1887
No metrics data to plot.
The attempt to load metrics for this article has failed.
The attempt to plot a graph for these metrics has failed.

Therapeutic Opportunities in the Vaginal Microbiome

MyBook is a cheap paperback edition of the original book and will be sold at uniform, low price.
Buy this Microbiology Spectrum Article
Price Non-Member $15.00
  • Author: Gregor Reid1
  • Editors: Robert Allen Britton2, Patrice D. Cani3
  • VIEW AFFILIATIONS HIDE AFFILIATIONS
    Affiliations: 1: Lawson Health Research Institute and Departments of Microbiology and Immunology and Surgery, University of Western Ontario, London, Ontario, Canada; 2: Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX; 3: Université catholique de Louvain, Brussels, Belgium
  • Source: microbiolspec June 2017 vol. 5 no. 3 doi:10.1128/microbiolspec.BAD-0001-2016
  • Received 09 December 2016 Accepted 01 January 2017 Published 09 June 2017
  • Gregor Reid, gregor@uwo.ca
image of Therapeutic Opportunities in the Vaginal Microbiome
    Preview this microbiology spectrum article:
    Zoom in
    Zoomout

    Therapeutic Opportunities in the Vaginal Microbiome, Page 1 of 2

    | /docserver/preview/fulltext/microbiolspec/5/3/BAD-0001-2016-1.gif /docserver/preview/fulltext/microbiolspec/5/3/BAD-0001-2016-2.gif
  • Abstract:

    The reproductive tract of females lies at the core of humanity. The immensely complex process that leads to successful reproduction is miraculous yet invariably successful. Microorganisms have always been a cause for concern for their ability to infect this region, yet it is other, nonpathogenic microbial constituents now uncovered by sequencing technologies that offer hope for improving health. The universality of species being associated with health is the basis for therapeutic opportunities, including through engineered strains. The manipulation of these and other beneficial constituents of the microbiota and their functionality, as well as their metabolites, forms the basis for new diagnostics and interventions. Within 20 years, we should see significant improvements in how cervicovaginal health is restored and maintained, thus providing relief to the countless women who suffer from microbiota-associated disorders.

  • Citation: Reid G. 2017. Therapeutic Opportunities in the Vaginal Microbiome. Microbiol Spectrum 5(3):BAD-0001-2016. doi:10.1128/microbiolspec.BAD-0001-2016.

Key Concept Ranking

Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy
0.43653858
0.43653858

References

1. Burton JP, Reid G. 2002. Evaluation of the bacterial vaginal flora of 20 postmenopausal women by direct (Nugent score) and molecular (polymerase chain reaction and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis) techniques. J Infect Dis 186:1770–1780. http://dx.doi.org/10.1086/345761
2. Heinemann C, Reid G. 2005. Vaginal microbial diversity among postmenopausal women with and without hormone replacement therapy. Can J Microbiol 51:777–781. http://dx.doi.org/10.1139/w05-070
3. Thies FL, König W, König B. 2007. Rapid characterization of the normal and disturbed vaginal microbiota by application of 16S rRNA gene terminal RFLP fingerprinting. J Med Microbiol 56:755–761. http://dx.doi.org/10.1099/jmm.0.46562-0
4. Brown CJ, Wong M, Davis CC, Kanti A, Zhou X, Forney LJ. 2007. Preliminary characterization of the normal microbiota of the human vulva using cultivation-independent methods. J Med Microbiol 56:271–276. http://dx.doi.org/10.1099/jmm.0.46607-0
5. Schellenberg J, Links MG, Hill JE, Dumonceaux TJ, Peters GA, Tyler S, Ball TB, Severini A, Plummer FA. 2009. Pyrosequencing of the chaperonin-60 universal target as a tool for determining microbial community composition. Appl Environ Microbiol 75:2889–2898. http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/AEM.01640-08
6. Kim TK, Thomas SM, Ho M, Sharma S, Reich CI, Frank JA, Yeater KM, Biggs DR, Nakamura N, Stumpf R, Leigh SR, Tapping RI, Blanke SR, Slauch JM, Gaskins HR, Weisbaum JS, Olsen GJ, Hoyer LL, Wilson BA. 2009. Heterogeneity of vaginal microbial communities within individuals. J Clin Microbiol 47:1181–1189. http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/JCM.00854-08
7. Hummelen R, Fernandes AD, Macklaim JM, Dickson RJ, Changalucha J, Gloor GB, Reid G. 2010. Deep sequencing of the vaginal microbiota of women with HIV. PLoS One 5:e12078. http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0012078 [PubMed]
8. Ravel J, Gajer P, Abdo Z, Schneider GM, Koenig SS, McCulle SL, Karlebach S, Gorle R, Russell J, Tacket CO, Brotman RM, Davis CC, Ault K, Peralta L, Forney LJ. 2011. Vaginal microbiome of reproductive-age women. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 108(Suppl 1):4680–4687. http://dx.doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1002611107
9. Gajer P, Brotman RM, Bai G, Sakamoto J, Schütte UM, Zhong X, Koenig SS, Fu L, Ma ZS, Zhou X, Abdo Z, Forney LJ, Ravel J. 2012. Temporal dynamics of the human vaginal microbiota. Sci Transl Med 4:132ra52. http://dx.doi.org/10.1126/scitranslmed.3003605
10. Wylie KM, Mihindukulasuriya KA, Zhou Y, Sodergren E, Storch GA, Weinstock GM. 2014. Metagenomic analysis of double-stranded DNA viruses in healthy adults. BMC Biol 12:71. http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12915-014-0071-7 [PubMed]
11. DiGiulio DB, Callahan BJ, McMurdie PJ, Costello EK, Lyell DJ, Robaczewska A, Sun CL, Goltsman DS, Wong RJ, Shaw G, Stevenson DK, Holmes SP, Relman DA. 2015. Temporal and spatial variation of the human microbiota during pregnancy. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 112:11060–11065. http://dx.doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1502875112
12. Tamames J, Abellán JJ, Pignatelli M, Camacho A, Moya A. 2010. Environmental distribution of prokaryotic taxa. BMC Microbiol 10:85. http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1471-2180-10-85 [PubMed]
13. Dridi B, Raoult D, Drancourt M. 2011. Archaea as emerging organisms in complex human microbiomes. Anaerobe 17:56–63. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.anaerobe.2011.03.001
14. Hirt RP, Sherrard J. 2015. Trichomonas vaginalis origins, molecular pathobiology and clinical considerations. Curr Opin Infect Dis 28:72–79. http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/QCO.0000000000000128
15. Borgdorff H, Verwijs MC, Wit FW, Tsivtsivadze E, Ndayisaba GF, Verhelst R, Schuren FH, van de Wijgert JH. 2015. The impact of hormonal contraception and pregnancy on sexually transmitted infections and on cervicovaginal microbiota in African sex workers. Sex Transm Dis 42:143–152. http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/OLQ.0000000000000245
16. Ling Z, Liu X, Chen X, Zhu H, Nelson KE, Xia Y, Li L, Xiang C. 2011. Diversity of cervicovaginal microbiota associated with female lower genital tract infections. Microb Ecol 61:704–714. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00248-011-9813-z [PubMed]
17. Zheng NN, Guo XC, Lv W, Chen XX, Feng GF. 2013. Characterization of the vaginal fungal flora in pregnant diabetic women by 18S rRNA sequencing. Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis 32:1031–1040. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10096-013-1847-3
18. Mitchell CM, Haick A, Nkwopara E, Garcia R, Rendi M, Agnew K, Fredricks DN, Eschenbach D. 2015. Colonization of the upper genital tract by vaginal bacterial species in nonpregnant women. Am J Obstet Gynecol 212:611.e1–611.e9. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ajog.2014.11.043
19. Muzny CA, Sunesara IR, Kumar R, Mena LA, Griswold ME, Martin DH, Lefkowitz EJ, Schwebke JR, Swiatlo E. 2013. Characterization of the vaginal microbiota among sexual risk behavior groups of women with bacterial vaginosis. PLoS One 8:e80254. http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0080254
20. Di Bella JM, Bao Y, Gloor GB, Burton JP, Reid G. 2013. High throughput sequencing methods and analysis for microbiome research. J Microbiol Methods 95:401–414. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.mimet.2013.08.011
21. Fernandes AD, Reid JN, Macklaim JM, McMurrough TA, Edgell DR, Gloor GB. 2014. Unifying the analysis of high-throughput sequencing datasets: characterizing RNA-seq, 16S rRNA gene sequencing and selective growth experiments by compositional data analysis. Microbiome 2:15. http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/2049-2618-2-15
22. Brooks JP, Edwards DJ, Harwich MD II, Rivera MC, Fettweis JM, Serrano MG, Reris RA, Sheth NU, Huang B, Girerd P, Vaginal Microbiome Consortium, Strauss JF III, Jefferson KK, Buck GA. 2015. The truth about metagenomics: quantifying and counteracting bias in 16S rRNA studies. BMC Microbiol 15:66. http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12866-015-0351-6
23. Macklaim JM, Fernandes AD, Di Bella JM, Hammond JA, Reid G, Gloor GB. 2013. Comparative meta-RNA-seq of the vaginal microbiota and differential expression by Lactobacillus iners in health and dysbiosis. Microbiome 1:12. http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/2049-2618-1-12
24. McGroarty JA, Reid G, Bruce AW. 1994. The influence of nonoxynol-9-containing spermicides on urogenital infection. J Urol 152:831–833. [PubMed]
25. Reid G, Bruce AW, Cook RL, Llano M. 1990. Effect on urogenital flora of antibiotic therapy for urinary tract infection. Scand J Infect Dis 22:43–47. http://dx.doi.org/10.3109/00365549009023118
26. Ravel J, Gajer P, Fu L, Mauck CK, Koenig SS, Sakamoto J, Motsinger-Reif AA, Doncel GF, Zeichner SL. 2012. Twice-daily application of HIV microbicides alter the vaginal microbiota. MBio 3:e00370-12. http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/mBio.00370-12
27. Brown JM, Hess KL, Brown S, Murphy C, Waldman AL, Hezareh M. 2013. Intravaginal practices and risk of bacterial vaginosis and candidiasis infection among a cohort of women in the United States. Obstet Gynecol 121:773–780. http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/AOG.0b013e31828786f8
28. Mayer BT, Srinivasan S, Fiedler TL, Marrazzo JM, Fredricks DN, Schiffer JT. 2015. Rapid and profound shifts in the vaginal microbiota following antibiotic treatment for bacterial vaginosis. J Infect Dis 212:793–802. http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/infdis/jiv079
29. de Louvois J, Hurley R, Stanley VC. 1975. Microbial flora of the lower genital tract during pregnancy: relationship to morbidity. J Clin Pathol 28:731–735. http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/jcp.28.9.731
30. Bruce AW, Chadwick P, Hassan A, VanCott GF. 1973. Recurrent urethritis in women. Can Med Assoc J 108:973–976. [PubMed]
31. Schellenberg JJ, Dumonceaux TJ, Hill JE, Kimani J, Jaoko W, Wachihi C, Mungai JN, Lane M, Fowke KR, Ball TB, Plummer FA. 2012. Selection, phenotyping and identification of acid and hydrogen peroxide producing bacteria from vaginal samples of Canadian and East African women. PLoS One 7:e41217. http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0041217
32. Velraeds MM, van der Mei HC, Reid G, Busscher HJ. 1997. Inhibition of initial adhesion of uropathogenic Enterococcus faecalis to solid substrata by an adsorbed biosurfactant layer from Lactobacillus acidophilus. Urology 49:790–794. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0090-4295(97)00065-4
33. Velraeds MM, van de Belt-Gritter B, van der Mei HC, Reid G, Busscher HJ. 1998. Interference in initial adhesion of uropathogenic bacteria and yeasts to silicone rubber by a Lactobacillus acidophilus biosurfactant. J Med Microbiol 47:1081–1085. http://dx.doi.org/10.1099/00222615-47-12-1081
34. Absolom DR, Lamberti FV, Policova Z, Zingg W, van Oss CJ, Neumann AW. 1983. Surface thermodynamics of bacterial adhesion. Appl Environ Microbiol 46:90–97. [PubMed]
35. Velraeds MMC, van der Mei HC, Reid G, Busscher HJ. 1996. Physicochemical and biochemical characterization of biosurfactants released from Lactobacillus strains. Colloids Surf B Biointerfaces 8:51–61. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0927-7765(96)01297-0
36. Roelants SL, Ciesielska K, De Maeseneire SL, Moens H, Everaert B, Verweire S, Denon Q, Vanlerberghe B, Van Bogaert IN, Van der Meeren P, Devreese B, Soetaert W. 2016. Towards the industrialization of new biosurfactants: biotechnological opportunities for the lactone esterase gene from Starmerella bombicola. Biotechnol Bioeng 113:550–559. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/bit.25815
37. Reid G, Younes JA, Van der Mei HC, Gloor GB, Knight R, Busscher HJ. 2011. Microbiota restoration: natural and supplemented recovery of human microbial communities. Nat Rev Microbiol 9:27–38. http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/nrmicro2473 [PubMed]
38. Stoyancheva G, Marzotto M, Dellaglio F, Torriani S. 2014. Bacteriocin production and gene sequencing analysis from vaginal Lactobacillus strains. Arch Microbiol 196:645–653. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00203-014-1003-1
39. Anukam KC, Macklaim JM, Gloor GB, Reid G, Boekhorst J, Renckens B, van Hijum SA, Siezen RJ. 2013. Genome sequence of Lactobacillus pentosus KCA1: vaginal isolate from a healthy premenopausal woman. PLoS One 8:e59239. http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0059239
40. Verani JR, McGee L, Schrag SJ, Division of Bacterial Diseases, National Center for Immunization and Respiratory Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). 2010. Prevention of perinatal group B streptococcal disease--revised guidelines from CDC, 2010. MMWR Recomm Rep 59(RR-10):1–36. [PubMed]
41. Patras KA, Wescombe PA, Rösler B, Hale JD, Tagg JR, Doran KS. 2015. Streptococcus salivarius K12 limits group B Streptococcus vaginal colonization. Infect Immun 83:3438–3444. http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/IAI.00409-15
42. Li J, Wang W, Xu SX, Magarvey NA, McCormick JK. 2011. Lactobacillus reuteri-produced cyclic dipeptides quench agr-mediated expression of toxic shock syndrome toxin-1 in staphylococci. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 108:3360–3365. http://dx.doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1017431108
43. Gutiérrez-Barranquero JA, Reen FJ, McCarthy RR, O’Gara F. 2015. Deciphering the role of coumarin as a novel quorum sensing inhibitor suppressing virulence phenotypes in bacterial pathogens. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 99:3303–3316. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00253-015-6436-1
44. Ojala T, Kankainen M, Castro J, Cerca N, Edelman S, Westerlund-Wikström B, Paulin L, Holm L, Auvinen P. 2014. Comparative genomics of Lactobacillus crispatus suggests novel mechanisms for the competitive exclusion of Gardnerella vaginalis. BMC Genomics 15:1070. http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1471-2164-15-1070
45. Kirjavainen PK, Laine RM, Carter D, Hammond J-A, Reid G. 2008. Expression of anti-microbial defense factors in vaginal mucosa following exposure to Lactobacillus rhamnosus GR-1. Int J Probiotics 3:99–106.
46. Orlando A, Linsalata M, Notarnicola M, Tutino V, Russo F. 2014. Lactobacillus GG restoration of the gliadin induced epithelial barrier disruption: the role of cellular polyamines. BMC Microbiol 14:19. http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1471-2180-14-19
47. Garcia AF, Benchimol M, Alderete JF. 2005. Trichomonas vaginalis polyamine metabolism is linked to host cell adherence and cytotoxicity. Infect Immun 73:2602–2610. http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/IAI.73.5.2602-2610.2005
48. Hickey RJ, Abdo Z, Zhou X, Nemeth K, Hansmann M, Osborn TW III, Wang F, Forney LJ. 2013. Effects of tampons and menses on the composition and diversity of vaginal microbial communities over time. BJOG 120:695–704, discussion 704–706. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/1471-0528.12151 [PubMed]
49. Mobley HL, Alteri CJ. 2015. Development of a vaccine against Escherichia coli urinary tract infections. Pathogens 5(1).pii:E1 http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/pathogens5010001
50. Sabharwal N, Chhibber S, Harjai K. 2016. Divalent flagellin immunotherapy provides homologous and heterologous protection in experimental urinary tract infections in mice. Int J Med Microbiol 306:29–37. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijmm.2015.11.002
51. Harrison C, Britt H, Garland S, Conway L, Stein A, Pirotta M, Fairley C. 2014. Decreased management of genital warts in young women in Australian general practice post introduction of national HPV vaccination program: results from a nationally representative cross-sectional general practice study. PLoS One 9:e105967. http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0105967
52. Lazar E, Varga R. 2011. Gynevac-a vaccine, containing lactobacillus for therapy and prevention of bacterial vaginosis and related diseases. Akush Ginekol (Sofiia) 50:36–42.
53. Demont A, Hacini-Rachinel F, Doucet-Ladevèze R, Ngom-Bru C, Mercenier A, Prioult G, Blanchard C. 2016. Live and heat-treated probiotics differently modulate IL10 mRNA stabilization and microRNA expression. J Allergy Clin Immunol 137:1264–7.e1, 10. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jaci.2015.08.033 [PubMed]
54. Donders GG, Vereecken A, Bosmans E, Dekeersmaecker A, Salembier G, Spitz B. 2002. Definition of a type of abnormal vaginal flora that is distinct from bacterial vaginosis: aerobic vaginitis. BJOG 109:34–43. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1471-0528.2002.00432.x
55. Gajer P, Brotman RM, Bai G, Sakamoto J, Schütte UM, Zhong X, Koenig SS, Fu L, Ma ZS, Zhou X, Abdo Z, Forney LJ, Ravel J. 2012. Temporal dynamics of the human vaginal microbiota. Sci Transl Med 4:132ra52. http://dx.doi.org/10.1126/scitranslmed.3003605
56. Yeoman CJ, Thomas SM, Miller ME, Ulanov AV, Torralba M, Lucas S, Gillis M, Cregger M, Gomez A, Ho M, Leigh SR, Stumpf R, Creedon DJ, Smith MA, Weisbaum JS, Nelson KE, Wilson BA, White BA. 2013. A multi-omic systems-based approach reveals metabolic markers of bacterial vaginosis and insight into the disease. PLoS One 8:e56111. http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0056111
57. McMillan A, Rulisa S, Sumarah M, Macklaim JM, Renaud J, Bisanz JE, Gloor GB, Reid G. 2015. A multi-platform metabolomics approach identifies highly specific biomarkers of bacterial diversity in the vagina of pregnant and non-pregnant women. Sci Rep 5:14174. http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/srep14174
58. Srinivasan S, Morgan MT, Fiedler TL, Djukovic D, Hoffman NG, Raftery D, Marrazzo JM, Fredricks DN. 2015. Metabolic signatures of bacterial vaginosis. mBio 6:e00204–e00215. http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/mBio.00204-15
59. Steidler L, Wells JM, Raeymaekers A, Vandekerckhove J, Fiers W, Remaut E. 1995. Secretion of biologically active murine interleukin-2 by Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis. Appl Environ Microbiol 61:1627–1629. [PubMed]
60. Steidler L, Neirynck S, Huyghebaert N, Snoeck V, Vermeire A, Goddeeris B, Cox E, Remon JP, Remaut E. 2003. Biological containment of genetically modified Lactococcus lactis for intestinal delivery of human interleukin 10. Nat Biotechnol 21:785–789. http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/nbt840
61. Vandenbroucke K, Hans W, Van Huysse J, Neirynck S, Demetter P, Remaut E, Rottiers P, Steidler L. 2004. Active delivery of trefoil factors by genetically modified Lactococcus lactis prevents and heals acute colitis in mice. Gastroenterology 127:502–513. http://dx.doi.org/10.1053/j.gastro.2004.05.020
62. Mercenier A, Müller-Alouf H, Grangette C. 2000. Lactic acid bacteria as live vaccines. Curr Issues Mol Biol 2:17–25 [PubMed]
63. Chang TL, Chang CH, Simpson DA, Xu Q, Martin PK, Lagenaur LA, Schoolnik GK, Ho DD, Hillier SL, Holodniy M, Lewicki JA, Lee PP. 2003. Inhibition of HIV infectivity by a natural human isolate of Lactobacillus jensenii engineered to express functional two-domain CD4. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 100:11672–11677. http://dx.doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1934747100
64. Marcobal A, Liu X, Zhang W, Dimitrov A, Jia L, Lee PP, Fouts T, Parks TP, Lagenaur LA. 2016. Expression of human immunodeficiency virus type 1neutralizing antibody fragments using human vaginal Lactobacillus. AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses 32:964–971. [PubMed]
65. Liu JJ, Reid G, Jiang Y, Turner MS, Tsai CC. 2007. Activity of HIV entry and fusion inhibitors expressed by the human vaginal colonizing probiotic Lactobacillus reuteri RC-14. Cell Microbiol 9:120–130. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1462-5822.2006.00772.x
66. Barbonetti A, Vassallo MR, Cinque B, Filipponi S, Mastromarino P, Cifone MG, Francavilla S, Francavilla F. 2013. Soluble products of Escherichia coli induce mitochondrial dysfunction-related sperm membrane lipid peroxidation which is prevented by lactobacilli. PLoS One 8:e83136. http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0083136
67. Weng SL, Chiu CM, Lin FM, Huang WC, Liang C, Yang T, Yang TL, Liu CY, Wu WY, Chang YA, Chang TH, Huang HD. 2014. Bacterial communities in semen from men of infertile couples: metagenomic sequencing reveals relationships of seminal microbiota to semen quality. PLoS One 9:e110152. http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0110152
68. Fuentes S, van Nood E, Tims S, Heikamp-de Jong I, ter Braak CJ, Keller JJ, Zoetendal EG, de Vos WM. 2014. Reset of a critically disturbed microbial ecosystem: faecal transplant in recurrent Clostridium difficile infection. ISME J 8:1621–1633. http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/ismej.2014.13
69. Anderson GG, Palermo JJ, Schilling JD, Roth R, Heuser J, Hultgren SJ. 2003. Intracellular bacterial biofilm-like pods in urinary tract infections. Science 301:105–107. http://dx.doi.org/10.1126/science.1084550
70. Goneau LW, Hannan TJ, MacPhee RA, Schwartz DJ, Macklaim JM, Gloor GB, Razvi H, Reid G, Hultgren SJ, Burton JP. 2015. Subinhibitory antibiotic therapy alters recurrent urinary tract infection pathogenesis through modulation of bacterial virulence and host immunity. mBio 6:e00356–e15. http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/mBio.00356-15
71. Petrof EO, Gloor GB, Vanner SJ, Weese SJ, Carter D, Daigneault MC, Brown EM, Schroeter K, Allen-Vercoe E. 2013. Stool substitute transplant therapy for the eradication of Clostridium difficile infection: ‘RePOOPulating’ the gut. Microbiome 1:3. http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/2049-2618-1-3
microbiolspec.BAD-0001-2016.citations
cm/5/3
content/journal/microbiolspec/10.1128/microbiolspec.BAD-0001-2016
Loading

Citations loading...

Loading

Article metrics loading...

/content/journal/microbiolspec/10.1128/microbiolspec.BAD-0001-2016
2017-06-09
2017-12-15

Abstract:

The reproductive tract of females lies at the core of humanity. The immensely complex process that leads to successful reproduction is miraculous yet invariably successful. Microorganisms have always been a cause for concern for their ability to infect this region, yet it is other, nonpathogenic microbial constituents now uncovered by sequencing technologies that offer hope for improving health. The universality of species being associated with health is the basis for therapeutic opportunities, including through engineered strains. The manipulation of these and other beneficial constituents of the microbiota and their functionality, as well as their metabolites, forms the basis for new diagnostics and interventions. Within 20 years, we should see significant improvements in how cervicovaginal health is restored and maintained, thus providing relief to the countless women who suffer from microbiota-associated disorders.

Highlighted Text: Show | Hide
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

Figures

Image of FIGURE 1a
FIGURE 1a

Different mechanisms by which beneficial microbes might influence vaginal health.

Source: microbiolspec June 2017 vol. 5 no. 3 doi:10.1128/microbiolspec.BAD-0001-2016
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint
Image of FIGURE 1b
FIGURE 1b

Different mechanisms by which beneficial microbes might influence vaginal health.

Source: microbiolspec June 2017 vol. 5 no. 3 doi:10.1128/microbiolspec.BAD-0001-2016
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint

Supplemental Material

No supplementary material available for this content.

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Please check the format of the address you have entered.
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error