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Bacterial Toxins—Staphylococcal Enterotoxin B

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  • Authors: Bettina C. Fries1, Avanish K. Varshney2
  • Editors: James E. Crowe Jr.3, Diana Boraschi4, Rino Rappuoli5
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    Affiliations: 1: Department of Medicine/Infectious Diseases and Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, NY 10461; 2: Department of Medicine/Infectious Diseases and Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, NY 10461; 3: Vanderbilt University School of Medicine, Nashville, TN; 4: National Research Council, Pisa, Italy; 5: Novartis Vaccines, Siena, Italy
  • Source: microbiolspec December 2013 vol. 1 no. 2 doi:10.1128/microbiolspec.AID-0002-2012
  • Received 20 August 2012 Accepted 11 April 2013 Published 13 December 2013
  • Bettina C. Fries, bettina.fries@einstein.yu.edu
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  • Abstract:

    Staphylococcal enterotoxin B is one of the most potent bacterial superantigens that exerts profound toxic effects upon the immune system, leading to stimulation of cytokine release and inflammation. It is associated with food poisoning, nonmenstrual toxic shock, atopic dermatitis, asthma, and nasal polyps in humans. Currently, there is no treatment or vaccine available. Passive immunotherapy using monoclonal antibodies made in several different species has shown significant inhibition in in vitro studies and reduction in staphylococcal enterotoxin B-induced lethal shock in in vivo studies. This should encourage future endeavors to develop these antibodies as therapeutic reagents.

  • Citation: Fries B, Varshney A. 2013. Bacterial Toxins—Staphylococcal Enterotoxin B. Microbiol Spectrum 1(2):AID-0002-2012. doi:10.1128/microbiolspec.AID-0002-2012.

Key Concept Ranking

Toxic Shock Syndrome Toxin 1
0.64586246
Immune Systems
0.53880346
Immune Receptors
0.5262451
0.64586246

References

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2013-12-13
2017-05-26

Abstract:

Staphylococcal enterotoxin B is one of the most potent bacterial superantigens that exerts profound toxic effects upon the immune system, leading to stimulation of cytokine release and inflammation. It is associated with food poisoning, nonmenstrual toxic shock, atopic dermatitis, asthma, and nasal polyps in humans. Currently, there is no treatment or vaccine available. Passive immunotherapy using monoclonal antibodies made in several different species has shown significant inhibition in in vitro studies and reduction in staphylococcal enterotoxin B-induced lethal shock in in vivo studies. This should encourage future endeavors to develop these antibodies as therapeutic reagents.

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Figures

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FIGURE 1

Alignment of amino acid sequences of SEB derived from clinical isolates. Amino acid mutations are highlighted in green. MHC- and TcR-interacting residues are shown in blue and magenta, respectively. doi:10.1128/microbiolspec.AID-0002-2012.f1

Source: microbiolspec December 2013 vol. 1 no. 2 doi:10.1128/microbiolspec.AID-0002-2012
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FIGURE 2

(A) Ribbon structure of SEB protein showing amino acid mutations in isolates. Residues which interact with MHC and TcR are shown in blue and magenta, respectively. (B) View after rotating 180 degrees around vertical axis. doi:10.1128/microbiolspec.AID-0002-2012.f2

Source: microbiolspec December 2013 vol. 1 no. 2 doi:10.1128/microbiolspec.AID-0002-2012
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Tables

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TABLE 1

Major biological and pathological activities of SEB

Source: microbiolspec December 2013 vol. 1 no. 2 doi:10.1128/microbiolspec.AID-0002-2012
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TABLE 2

List of MAbs generated against SEB toxins

Source: microbiolspec December 2013 vol. 1 no. 2 doi:10.1128/microbiolspec.AID-0002-2012

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