServlet(ServletInitialHandler.java:199) at io.undertow.servlet.spec.RequestDispatcherImpl.include(RequestDispatcherImpl.java:279) at org.apache.jasper.runtime.JspRuntimeLibrary.include(JspRuntimeLibrary.java:940) at org.apache.jasper.runtime.PageContextImpl.doInclude(PageContextImpl.java:639) at org.apache.jasper.runtime.PageContextImpl.include(PageContextImpl.java:633) at com.ingenta.jsp.skins.SkinUtils.include(SkinUtils.java:516) at com.ingenta.jsp.page.PageBodyTag.invokeTemplate(PageBodyTag.java:277) at com.ingenta.jsp.page.PageBodyTag.doTag(PageBodyTag.java:254) at org.apache.jsp.WEB_002dINF.jsp.journal.article_jsp._jspx_meth_p_005fbody_005f0(article_jsp.java:785) at org.apache.jsp.WEB_002dINF.jsp.journal.article_jsp._jspx_meth_auth_005flicence_005f0(article_jsp.java:248) at org.apache.jsp.WEB_002dINF.jsp.journal.article_jsp._jspService(article_jsp.java:161) at org.apache.jasper.runtime.HttpJspBase.service(HttpJspBase.java:69) at javax.servlet.http.HttpServlet.service(HttpServlet.java:790) at org.apache.jasper.servlet.JspServletWrapper.service(JspServletWrapper.java:366) at org.apache.jasper.servlet.JspServlet.serviceJspFile(JspServlet.java:326) at org.apache.jasper.servlet.JspServlet.service(JspServlet.java:259) at javax.servlet.http.HttpServlet.service(HttpServlet.java:790) at io.undertow.servlet.handlers.ServletHandler.handleRequest(ServletHandler.java:86) at io.undertow.servlet.handlers.FilterHandler.handleRequest(FilterHandler.java:82) at io.undertow.servlet.handlers.security.ServletSecurityRoleHandler.handleRequest(ServletSecurityRoleHandler.java:62) at io.undertow.servlet.handlers.ServletDispatchingHandler.handleRequest(ServletDispatchingHandler.java:36) at io.undertow.server.handlers.PredicateHandler.handleRequest(PredicateHandler.java:43) at io.undertow.server.handlers.PredicateHandler.handleRequest(PredicateHandler.java:43) at io.undertow.server.handlers.PredicateHandler.handleRequest(PredicateHandler.java:43) at io.undertow.servlet.handlers.ServletInitialHandler.dispatchRequest(ServletInitialHandler.java:250) at io.undertow.servlet.handlers.ServletInitialHandler.dispatchToPath(ServletInitialHandler.java:193) at io.undertow.servlet.spec.RequestDispatcherImpl.forward(RequestDispatcherImpl.java:160) at org.apache.struts2.dispatcher.ServletDispatcherResult.doExecute(ServletDispatcherResult.java:164) at org.apache.struts2.dispatcher.StrutsResultSupport.execute(StrutsResultSupport.java:186) at com.opensymphony.xwork2.DefaultActionInvocation.executeResult(DefaultActionInvocation.java:371) at com.opensymphony.xwork2.DefaultActionInvocation.invoke(DefaultActionInvocation.java:275) at org.apache.struts2.interceptor.debugging.DebuggingInterceptor.intercept(DebuggingInterceptor.java:256) at com.opensymphony.xwork2.DefaultActionInvocation.invoke(DefaultActionInvocation.java:246) at com.opensymphony.xwork2.interceptor.DefaultWorkflowInterceptor.doIntercept(DefaultWorkflowInterceptor.java:167) at com.opensymphony.xwork2.interceptor.MethodFilterInterceptor.intercept(MethodFilterInterceptor.java:98) at com.opensymphony.xwork2.DefaultActionInvocation.invoke(DefaultActionInvocation.java:246) at com.opensymphony.xwork2.validator.ValidationInterceptor.doIntercept(ValidationInterceptor.java:265) at org.apache.struts2.interceptor.validation.AnnotationValidationInterceptor.doIntercept(AnnotationValidationInterceptor.java:68) at com.opensymphony.xwork2.interceptor.MethodFilterInterceptor.intercept(MethodFilterInterceptor.java:98) at com.opensymphony.xwork2.DefaultActionInvocation.invoke(DefaultActionInvocation.java:246) at com.opensymphony.xwork2.interceptor.ConversionErrorInterceptor.intercept(ConversionErrorInterceptor.java:138) at com.opensymphony.xwork2.DefaultActionInvocation.invoke(DefaultActionInvocation.java:246) at com.opensymphony.xwork2.interceptor.ParametersInterceptor.doIntercept(ParametersInterceptor.java:239) at com.opensymphony.xwork2.interceptor.MethodFilterInterceptor.intercept(MethodFilterInterceptor.java:98) at com.opensymphony.xwork2.DefaultActionInvocation.invoke(DefaultActionInvocation.java:246) at com.opensymphony.xwork2.interceptor.ParametersInterceptor.doIntercept(ParametersInterceptor.java:239) at com.opensymphony.xwork2.interceptor.MethodFilterInterceptor.intercept(MethodFilterInterceptor.java:98) at com.opensymphony.xwork2.DefaultActionInvocation.invoke(DefaultActionInvocation.java:246) at com.opensymphony.xwork2.interceptor.StaticParametersInterceptor.intercept(StaticParametersInterceptor.java:191) at com.opensymphony.xwork2.DefaultActionInvocation.invoke(DefaultActionInvocation.java:246) at org.apache.struts2.interceptor.MultiselectInterceptor.intercept(MultiselectInterceptor.java:73) at com.opensymphony.xwork2.DefaultActionInvocation.invoke(DefaultActionInvocation.java:246) at org.apache.struts2.interceptor.CheckboxInterceptor.intercept(CheckboxInterceptor.java:91) at com.opensymphony.xwork2.DefaultActionInvocation.invoke(DefaultActionInvocation.java:246) at org.apache.struts2.interceptor.FileUploadInterceptor.intercept(FileUploadInterceptor.java:252) at com.opensymphony.xwork2.DefaultActionInvocation.invoke(DefaultActionInvocation.java:246) at com.opensymphony.xwork2.interceptor.ModelDrivenInterceptor.intercept(ModelDrivenInterceptor.java:100) at com.opensymphony.xwork2.DefaultActionInvocation.invoke(DefaultActionInvocation.java:246) at com.opensymphony.xwork2.interceptor.ScopedModelDrivenInterceptor.intercept(ScopedModelDrivenInterceptor.java:141) at com.opensymphony.xwork2.DefaultActionInvocation.invoke(DefaultActionInvocation.java:246) at com.opensymphony.xwork2.interceptor.ChainingInterceptor.intercept(ChainingInterceptor.java:145) at com.opensymphony.xwork2.DefaultActionInvocation.invoke(DefaultActionInvocation.java:246) at com.opensymphony.xwork2.interceptor.PrepareInterceptor.doIntercept(PrepareInterceptor.java:171) at com.opensymphony.xwork2.interceptor.MethodFilterInterceptor.intercept(MethodFilterInterceptor.java:98) at com.opensymphony.xwork2.DefaultActionInvocation.invoke(DefaultActionInvocation.java:246) at com.opensymphony.xwork2.interceptor.I18nInterceptor.intercept(I18nInterceptor.java:161) at com.opensymphony.xwork2.DefaultActionInvocation.invoke(DefaultActionInvocation.java:246) at org.apache.struts2.interceptor.ServletConfigInterceptor.intercept(ServletConfigInterceptor.java:164) at com.opensymphony.xwork2.DefaultActionInvocation.invoke(DefaultActionInvocation.java:246) at com.opensymphony.xwork2.interceptor.AliasInterceptor.intercept(AliasInterceptor.java:193) at com.opensymphony.xwork2.DefaultActionInvocation.invoke(DefaultActionInvocation.java:246) at com.opensymphony.xwork2.interceptor.ExceptionMappingInterceptor.intercept(ExceptionMappingInterceptor.java:189) at com.opensymphony.xwork2.DefaultActionInvocation.invoke(DefaultActionInvocation.java:246) at org.apache.struts2.impl.StrutsActionProxy.execute(StrutsActionProxy.java:54) at org.apache.struts2.dispatcher.Dispatcher.serviceAction(Dispatcher.java:563) at org.apache.struts2.dispatcher.ng.ExecuteOperations.executeAction(ExecuteOperations.java:77) at org.apache.struts2.dispatcher.ng.filter.StrutsPrepareAndExecuteFilter.doFilter(StrutsPrepareAndExecuteFilter.java:99) at com.pub2web.webutils.web.filter.FilterWrapper.doFilter(FilterWrapper.java:124) at io.undertow.servlet.core.ManagedFilter.doFilter(ManagedFilter.java:60) at io.undertow.servlet.handlers.FilterHandler$FilterChainImpl.doFilter(FilterHandler.java:132) at com.pub2web.accesscontrol.web.filter.AuditFilter.doFilter(AuditFilter.java:61) at io.undertow.servlet.core.ManagedFilter.doFilter(ManagedFilter.java:60) at io.undertow.servlet.handlers.FilterHandler$FilterChainImpl.doFilter(FilterHandler.java:132) at com.pub2web.authentication.servlet.ImplicitAuthenticationFilter.doFilter(ImplicitAuthenticationFilter.java:230) at io.undertow.servlet.core.ManagedFilter.doFilter(ManagedFilter.java:60) at io.undertow.servlet.handlers.FilterHandler$FilterChainImpl.doFilter(FilterHandler.java:132) at com.pub2web.contenttools.filter.ModificationInfoFilter.doFilter(ModificationInfoFilter.java:162) at io.undertow.servlet.core.ManagedFilter.doFilter(ManagedFilter.java:60) at io.undertow.servlet.handlers.FilterHandler$FilterChainImpl.doFilter(FilterHandler.java:132) at com.pub2web.contenttools.filter.WeblogMonthFilter.doFilter(WeblogMonthFilter.java:107) at io.undertow.servlet.core.ManagedFilter.doFilter(ManagedFilter.java:60) at io.undertow.servlet.handlers.FilterHandler$FilterChainImpl.doFilter(FilterHandler.java:132) at com.pub2web.contenttools.filter.RdfsLabelFilter.doFilter(RdfsLabelFilter.java:100) at io.undertow.servlet.core.ManagedFilter.doFilter(ManagedFilter.java:60) at io.undertow.servlet.handlers.FilterHandler$FilterChainImpl.doFilter(FilterHandler.java:132) at com.ingenta.servlet.filter.AbstractFilter.doFilter(AbstractFilter.java:120) at io.undertow.servlet.core.ManagedFilter.doFilter(ManagedFilter.java:60) at io.undertow.servlet.handlers.FilterHandler$FilterChainImpl.doFilter(FilterHandler.java:132) at com.cj.trim.trimFilter.doFilter(Unknown Source) at io.undertow.servlet.core.ManagedFilter.doFilter(ManagedFilter.java:60) at io.undertow.servlet.handlers.FilterHandler$FilterChainImpl.doFilter(FilterHandler.java:132) at com.pub2web.plugin.sales.geolocation.web.consumption.filter.PointOfConsumptionCountryFilter.doFilter(PointOfConsumptionCountryFilter.java:197) at io.undertow.servlet.core.ManagedFilter.doFilter(ManagedFilter.java:60) at io.undertow.servlet.handlers.FilterHandler$FilterChainImpl.doFilter(FilterHandler.java:132) at com.pub2web.platform.geolocation.web.filter.GeolocationFilter.doFilter(GeolocationFilter.java:97) at io.undertow.servlet.core.ManagedFilter.doFilter(ManagedFilter.java:60) at io.undertow.servlet.handlers.FilterHandler$FilterChainImpl.doFilter(FilterHandler.java:132) at com.ingenta.servlet.filter.NameFilter.doFilter(NameFilter.java:199) at io.undertow.servlet.core.ManagedFilter.doFilter(ManagedFilter.java:60) at io.undertow.servlet.handlers.FilterHandler$FilterChainImpl.doFilter(FilterHandler.java:132) at com.ingenta.servlet.filter.AbstractFilter.doFilter(AbstractFilter.java:120) at io.undertow.servlet.core.ManagedFilter.doFilter(ManagedFilter.java:60) at io.undertow.servlet.handlers.FilterHandler$FilterChainImpl.doFilter(FilterHandler.java:132) at com.ingenta.servlet.filter.NameFilter.doFilter(NameFilter.java:199) at io.undertow.servlet.core.ManagedFilter.doFilter(ManagedFilter.java:60) at io.undertow.servlet.handlers.FilterHandler$FilterChainImpl.doFilter(FilterHandler.java:132) at com.pub2web.accesscontrol.web.filter.ActivatedUserFilter.doFilter(ActivatedUserFilter.java:130) at io.undertow.servlet.core.ManagedFilter.doFilter(ManagedFilter.java:60) at io.undertow.servlet.handlers.FilterHandler$FilterChainImpl.doFilter(FilterHandler.java:132) at com.pub2web.webutils.web.filter.locator.LocatorFilter.doFilter(LocatorFilter.java:80) at io.undertow.servlet.core.ManagedFilter.doFilter(ManagedFilter.java:60) at io.undertow.servlet.handlers.FilterHandler$FilterChainImpl.doFilter(FilterHandler.java:132) at com.pub2web.webutils.web.filter.ContentBrowsingHistoryFilter.doFilter(ContentBrowsingHistoryFilter.java:125) at io.undertow.servlet.core.ManagedFilter.doFilter(ManagedFilter.java:60) at io.undertow.servlet.handlers.FilterHandler$FilterChainImpl.doFilter(FilterHandler.java:132) at com.pub2web.webutils.web.filter.rewrite.UrlRewriterFilter.doFilter(UrlRewriterFilter.java:284) at io.undertow.servlet.core.ManagedFilter.doFilter(ManagedFilter.java:60) at io.undertow.servlet.handlers.FilterHandler$FilterChainImpl.doFilter(FilterHandler.java:132) at com.pub2web.webutils.web.filter.BrowsingHistoryFilter.doFilter(BrowsingHistoryFilter.java:125) at io.undertow.servlet.core.ManagedFilter.doFilter(ManagedFilter.java:60) at io.undertow.servlet.handlers.FilterHandler$FilterChainImpl.doFilter(FilterHandler.java:132) at com.pub2web.webutils.web.filter.UserAgentWrapFilter.doFilter(UserAgentWrapFilter.java:159) at io.undertow.servlet.core.ManagedFilter.doFilter(ManagedFilter.java:60) at io.undertow.servlet.handlers.FilterHandler$FilterChainImpl.doFilter(FilterHandler.java:132) at com.pub2web.cache.providers.monitoredehcache.MonitoredehcacheFilter.doFilter(MonitoredehcacheFilter.java:33) at io.undertow.servlet.core.ManagedFilter.doFilter(ManagedFilter.java:60) at io.undertow.servlet.handlers.FilterHandler$FilterChainImpl.doFilter(FilterHandler.java:132) at com.pub2web.contenttools.web.filter.ContentAdminModelInjectionFilter.doFilter(ContentAdminModelInjectionFilter.java:69) at org.springframework.web.filter.DelegatingFilterProxy.invokeDelegate(DelegatingFilterProxy.java:237) at org.springframework.web.filter.DelegatingFilterProxy.doFilter(DelegatingFilterProxy.java:167) at io.undertow.servlet.core.ManagedFilter.doFilter(ManagedFilter.java:60) at io.undertow.servlet.handlers.FilterHandler$FilterChainImpl.doFilter(FilterHandler.java:132) at com.ingenta.servlet.filter.AbstractFilter.doFilter(AbstractFilter.java:120) at io.undertow.servlet.core.ManagedFilter.doFilter(ManagedFilter.java:60) at io.undertow.servlet.handlers.FilterHandler$FilterChainImpl.doFilter(FilterHandler.java:132) at com.pub2web.webutils.web.filter.ConditionalHeaderFilter.doFilter(ConditionalHeaderFilter.java:42) at io.undertow.servlet.core.ManagedFilter.doFilter(ManagedFilter.java:60) at io.undertow.servlet.handlers.FilterHandler$FilterChainImpl.doFilter(FilterHandler.java:132) at com.pub2web.journalproduct.web.filter.ThrottlingFilter.doFilter(ThrottlingFilter.java:104) at com.pub2web.journalproduct.web.filter.BypassableThrottlingFilter.doFilter(BypassableThrottlingFilter.java:136) at io.undertow.servlet.core.ManagedFilter.doFilter(ManagedFilter.java:60) at io.undertow.servlet.handlers.FilterHandler$FilterChainImpl.doFilter(FilterHandler.java:132) at com.pub2web.webutils.web.filter.EncodingFilter.doFilter(EncodingFilter.java:82) at io.undertow.servlet.core.ManagedFilter.doFilter(ManagedFilter.java:60) at io.undertow.servlet.handlers.FilterHandler$FilterChainImpl.doFilter(FilterHandler.java:132) at io.undertow.servlet.handlers.FilterHandler.handleRequest(FilterHandler.java:85) at io.undertow.servlet.handlers.security.ServletSecurityRoleHandler.handleRequest(ServletSecurityRoleHandler.java:62) at io.undertow.servlet.handlers.ServletDispatchingHandler.handleRequest(ServletDispatchingHandler.java:36) at org.wildfly.extension.undertow.security.SecurityContextAssociationHandler.handleRequest(SecurityContextAssociationHandler.java:78) at io.undertow.server.handlers.PredicateHandler.handleRequest(PredicateHandler.java:43) at io.undertow.servlet.handlers.security.SSLInformationAssociationHandler.handleRequest(SSLInformationAssociationHandler.java:131) at io.undertow.servlet.handlers.security.ServletAuthenticationCallHandler.handleRequest(ServletAuthenticationCallHandler.java:57) at io.undertow.server.handlers.PredicateHandler.handleRequest(PredicateHandler.java:43) at io.undertow.security.handlers.AbstractConfidentialityHandler.handleRequest(AbstractConfidentialityHandler.java:46) at io.undertow.servlet.handlers.security.ServletConfidentialityConstraintHandler.handleRequest(ServletConfidentialityConstraintHandler.java:64) at io.undertow.security.handlers.AuthenticationMechanismsHandler.handleRequest(AuthenticationMechanismsHandler.java:58) at io.undertow.servlet.handlers.security.CachedAuthenticatedSessionHandler.handleRequest(CachedAuthenticatedSessionHandler.java:70) at io.undertow.security.handlers.SecurityInitialHandler.handleRequest(SecurityInitialHandler.java:76) at io.undertow.server.handlers.PredicateHandler.handleRequest(PredicateHandler.java:43) at org.wildfly.extension.undertow.security.jacc.JACCContextIdHandler.handleRequest(JACCContextIdHandler.java:61) at io.undertow.server.handlers.PredicateHandler.handleRequest(PredicateHandler.java:43) at io.undertow.server.handlers.PredicateHandler.handleRequest(PredicateHandler.java:43) at io.undertow.servlet.handlers.ServletInitialHandler.handleFirstRequest(ServletInitialHandler.java:261) at io.undertow.servlet.handlers.ServletInitialHandler.dispatchRequest(ServletInitialHandler.java:248) at io.undertow.servlet.handlers.ServletInitialHandler.access$000(ServletInitialHandler.java:77) at io.undertow.servlet.handlers.ServletInitialHandler$1.handleRequest(ServletInitialHandler.java:167) at io.undertow.server.Connectors.executeRootHandler(Connectors.java:199) at io.undertow.server.HttpServerExchange$1.run(HttpServerExchange.java:761) at java.util.concurrent.ThreadPoolExecutor.runWorker(ThreadPoolExecutor.java:1142) at java.util.concurrent.ThreadPoolExecutor$Worker.run(ThreadPoolExecutor.java:617) at java.lang.Thread.run(Thread.java:745) Caused by: java.net.URISyntaxException: Illegal character in opaque part at index 38: info:doi/10.1002/1098-2736(200102)38:2<260::AID-TEA1005>3.0.CO;2-F at java.net.URI$Parser.fail(URI.java:2848) at java.net.URI$Parser.checkChars(URI.java:3021) at java.net.URI$Parser.parse(URI.java:3058) at java.net.URI.(URI.java:588) at java.net.URI.create(URI.java:850) ... 220 more
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2016-12-02
2017-12-16

Abstract:

The goal of our study was to track changes in student understanding of the central dogma of molecular biology before and after taking a genetics course. Concept maps require the ability to synthesize new information into existing knowledge frameworks, and so the hypothesis guiding this study was that student performance on concept maps reveals specific central dogma misconceptions gained, lost, and retained by students. Students in a genetics course completed pre- and posttest concept mapping tasks using terms related to the central dogma. Student maps increased in complexity and validity, indicating learning gains in both content and complexity of understanding. Changes in each of the 351 possible connections in the mapping task were tracked for each student. Our students did not retain much about the central dogma from their introductory biology courses, but they did move to more advanced levels of understanding by the end of the genetics course. The information they retained from their introductory courses focused on structural components (e.g., protein is made of amino acids) and not on overall mechanistic components (e.g., DNA comes before RNA, the ribosome makes protein). Students made the greatest gains in connections related to transcription, and they resolved the most prior misconceptions about translation. These concept-mapping tasks revealed that students are able to correct prior misconceptions about the central dogma during an intermediate-level genetics course. From these results, educators can design new classroom interventions to target those aspects of this foundational principle with which students have the most trouble.

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FIGURE 1

Concept map assessment tool and implementation. Concept maps were used to assess student understanding of the central dogma of molecular biology (A). Concept maps are made of interconnected propositions, in which each proposition consists of two terms connected by a linking verb (B). Students were provided with a list of 27 terms (C) and were instructed to use those terms to create a concept map explaining the central dogma. These assessments were given before the first day of molecular biology content and again on the last day of class (D). DNA = deoxyribonucleic acid; RNA = ribonucleic acid.

Source: J. Microbiol. Biol. Educ. December 2016 vol. 17 no. 3 339-350. doi:10.1128/jmbe.v17i3.1165
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FIGURE 2

Example student concept maps. Representative examples of high- (A) and low- (B) complexity student-generated concept maps created at the beginning of the course (upper panels) and at the end of the course (lower panels) from two students enrolled in Section 2 of BIOL289: Genetics. Validity (number of valid propositions/total number of propositions) and complexity (number of propositions) scores are provided for comparison.

Source: J. Microbiol. Biol. Educ. December 2016 vol. 17 no. 3 339-350. doi:10.1128/jmbe.v17i3.1165
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FIGURE 3

Matrix scoring method. To track changes in propositions from pre- to post- maps, each proposition on each individual student map was given a code (1 = absent, 3 = valid, 7 = invalid) and then the formula [(post + pre) × pre] (A) was used to generate nine unique values indicating the nine possible types of changes. Each student’s separate pre- and post- map (B) was then converted into a single 27 × 27 matrix containing these change codes (C). DNA = deoxyribonucleic acid; RNA = ribonucleic acid.

Source: J. Microbiol. Biol. Educ. December 2016 vol. 17 no. 3 339-350. doi:10.1128/jmbe.v17i3.1165
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FIGURE 4

Overall complexity and validity gains ( = 38). Concept maps were graded using two methods: (A) validity (percent valid propositions) and (B) complexity (total number of propositions made). * < 0.05 one-way ANOVA versus pretest.

Source: J. Microbiol. Biol. Educ. December 2016 vol. 17 no. 3 339-350. doi:10.1128/jmbe.v17i3.1165
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FIGURE 5

Tests of correlation between concept map validity and complexity. Multivariate analysis was used to determine correlations between concept map complexity (number of connections made) and validity on pretests (A; Spearman correlation coefficient R = 0.38, 0.0342) and posttests (B; R = 0.3234, 0.0751), and between complexity gains and normalized validity gains, (E; R = −0.210, 0.2567). Correlations were also determined for pretest and posttest scores for validity (C; R = 0.62, 0.0002) and complexity (D; R = 0.55, 0.0014).

Source: J. Microbiol. Biol. Educ. December 2016 vol. 17 no. 3 339-350. doi:10.1128/jmbe.v17i3.1165
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FIGURE 6

Analysis of most common propositional changes. The frequency with which each proposition changed between each student’s pre- and post- maps in each pre/post change category (see Table 1 ) was quantified (A, B; = 1,415 total proposition changes). The most common propositions within each change category are shown.

Source: J. Microbiol. Biol. Educ. December 2016 vol. 17 no. 3 339-350. doi:10.1128/jmbe.v17i3.1165
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