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Building and Breaking the Cell Wall in Four Acts: A Kinesthetic and Tactile Role-Playing Exercise for Teaching Beta-Lactam Antibiotic Mechanism of Action and Resistance

    Authors: John Popovich1, Michelle Stephens1,2,‡, Holly Celaya1,2,‡, Serena Suwarno1,2,‡, Shizuka Barclay1,2,‡, Emily Yee1,2,‡, David A. Dean2,3,‡, Megan Farris1,2,‡, Shelley E. Haydel1,2,4,*
    VIEW AFFILIATIONS HIDE AFFILIATIONS
    Affiliations: 1: School of Life Sciences, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ 85287; 2: Barrett, The Honors College at Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ 85287; 3: School of Molecular Sciences, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ 85287; 4: Biodesign Institute Center for Immunotherapy, Vaccines and Virotherapy, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ 85287
    AUTHOR AND ARTICLE INFORMATION AUTHOR AND ARTICLE INFORMATION
    • Received 28 August 2017 Accepted 10 November 2017 Published 26 January 2018
    • ©2018 Author(s). Published by the American Society for Microbiology
    • [open-access] This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International license (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/ and https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/legalcode), which grants the public the nonexclusive right to copy, distribute, or display the published work.

    • *Corresponding author. Mailing address: Biodesign Institute Center Immunotherapy, Vaccines and Virotherapy, 1001 S. McAllister Avenue, Tempe, AZ 85287-7501. Phone: 480-727-7234. Fax: 480-727-0599. E-mail: [email protected].
    • These authors contributed equally to the manuscript.
    Source: J. Microbiol. Biol. Educ. January 2018 vol. 19 no. 1 doi:10.1128/jmbe.v19i1.1462
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    Abstract:

    “Building and breaking the cell wall” is designed to review the bacterial cell envelope, previously learned in lower-division biology classes, while introducing new topics such as antibiotics and bacterial antibiotic resistance mechanisms. We developed a kinesthetic and tactile modeling activity where students act as cellular components and construct the cell wall. In the first two acts, students model a portion of the gram-positive bacterial cell envelope and then demonstrate in detail how the peptidoglycan is formed. Act III involves student demonstration of the addition of β-lactam antibiotics to the environment and how they inhibit the formation of peptidoglycan, thereby preventing bacterial replication. Using as a model for gram-positive bacteria, students finish the activity (Act IV) by acting out how often becomes resistant to β-lactam antibiotics. A high level of student engagement was observed, and the activity received positive feedback. In an assessment administered prior to and two months after the activity, significant improvements in scores were observed ( < 0.0001), demonstrating increased understanding and retention. This activity allows students to (i) visualize, role play, and kinesthetically “build” the cell envelope and form the peptidoglycan layer, (ii) understand the mechanism of action for β-lactam antibiotics, as well as how gene acquisition and protein changes result in resistance, and (iii) work cooperatively and actively to promote long-term retention of the subject material.

References & Citations

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2. Haydel SE, Stout V 2015 A kinesthetic modeling activity to teach PCR fundamentals CourseSource 2 doi.org/10.24918/cs.2015.8 10.24918/cs.2015.8 http://dx.doi.org/10.24918/cs.2015.8
3. Hoffman EA 2001 Successful application of active learning techniques to introductory microbiology Microbiol Educ 2 5 11 10.1128/154288101X14285805983179 23653538 3633112 http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/154288101X14285805983179
4. Knight JK, Wood WB 2005 Teaching more by lecturing less Cell Biol Educ 4 298 310 10.1187/05-06-0082 16341257 1305892 http://dx.doi.org/10.1187/05-06-0082
5. McClean P, Johnson C, Rogers R, Daniels L, Reber J, Slator BM, Terpstra J, White A 2005 Molecular and cellular biology animations: development and impact on student learning Cell Biol Educ 4 169 179 10.1187/cbe.04-07-0047 15917875 1103718 http://dx.doi.org/10.1187/cbe.04-07-0047
6. McDonald KK, Gnagy SR 2015 Lights, camera, acting transport! Using role-play to teach membrane transport CourseSource 2 doi.org/10.24918/cs.2015.12 10.24918/cs.2015.12 http://dx.doi.org/10.24918/cs.2015.12
7. Brindley JE, Walti C, Blaschke LM 2009 Creating effective collaborative learning groups in an online environment Intl Rev Res Open Dist Learn 10 3 http://www.irrodl.org/index.php/irrodl/article/view/675/1271
8. Coffield F, Moseley D, Hall E, Ecclestone K 2004 Learning styles and pedagogy in post 16 learning: a systematic and critical review Learning and Skills Research Centre London http://hdl.voced.edu.au/10707/69027
9. Riener C, Willingham D 2010 The myth of learning styles Change Mag Higher Learn 42 32 35 10.1080/00091383.2010.503139 http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00091383.2010.503139
10. Elliott SL 2010 Efficacy of role play in concert with lecture to enhance student learning of immunology J Microbiol Biol Educ 11 113 118 10.1128/jmbe.v11i2.211 23653709 3577173 http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/jmbe.v11i2.211
11. Geiser JR 2011 Early embryonic development role-playing in a large introductory biology lecture J Microbiol Biol Educ 12 202 203 10.1128/jmbe.v12i2.315 23653766 3577264 http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/jmbe.v12i2.315
12. Sturges D, Maurer TW, Cole O 2009 Understanding protein synthesis: a role-play approach in large undergraduate human anatomy and physiology classes Adv Physiol Educ 33 103 110 10.1152/advan.00004.2009 19509395 http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/advan.00004.2009
13. Struthers JK, Westran RP 2003 Clinical Bacteriology ASM Press Washington, D.C 10.1128/9781555812768 http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/9781555812768

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2018-01-26
2019-02-21

Abstract:

“Building and breaking the cell wall” is designed to review the bacterial cell envelope, previously learned in lower-division biology classes, while introducing new topics such as antibiotics and bacterial antibiotic resistance mechanisms. We developed a kinesthetic and tactile modeling activity where students act as cellular components and construct the cell wall. In the first two acts, students model a portion of the gram-positive bacterial cell envelope and then demonstrate in detail how the peptidoglycan is formed. Act III involves student demonstration of the addition of β-lactam antibiotics to the environment and how they inhibit the formation of peptidoglycan, thereby preventing bacterial replication. Using as a model for gram-positive bacteria, students finish the activity (Act IV) by acting out how often becomes resistant to β-lactam antibiotics. A high level of student engagement was observed, and the activity received positive feedback. In an assessment administered prior to and two months after the activity, significant improvements in scores were observed ( < 0.0001), demonstrating increased understanding and retention. This activity allows students to (i) visualize, role play, and kinesthetically “build” the cell envelope and form the peptidoglycan layer, (ii) understand the mechanism of action for β-lactam antibiotics, as well as how gene acquisition and protein changes result in resistance, and (iii) work cooperatively and actively to promote long-term retention of the subject material.

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Figures

Image of FIGURE 1

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FIGURE 1

Student satisfaction survey responses. Twenty-seven participating students rated their satisfaction of the activity and their self-reflected learning gains. Chi-squared analysis of grouped positive (strongly agree and agree) and grouped negative (neutral, disagree, and strongly disagree) responses revealed significant ( = 0.0091) satisfaction and perceived learning gains associated with the activity. For the complete survey questions, see Appendix 8 .

Source: J. Microbiol. Biol. Educ. January 2018 vol. 19 no. 1 doi:10.1128/jmbe.v19i1.1462
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Image of FIGURE 2

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FIGURE 2

Comparison of the pre-assessment (PRE) and post-assessment (POST) quiz scores, (A) separated by semester and (B) combined. Students were administered a quiz in a pre-/post-activity manner, with the average (±SEM) scores for each semester displayed. POST indicates that the post-assessment quiz scores from the student co-authors were eliminated from the data analysis. **** < 0.0001; two-way ANOVA, Fisher’s LSD test.

Source: J. Microbiol. Biol. Educ. January 2018 vol. 19 no. 1 doi:10.1128/jmbe.v19i1.1462
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Image of FIGURE 3

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FIGURE 3

Comparisons of individual questions in the pre- and post-assessments in (A) fall 2015, (B) fall 2016, (C) fall 2017, and (D) combined fall 2015, 2016, and 2017 semesters. Students were administered a quiz in a pre-/post-activity manner, with the average (±SEM) percentage for each question displayed. POST indicates that the post-assessments from the student co-authors were eliminated from the data analysis. * < 0.05, ** < 0.01, *** < 0.001 **** < 0.0001; two-way ANOVA, Fisher’s LSD test.

Source: J. Microbiol. Biol. Educ. January 2018 vol. 19 no. 1 doi:10.1128/jmbe.v19i1.1462
Download as Powerpoint

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