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Population Genetics and Molecular Epidemiology of Eukaryotes *

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  • Author: Ronald E. Blanton1
  • Editors: Michael Sadowsky2, Lee W. Riley3
  • VIEW AFFILIATIONS HIDE AFFILIATIONS
    Affiliations: 1: Center for Global Health & Diseases, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, OH 44106; 2: BioTechnology Institute, University of Minnesota, St. Paul, MN; 3: Divisions of Infectious Diseases and Vaccinology, School of Public Health, University of California, Berkeley, Berkeley, CA
  • Source: microbiolspec November 2018 vol. 6 no. 6 doi:10.1128/microbiolspec.AME-0002-2018
  • Received 14 March 2018 Accepted 06 August 2018 Published 02 November 2018
  • Ronald E. Blanton, [email protected]
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  • Abstract:

    Molecular epidemiology uses the distribution and organization of a pathogen’s DNA to understand the distribution and determinants of disease. Since the biology of DNA for eukaryotic pathogens differs substantially from that of bacteria, the analytic approach to their molecular epidemiology can also differ. While many of the genotyping techniques presented earlier in this series, “Advances in Molecular Epidemiology of Infectious Diseases,” can be applied to eukaryotes, the output must be interpreted in the light of how DNA is distributed from one generation to the next. In some cases, parasite populations can be evaluated in ways reminiscent of bacteria. They differ, however, when analyzed as sexually reproducing organisms, where all individuals are unique but the genetic composition of the population does not change unless a limited set of events occurs. It is these events (migration, mutation, nonrandom mating, selection, and genetic drift) that are of interest. At a given time, not all of them are likely to be equally important, so the list can easily be narrowed down to understand the driving forces behind the population as it is now and even what it will look like in the future. The main population characteristics measured to assess these events are differentiation and diversity, interpreted in the light of what is known about the population from observation. The population genetics of eukaryotes is important for planning and evaluation of control measures, surveillance, outbreak investigation, and monitoring of the development and spread of drug resistance.

    *This article is part of a curated collection.

  • Citation: Blanton R. 2018. Population Genetics and Molecular Epidemiology of Eukaryotes * . Microbiol Spectrum 6(6):AME-0002-2018. doi:10.1128/microbiolspec.AME-0002-2018.

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/content/journal/microbiolspec/10.1128/microbiolspec.AME-0002-2018
2018-11-02
2018-11-15

Abstract:

Molecular epidemiology uses the distribution and organization of a pathogen’s DNA to understand the distribution and determinants of disease. Since the biology of DNA for eukaryotic pathogens differs substantially from that of bacteria, the analytic approach to their molecular epidemiology can also differ. While many of the genotyping techniques presented earlier in this series, “Advances in Molecular Epidemiology of Infectious Diseases,” can be applied to eukaryotes, the output must be interpreted in the light of how DNA is distributed from one generation to the next. In some cases, parasite populations can be evaluated in ways reminiscent of bacteria. They differ, however, when analyzed as sexually reproducing organisms, where all individuals are unique but the genetic composition of the population does not change unless a limited set of events occurs. It is these events (migration, mutation, nonrandom mating, selection, and genetic drift) that are of interest. At a given time, not all of them are likely to be equally important, so the list can easily be narrowed down to understand the driving forces behind the population as it is now and even what it will look like in the future. The main population characteristics measured to assess these events are differentiation and diversity, interpreted in the light of what is known about the population from observation. The population genetics of eukaryotes is important for planning and evaluation of control measures, surveillance, outbreak investigation, and monitoring of the development and spread of drug resistance.

*This article is part of a curated collection.

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FIGURE 1

There are 2 nearly identical copies of all chromosomes for diploid organisms, except those responsible for determining sex. The corresponding location on each chromosome is a locus. Specific differences or similarities within a locus are alleles. The identity of both alleles at a locus is the genotype. In this case the genotype is Aa, i.e., heterozygous. Were it AA, the genotype would be homozygous.

Source: microbiolspec November 2018 vol. 6 no. 6 doi:10.1128/microbiolspec.AME-0002-2018
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Image of FIGURE 2
FIGURE 2

Asexual organisms or organelles. Circular genome with bacterial reproduction; diploid linear genome and asexual eukaryotic reproduction. Every time the marker is present, the trait genotype is present. Sexual organisms. Shown are diagrams for sexual reproduction between organisms with diploid chromosomes. Reassortment; recombination and reassortment. Every time the marker is present, the trait genotype may or may not be present.

Source: microbiolspec November 2018 vol. 6 no. 6 doi:10.1128/microbiolspec.AME-0002-2018
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TABLE 1

Selected population genetics programs

Source: microbiolspec November 2018 vol. 6 no. 6 doi:10.1128/microbiolspec.AME-0002-2018

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