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Monitoring Antimicrobial Drug Usage in Animals: Methods and Applications

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  • Authors: Nicole Werner1, Scott McEwen2, Lothar Kreienbrock3
  • Editors: Frank Møller Aarestrup4, Stefan Schwarz5, Jianzhong Shen6, Lina Cavaco7
  • VIEW AFFILIATIONS HIDE AFFILIATIONS
    Affiliations: 1: Department of Biometry, Epidemiology and Information Processing, WHO Collaborating Centre for Research and Training for Health at the Human-Animal-Environment Interface, University of Veterinary Medicine Hannover, Hannover, Federal Republic of Germany; 2: Department of Population Medicine, Ontario Veterinary College, University of Guelph, Guelph, ON, Canada, N1G 2W1; 3: Department of Biometry, Epidemiology and Information Processing, WHO Collaborating Centre for Research and Training for Health at the Human-Animal-Environment Interface, University of Veterinary Medicine Hannover, Hannover, Federal Republic of Germany; 4: Technical University of Denmark, Lyngby, Denmark; 5: Freie Universität Berlin, Berlin, Germany; 6: China Agricultural University, Beijing, China; 7: Statens Serum Institute, Copenhagen, Denmark
  • Source: microbiolspec July 2018 vol. 6 no. 4 doi:10.1128/microbiolspec.ARBA-0015-2017
  • Received 30 March 2017 Accepted 03 January 2018 Published 13 July 2018
  • Nicole Werner, nicole.werner@tiho-hannover.de
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  • Abstract:

    Monitoring antimicrobial drug usage in animals at the national and international levels is important for identification and tracking if and how often quantities are used. This information can be used for many purposes, including raising awareness, comparing use patterns across countries, identifying trends over time, integrating with antimicrobial resistance data, conducting risk assessment, and evaluating the effectiveness of measures to manage antimicrobial usage. The goal of this article is to describe how monitoring systems for antimicrobial drug usage in animals are set up and conducted, using examples from specific countries as well as international efforts. Several key figures and variables are used to describe and evaluate antimicrobial consumption in animals, including the amount in kilograms of active ingredient, standardized units (e.g., number of defined daily dose animals, DDDAs) and number of treatments (e.g., number of used daily doses, UDDA). Data can be collected from a variety of sources including pharmaceutical sales, pharmacy dispensing, veterinary prescriptions, and farm records. In many countries, data analysis and reporting at the national level provide statistics on overall quantities used in animals, in some cases by animal species. Antimicrobial consumption data should be contrasted to the respective animal population, for example, the weight of different categories of livestock and slaughtered animals. Several countries have established antimicrobial usage monitoring systems. Most report overall sales data, but some provide usage data to the levels of animal species and production type. At the international level, several organizations (e.g., European Union, World Organization for Animal Health, World Health Organization) have initiatives to support the development of antimicrobial consumption data collection and reporting. However, these initiatives are ongoing and so far lack harmonization, which will be the biggest challenge for the future.

  • Citation: Werner N, McEwen S, Kreienbrock L. 2018. Monitoring Antimicrobial Drug Usage in Animals: Methods and Applications. Microbiol Spectrum 6(4):ARBA-0015-2017. doi:10.1128/microbiolspec.ARBA-0015-2017.

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2018-07-13
2018-07-18

Abstract:

Monitoring antimicrobial drug usage in animals at the national and international levels is important for identification and tracking if and how often quantities are used. This information can be used for many purposes, including raising awareness, comparing use patterns across countries, identifying trends over time, integrating with antimicrobial resistance data, conducting risk assessment, and evaluating the effectiveness of measures to manage antimicrobial usage. The goal of this article is to describe how monitoring systems for antimicrobial drug usage in animals are set up and conducted, using examples from specific countries as well as international efforts. Several key figures and variables are used to describe and evaluate antimicrobial consumption in animals, including the amount in kilograms of active ingredient, standardized units (e.g., number of defined daily dose animals, DDDAs) and number of treatments (e.g., number of used daily doses, UDDA). Data can be collected from a variety of sources including pharmaceutical sales, pharmacy dispensing, veterinary prescriptions, and farm records. In many countries, data analysis and reporting at the national level provide statistics on overall quantities used in animals, in some cases by animal species. Antimicrobial consumption data should be contrasted to the respective animal population, for example, the weight of different categories of livestock and slaughtered animals. Several countries have established antimicrobial usage monitoring systems. Most report overall sales data, but some provide usage data to the levels of animal species and production type. At the international level, several organizations (e.g., European Union, World Organization for Animal Health, World Health Organization) have initiatives to support the development of antimicrobial consumption data collection and reporting. However, these initiatives are ongoing and so far lack harmonization, which will be the biggest challenge for the future.

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Figures

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FIGURE 1

Annual sales of antimicrobial agents in tons (2014; Australian data from 2009/2010). Note that these figures are not adjusted for livestock population sizes and figures for Australia, Canada and the United States include sales of ionophores and/or coccidiostats (see text).

Source: microbiolspec July 2018 vol. 6 no. 4 doi:10.1128/microbiolspec.ARBA-0015-2017
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FIGURE 2

PCU-corrected sales data (mg/PCU) according to the ESVAC report 2016 ( 72 )

Source: microbiolspec July 2018 vol. 6 no. 4 doi:10.1128/microbiolspec.ARBA-0015-2017
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APPENDIXES

Glossary of Terms and Definitions Describing Antimicrobial Drug Usage in Animals (modified from reference 1 )

Source: microbiolspec July 2018 vol. 6 no. 4 doi:10.1128/microbiolspec.ARBA-0015-2017

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