1887

Using Anthropomorphism and Fictional Story Development to Enhance Student Learning

    Authors: Kari A. Brossard Stoos1,*, Madeline Haftel1
    VIEW AFFILIATIONS HIDE AFFILIATIONS
    Affiliations: 1: Department of Health Promotion and Physical Education, School of Health Sciences and Human Performance, Ithaca College, Ithaca, NY 14850
    AUTHOR AND ARTICLE INFORMATION AUTHOR AND ARTICLE INFORMATION
    • Received 23 June 2016 Accepted 09 November 2016 Published 21 April 2017
    • ©2017 Author(s). Published by the American Society for Microbiology.
    • [open-access] This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International license (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/ and https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/legalcode), which grants the public the nonexclusive right to copy, distribute, or display the published work.

    • Supplemental materials available at http://asmscience.org/jmbe
    • *Corresponding author. Mailing address: Department of Health Promotion and Physical Education, School of Health Sciences and Human Performance, Ithaca College, 953 Danby Road, Ithaca, NY 14850. Phone: 607-274-3195. E-mail: kstoos@ithaca.edu.
    Source: J. Microbiol. Biol. Educ. April 2017 vol. 18 no. 1 doi:10.1128/jmbe.v18i1.1197
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    Abstract:

    Understanding mechanisms of human disease can be very challenging for students with a basic background in anatomy and biology, and it can be nearly impossible for students without any prior exposure to these basic sciences. We have designed an approach for understanding human disease for learners of various science backgrounds. By using fictional character associations with disease processes, we have anthropomorphized disease components to make the mechanisms accessible to students with little to no science background, while still appealing and exciting to students with significant science backgrounds. By assisting students in the creation of fictional characters to represent disease processes, we have increased student understanding, engagement, enjoyment, and retention of course content.

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References & Citations

1. Kallery M, Psillas D2004Anthropomorphism and animism in early years science: why teachers use them, how they conceptualize them, and what are their views on their useRes Sci Educ34329131110.1023/B:RISE.0000044613.64634.03 http://dx.doi.org/10.1023/B:RISE.0000044613.64634.03
2. Byrne J, Grace M, Hanley P2010Children’s anthropomorphic and anthropocentric ideas about micro-organismsJ Biol Ed441374310.1080/00219266.2009.9656190 http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00219266.2009.9656190
3. Zohar A, Ginossar S1998Lifting the taboo regarding teleology and anthropomorphism in biology education—heretical suggestionsSci Educ82667969710.1002/(SICI)1098-237X(199811)82:6<679::AID-SCE3>3.0.CO;2-E http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/(SICI)1098-237X(199811)82:6<679::AID-SCE3>3.0.CO;2-E
java.lang.IllegalArgumentException: Illegal character in opaque part at index 44: info:doi/10.1002/(SICI)1098-237X(199811)82:6<679::AID-SCE3>3.0.CO;2-E at java.net.URI.create(URI.java:852) at com.pub2web.openurl.web.ArticleContextObjectEntityFactory.getContextObjectEntity(ArticleContextObjectEntityFactory.java:101) at com.pub2web.openurl.web.SequentialContentItemContextObjectEntityFactory.getContextObjectEntity(SequentialContentItemContextObjectEntityFactory.java:47) at com.pub2web.openurl.web.taglib.OutboundUrlTag.getReferent(OutboundUrlTag.java:294) at com.pub2web.openurl.web.taglib.OutboundUrlTag.buildContextObject(OutboundUrlTag.java:212) at com.pub2web.openurl.web.taglib.OutboundUrlTag.getCoinsSpan(OutboundUrlTag.java:178) at com.pub2web.openurl.web.taglib.OutboundUrlTag.doEndTag(OutboundUrlTag.java:155) at org.apache.jsp.tag.web.jp.reference_tag._jspx_meth_openurl_005foutboundurl_005f0(reference_tag.java:894) at org.apache.jsp.tag.web.jp.reference_tag._jspx_meth_c_005fforEach_005f0(reference_tag.java:236) at org.apache.jsp.tag.web.jp.reference_tag._jspx_meth_c_005fif_005f0(reference_tag.java:147) at org.apache.jsp.tag.web.jp.reference_tag.doTag(reference_tag.java:100) at org.apache.jsp.WEB_002dINF.jsp.journal.continuouspublicationarticle_jsp._jspx_meth_jp_005freference_005f0(continuouspublicationarticle_jsp.java:3534) at org.apache.jsp.WEB_002dINF.jsp.journal.continuouspublicationarticle_jsp._jspx_meth_c_005fif_005f13(continuouspublicationarticle_jsp.java:2586) at org.apache.jsp.WEB_002dINF.jsp.journal.continuouspublicationarticle_jsp.access$24(continuouspublicationarticle_jsp.java:2521) at org.apache.jsp.WEB_002dINF.jsp.journal.continuouspublicationarticle_jsp$Helper.invoke0(continuouspublicationarticle_jsp.java:4501) at org.apache.jsp.WEB_002dINF.jsp.journal.continuouspublicationarticle_jsp$Helper.invoke(continuouspublicationarticle_jsp.java:4663) at com.ingenta.jsp.page.InvokeFragmentTag.doTag(InvokeFragmentTag.java:139) at org.apache.jsp.WEB_002dINF.jsp.asm.template_jsp._jspx_meth_p_005fdoBody_005f0(template_jsp.java:2716) at org.apache.jsp.WEB_002dINF.jsp.asm.template_jsp.access$31(template_jsp.java:2705) at org.apache.jsp.WEB_002dINF.jsp.asm.template_jsp$Helper.invoke0(template_jsp.java:4389) at org.apache.jsp.WEB_002dINF.jsp.asm.template_jsp$Helper.invoke(template_jsp.java:4609) at com.ingenta.util.tagext.SimpleTagHandler.writeTagBody(SimpleTagHandler.java:196) at com.ingenta.util.tagext.SimpleTagHandler.doTag(SimpleTagHandler.java:140) at com.ingenta.jsp.page.PageTemplateTag.doTag(PageTemplateTag.java:55) at org.apache.jsp.WEB_002dINF.jsp.asm.template_jsp._jspx_meth_p_005ftemplate_005f0(template_jsp.java:132) at org.apache.jsp.WEB_002dINF.jsp.asm.template_jsp._jspService(template_jsp.java:107) at org.apache.jasper.runtime.HttpJspBase.service(HttpJspBase.java:69) at javax.servlet.http.HttpServlet.service(HttpServlet.java:790) at org.apache.jasper.servlet.JspServletWrapper.service(JspServletWrapper.java:366) at org.apache.jasper.servlet.JspServlet.serviceJspFile(JspServlet.java:326) at org.apache.jasper.servlet.JspServlet.service(JspServlet.java:259) at javax.servlet.http.HttpServlet.service(HttpServlet.java:790) at io.undertow.servlet.handlers.ServletHandler.handleRequest(ServletHandler.java:86) at io.undertow.servlet.handlers.FilterHandler.handleRequest(FilterHandler.java:82) at io.undertow.servlet.handlers.security.ServletSecurityRoleHandler.handleRequest(ServletSecurityRoleHandler.java:62) at io.undertow.servlet.handlers.ServletDispatchingHandler.handleRequest(ServletDispatchingHandler.java:36) at io.undertow.server.handlers.PredicateHandler.handleRequest(PredicateHandler.java:43) at io.undertow.server.handlers.PredicateHandler.handleRequest(PredicateHandler.java:43) at io.undertow.server.handlers.PredicateHandler.handleRequest(PredicateHandler.java:43) at io.undertow.servlet.handlers.ServletInitialHandler.dispatchRequest(ServletInitialHandler.java:250) at io.undertow.servlet.handlers.ServletInitialHandler.dispatchToServlet(ServletInitialHandler.java:199) at io.undertow.servlet.spec.RequestDispatcherImpl.include(RequestDispatcherImpl.java:279) at org.apache.jasper.runtime.JspRuntimeLibrary.include(JspRuntimeLibrary.java:940) at org.apache.jasper.runtime.PageContextImpl.doInclude(PageContextImpl.java:639) at org.apache.jasper.runtime.PageContextImpl.include(PageContextImpl.java:633) at com.ingenta.jsp.skins.SkinUtils.include(SkinUtils.java:516) at com.ingenta.jsp.page.PageBodyTag.invokeTemplate(PageBodyTag.java:277) at com.ingenta.jsp.page.PageBodyTag.doTag(PageBodyTag.java:254) at org.apache.jsp.WEB_002dINF.jsp.journal.continuouspublicationarticle_jsp._jspx_meth_p_005fbody_005f0(continuouspublicationarticle_jsp.java:785) at org.apache.jsp.WEB_002dINF.jsp.journal.continuouspublicationarticle_jsp._jspx_meth_auth_005flicence_005f0(continuouspublicationarticle_jsp.java:248) at org.apache.jsp.WEB_002dINF.jsp.journal.continuouspublicationarticle_jsp._jspService(continuouspublicationarticle_jsp.java:161) at org.apache.jasper.runtime.HttpJspBase.service(HttpJspBase.java:69) at javax.servlet.http.HttpServlet.service(HttpServlet.java:790) at org.apache.jasper.servlet.JspServletWrapper.service(JspServletWrapper.java:366) at org.apache.jasper.servlet.JspServlet.serviceJspFile(JspServlet.java:326) at org.apache.jasper.servlet.JspServlet.service(JspServlet.java:259) at javax.servlet.http.HttpServlet.service(HttpServlet.java:790) at io.undertow.servlet.handlers.ServletHandler.handleRequest(ServletHandler.java:86) at io.undertow.servlet.handlers.FilterHandler.handleRequest(FilterHandler.java:82) at io.undertow.servlet.handlers.security.ServletSecurityRoleHandler.handleRequest(ServletSecurityRoleHandler.java:62) at io.undertow.servlet.handlers.ServletDispatchingHandler.handleRequest(ServletDispatchingHandler.java:36) at io.undertow.server.handlers.PredicateHandler.handleRequest(PredicateHandler.java:43) at io.undertow.server.handlers.PredicateHandler.handleRequest(PredicateHandler.java:43) at io.undertow.server.handlers.PredicateHandler.handleRequest(PredicateHandler.java:43) at io.undertow.servlet.handlers.ServletInitialHandler.dispatchRequest(ServletInitialHandler.java:250) at io.undertow.servlet.handlers.ServletInitialHandler.dispatchToPath(ServletInitialHandler.java:193) at io.undertow.servlet.spec.RequestDispatcherImpl.forward(RequestDispatcherImpl.java:160) at org.apache.struts2.dispatcher.ServletDispatcherResult.doExecute(ServletDispatcherResult.java:164) at org.apache.struts2.dispatcher.StrutsResultSupport.execute(StrutsResultSupport.java:186) at com.opensymphony.xwork2.DefaultActionInvocation.executeResult(DefaultActionInvocation.java:371) at com.opensymphony.xwork2.DefaultActionInvocation.invoke(DefaultActionInvocation.java:275) at org.apache.struts2.interceptor.debugging.DebuggingInterceptor.intercept(DebuggingInterceptor.java:256) at com.opensymphony.xwork2.DefaultActionInvocation.invoke(DefaultActionInvocation.java:246) at com.opensymphony.xwork2.interceptor.DefaultWorkflowInterceptor.doIntercept(DefaultWorkflowInterceptor.java:167) at com.opensymphony.xwork2.interceptor.MethodFilterInterceptor.intercept(MethodFilterInterceptor.java:98) at com.opensymphony.xwork2.DefaultActionInvocation.invoke(DefaultActionInvocation.java:246) at com.opensymphony.xwork2.validator.ValidationInterceptor.doIntercept(ValidationInterceptor.java:265) at org.apache.struts2.interceptor.validation.AnnotationValidationInterceptor.doIntercept(AnnotationValidationInterceptor.java:68) at com.opensymphony.xwork2.interceptor.MethodFilterInterceptor.intercept(MethodFilterInterceptor.java:98) at com.opensymphony.xwork2.DefaultActionInvocation.invoke(DefaultActionInvocation.java:246) at com.opensymphony.xwork2.interceptor.ConversionErrorInterceptor.intercept(ConversionErrorInterceptor.java:138) at com.opensymphony.xwork2.DefaultActionInvocation.invoke(DefaultActionInvocation.java:246) at com.opensymphony.xwork2.interceptor.ParametersInterceptor.doIntercept(ParametersInterceptor.java:239) at com.opensymphony.xwork2.interceptor.MethodFilterInterceptor.intercept(MethodFilterInterceptor.java:98) at com.opensymphony.xwork2.DefaultActionInvocation.invoke(DefaultActionInvocation.java:246) at com.opensymphony.xwork2.interceptor.ParametersInterceptor.doIntercept(ParametersInterceptor.java:239) at com.opensymphony.xwork2.interceptor.MethodFilterInterceptor.intercept(MethodFilterInterceptor.java:98) at com.opensymphony.xwork2.DefaultActionInvocation.invoke(DefaultActionInvocation.java:246) at com.opensymphony.xwork2.interceptor.StaticParametersInterceptor.intercept(StaticParametersInterceptor.java:191) at com.opensymphony.xwork2.DefaultActionInvocation.invoke(DefaultActionInvocation.java:246) at org.apache.struts2.interceptor.MultiselectInterceptor.intercept(MultiselectInterceptor.java:73) at com.opensymphony.xwork2.DefaultActionInvocation.invoke(DefaultActionInvocation.java:246) at org.apache.struts2.interceptor.CheckboxInterceptor.intercept(CheckboxInterceptor.java:91) at com.opensymphony.xwork2.DefaultActionInvocation.invoke(DefaultActionInvocation.java:246) at org.apache.struts2.interceptor.FileUploadInterceptor.intercept(FileUploadInterceptor.java:252) at com.opensymphony.xwork2.DefaultActionInvocation.invoke(DefaultActionInvocation.java:246) at com.opensymphony.xwork2.interceptor.ModelDrivenInterceptor.intercept(ModelDrivenInterceptor.java:100) at com.opensymphony.xwork2.DefaultActionInvocation.invoke(DefaultActionInvocation.java:246) at com.opensymphony.xwork2.interceptor.ScopedModelDrivenInterceptor.intercept(ScopedModelDrivenInterceptor.java:141) at com.opensymphony.xwork2.DefaultActionInvocation.invoke(DefaultActionInvocation.java:246) at com.opensymphony.xwork2.interceptor.ChainingInterceptor.intercept(ChainingInterceptor.java:145) at com.opensymphony.xwork2.DefaultActionInvocation.invoke(DefaultActionInvocation.java:246) at com.opensymphony.xwork2.interceptor.PrepareInterceptor.doIntercept(PrepareInterceptor.java:171) at com.opensymphony.xwork2.interceptor.MethodFilterInterceptor.intercept(MethodFilterInterceptor.java:98) at com.opensymphony.xwork2.DefaultActionInvocation.invoke(DefaultActionInvocation.java:246) at com.opensymphony.xwork2.interceptor.I18nInterceptor.intercept(I18nInterceptor.java:161) at com.opensymphony.xwork2.DefaultActionInvocation.invoke(DefaultActionInvocation.java:246) at org.apache.struts2.interceptor.ServletConfigInterceptor.intercept(ServletConfigInterceptor.java:164) at com.opensymphony.xwork2.DefaultActionInvocation.invoke(DefaultActionInvocation.java:246) at com.opensymphony.xwork2.interceptor.AliasInterceptor.intercept(AliasInterceptor.java:193) at com.opensymphony.xwork2.DefaultActionInvocation.invoke(DefaultActionInvocation.java:246) at com.opensymphony.xwork2.interceptor.ExceptionMappingInterceptor.intercept(ExceptionMappingInterceptor.java:189) at com.opensymphony.xwork2.DefaultActionInvocation.invoke(DefaultActionInvocation.java:246) at org.apache.struts2.impl.StrutsActionProxy.execute(StrutsActionProxy.java:54) at org.apache.struts2.dispatcher.Dispatcher.serviceAction(Dispatcher.java:563) at org.apache.struts2.dispatcher.ng.ExecuteOperations.executeAction(ExecuteOperations.java:77) at org.apache.struts2.dispatcher.ng.filter.StrutsPrepareAndExecuteFilter.doFilter(StrutsPrepareAndExecuteFilter.java:99) at com.pub2web.webutils.web.filter.FilterWrapper.doFilter(FilterWrapper.java:124) at io.undertow.servlet.core.ManagedFilter.doFilter(ManagedFilter.java:60) at io.undertow.servlet.handlers.FilterHandler$FilterChainImpl.doFilter(FilterHandler.java:132) at com.pub2web.accesscontrol.web.filter.AuditFilter.doFilter(AuditFilter.java:61) at io.undertow.servlet.core.ManagedFilter.doFilter(ManagedFilter.java:60) at io.undertow.servlet.handlers.FilterHandler$FilterChainImpl.doFilter(FilterHandler.java:132) at com.pub2web.authentication.servlet.ImplicitAuthenticationFilter.doFilter(ImplicitAuthenticationFilter.java:230) at io.undertow.servlet.core.ManagedFilter.doFilter(ManagedFilter.java:60) at io.undertow.servlet.handlers.FilterHandler$FilterChainImpl.doFilter(FilterHandler.java:132) at com.pub2web.contenttools.filter.ModificationInfoFilter.doFilter(ModificationInfoFilter.java:162) at io.undertow.servlet.core.ManagedFilter.doFilter(ManagedFilter.java:60) at io.undertow.servlet.handlers.FilterHandler$FilterChainImpl.doFilter(FilterHandler.java:132) at com.pub2web.contenttools.filter.WeblogMonthFilter.doFilter(WeblogMonthFilter.java:107) at io.undertow.servlet.core.ManagedFilter.doFilter(ManagedFilter.java:60) at io.undertow.servlet.handlers.FilterHandler$FilterChainImpl.doFilter(FilterHandler.java:132) at com.pub2web.contenttools.filter.RdfsLabelFilter.doFilter(RdfsLabelFilter.java:100) at io.undertow.servlet.core.ManagedFilter.doFilter(ManagedFilter.java:60) at io.undertow.servlet.handlers.FilterHandler$FilterChainImpl.doFilter(FilterHandler.java:132) at com.ingenta.servlet.filter.AbstractFilter.doFilter(AbstractFilter.java:120) at io.undertow.servlet.core.ManagedFilter.doFilter(ManagedFilter.java:60) at io.undertow.servlet.handlers.FilterHandler$FilterChainImpl.doFilter(FilterHandler.java:132) at com.cj.trim.trimFilter.doFilter(Unknown Source) at io.undertow.servlet.core.ManagedFilter.doFilter(ManagedFilter.java:60) at io.undertow.servlet.handlers.FilterHandler$FilterChainImpl.doFilter(FilterHandler.java:132) at com.pub2web.plugin.sales.geolocation.web.consumption.filter.PointOfConsumptionCountryFilter.doFilter(PointOfConsumptionCountryFilter.java:197) at io.undertow.servlet.core.ManagedFilter.doFilter(ManagedFilter.java:60) at io.undertow.servlet.handlers.FilterHandler$FilterChainImpl.doFilter(FilterHandler.java:132) at com.pub2web.platform.geolocation.web.filter.GeolocationFilter.doFilter(GeolocationFilter.java:97) at io.undertow.servlet.core.ManagedFilter.doFilter(ManagedFilter.java:60) at io.undertow.servlet.handlers.FilterHandler$FilterChainImpl.doFilter(FilterHandler.java:132) at com.ingenta.servlet.filter.NameFilter.doFilter(NameFilter.java:199) at io.undertow.servlet.core.ManagedFilter.doFilter(ManagedFilter.java:60) at io.undertow.servlet.handlers.FilterHandler$FilterChainImpl.doFilter(FilterHandler.java:132) at com.ingenta.servlet.filter.AbstractFilter.doFilter(AbstractFilter.java:120) at io.undertow.servlet.core.ManagedFilter.doFilter(ManagedFilter.java:60) at io.undertow.servlet.handlers.FilterHandler$FilterChainImpl.doFilter(FilterHandler.java:132) at com.ingenta.servlet.filter.NameFilter.doFilter(NameFilter.java:199) at io.undertow.servlet.core.ManagedFilter.doFilter(ManagedFilter.java:60) at io.undertow.servlet.handlers.FilterHandler$FilterChainImpl.doFilter(FilterHandler.java:132) at com.pub2web.accesscontrol.web.filter.ActivatedUserFilter.doFilter(ActivatedUserFilter.java:130) at io.undertow.servlet.core.ManagedFilter.doFilter(ManagedFilter.java:60) at io.undertow.servlet.handlers.FilterHandler$FilterChainImpl.doFilter(FilterHandler.java:132) at com.pub2web.webutils.web.filter.locator.LocatorFilter.doFilter(LocatorFilter.java:80) at io.undertow.servlet.core.ManagedFilter.doFilter(ManagedFilter.java:60) at io.undertow.servlet.handlers.FilterHandler$FilterChainImpl.doFilter(FilterHandler.java:132) at com.pub2web.webutils.web.filter.ContentBrowsingHistoryFilter.doFilter(ContentBrowsingHistoryFilter.java:125) at io.undertow.servlet.core.ManagedFilter.doFilter(ManagedFilter.java:60) at io.undertow.servlet.handlers.FilterHandler$FilterChainImpl.doFilter(FilterHandler.java:132) at com.pub2web.webutils.web.filter.rewrite.UrlRewriterFilter.doFilter(UrlRewriterFilter.java:284) at io.undertow.servlet.core.ManagedFilter.doFilter(ManagedFilter.java:60) at io.undertow.servlet.handlers.FilterHandler$FilterChainImpl.doFilter(FilterHandler.java:132) at com.pub2web.webutils.web.filter.BrowsingHistoryFilter.doFilter(BrowsingHistoryFilter.java:125) at io.undertow.servlet.core.ManagedFilter.doFilter(ManagedFilter.java:60) at io.undertow.servlet.handlers.FilterHandler$FilterChainImpl.doFilter(FilterHandler.java:132) at com.pub2web.webutils.web.filter.UserAgentWrapFilter.doFilter(UserAgentWrapFilter.java:159) at io.undertow.servlet.core.ManagedFilter.doFilter(ManagedFilter.java:60) at io.undertow.servlet.handlers.FilterHandler$FilterChainImpl.doFilter(FilterHandler.java:132) at com.pub2web.cache.providers.monitoredehcache.MonitoredehcacheFilter.doFilter(MonitoredehcacheFilter.java:33) at io.undertow.servlet.core.ManagedFilter.doFilter(ManagedFilter.java:60) at io.undertow.servlet.handlers.FilterHandler$FilterChainImpl.doFilter(FilterHandler.java:132) at com.pub2web.contenttools.web.filter.ContentAdminModelInjectionFilter.doFilter(ContentAdminModelInjectionFilter.java:69) at org.springframework.web.filter.DelegatingFilterProxy.invokeDelegate(DelegatingFilterProxy.java:237) at org.springframework.web.filter.DelegatingFilterProxy.doFilter(DelegatingFilterProxy.java:167) at io.undertow.servlet.core.ManagedFilter.doFilter(ManagedFilter.java:60) at io.undertow.servlet.handlers.FilterHandler$FilterChainImpl.doFilter(FilterHandler.java:132) at com.ingenta.servlet.filter.AbstractFilter.doFilter(AbstractFilter.java:120) at io.undertow.servlet.core.ManagedFilter.doFilter(ManagedFilter.java:60) at io.undertow.servlet.handlers.FilterHandler$FilterChainImpl.doFilter(FilterHandler.java:132) at com.pub2web.webutils.web.filter.ConditionalHeaderFilter.doFilter(ConditionalHeaderFilter.java:42) at io.undertow.servlet.core.ManagedFilter.doFilter(ManagedFilter.java:60) at io.undertow.servlet.handlers.FilterHandler$FilterChainImpl.doFilter(FilterHandler.java:132) at com.pub2web.journalproduct.web.filter.ThrottlingFilter.doFilter(ThrottlingFilter.java:104) at com.pub2web.journalproduct.web.filter.BypassableThrottlingFilter.doFilter(BypassableThrottlingFilter.java:136) at io.undertow.servlet.core.ManagedFilter.doFilter(ManagedFilter.java:60) at io.undertow.servlet.handlers.FilterHandler$FilterChainImpl.doFilter(FilterHandler.java:132) at com.pub2web.webutils.web.filter.EncodingFilter.doFilter(EncodingFilter.java:82) at io.undertow.servlet.core.ManagedFilter.doFilter(ManagedFilter.java:60) at io.undertow.servlet.handlers.FilterHandler$FilterChainImpl.doFilter(FilterHandler.java:132) at io.undertow.servlet.handlers.FilterHandler.handleRequest(FilterHandler.java:85) at io.undertow.servlet.handlers.security.ServletSecurityRoleHandler.handleRequest(ServletSecurityRoleHandler.java:62) at io.undertow.servlet.handlers.ServletDispatchingHandler.handleRequest(ServletDispatchingHandler.java:36) at org.wildfly.extension.undertow.security.SecurityContextAssociationHandler.handleRequest(SecurityContextAssociationHandler.java:78) at io.undertow.server.handlers.PredicateHandler.handleRequest(PredicateHandler.java:43) at io.undertow.servlet.handlers.security.SSLInformationAssociationHandler.handleRequest(SSLInformationAssociationHandler.java:131) at io.undertow.servlet.handlers.security.ServletAuthenticationCallHandler.handleRequest(ServletAuthenticationCallHandler.java:57) at io.undertow.server.handlers.PredicateHandler.handleRequest(PredicateHandler.java:43) at io.undertow.security.handlers.AbstractConfidentialityHandler.handleRequest(AbstractConfidentialityHandler.java:46) at io.undertow.servlet.handlers.security.ServletConfidentialityConstraintHandler.handleRequest(ServletConfidentialityConstraintHandler.java:64) at io.undertow.security.handlers.AuthenticationMechanismsHandler.handleRequest(AuthenticationMechanismsHandler.java:58) at io.undertow.servlet.handlers.security.CachedAuthenticatedSessionHandler.handleRequest(CachedAuthenticatedSessionHandler.java:70) at io.undertow.security.handlers.SecurityInitialHandler.handleRequest(SecurityInitialHandler.java:76) at io.undertow.server.handlers.PredicateHandler.handleRequest(PredicateHandler.java:43) at org.wildfly.extension.undertow.security.jacc.JACCContextIdHandler.handleRequest(JACCContextIdHandler.java:61) at io.undertow.server.handlers.PredicateHandler.handleRequest(PredicateHandler.java:43) at io.undertow.server.handlers.PredicateHandler.handleRequest(PredicateHandler.java:43) at io.undertow.servlet.handlers.ServletInitialHandler.handleFirstRequest(ServletInitialHandler.java:261) at io.undertow.servlet.handlers.ServletInitialHandler.dispatchRequest(ServletInitialHandler.java:248) at io.undertow.servlet.handlers.ServletInitialHandler.access$000(ServletInitialHandler.java:77) at io.undertow.servlet.handlers.ServletInitialHandler$1.handleRequest(ServletInitialHandler.java:167) at io.undertow.server.Connectors.executeRootHandler(Connectors.java:199) at io.undertow.server.HttpServerExchange$1.run(HttpServerExchange.java:761) at java.util.concurrent.ThreadPoolExecutor.runWorker(ThreadPoolExecutor.java:1142) at java.util.concurrent.ThreadPoolExecutor$Worker.run(ThreadPoolExecutor.java:617) at java.lang.Thread.run(Thread.java:745) Caused by: java.net.URISyntaxException: Illegal character in opaque part at index 44: info:doi/10.1002/(SICI)1098-237X(199811)82:6<679::AID-SCE3>3.0.CO;2-E at java.net.URI$Parser.fail(URI.java:2848) at java.net.URI$Parser.checkChars(URI.java:3021) at java.net.URI$Parser.parse(URI.java:3058) at java.net.URI.(URI.java:588) at java.net.URI.create(URI.java:850) ... 220 more
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6. Anderson LW, Krathwohl DR, Airasian PW, Cruikshank KA, Mayer RE, Pintrich PR, Raths J, Wittrock MC2001A taxonomy for learning, teaching, and assessing: a revision of Bloom’s taxonomy of educational objectivesPearson Allyn and BaconNew York, NY
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/content/journal/jmbe/10.1128/jmbe.v18i1.1197
2017-04-21
2017-07-21

Abstract:

Understanding mechanisms of human disease can be very challenging for students with a basic background in anatomy and biology, and it can be nearly impossible for students without any prior exposure to these basic sciences. We have designed an approach for understanding human disease for learners of various science backgrounds. By using fictional character associations with disease processes, we have anthropomorphized disease components to make the mechanisms accessible to students with little to no science background, while still appealing and exciting to students with significant science backgrounds. By assisting students in the creation of fictional characters to represent disease processes, we have increased student understanding, engagement, enjoyment, and retention of course content.

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