The human genome proved surprisingly skimpy, encoding somewhere in the range of a mere 20,000 proteins, on the same order as the fruit fly genome—a psychologically humbling number. However, humans provide a scaffold upon which microbes build elaborate ecosystems and, by young adulthood, each of u...More...
The freshwater polyp Hydra, which belongs to an ancient animal phylum, still must defend itself against pathogens, much like other more complex organisms. Further, microorganisms colonize the epithelial layers of Hydra, much as they colonize other organisms. How do hosts distinguish...More...