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Microbial Impact on Host Metabolism: Opportunities for Novel Treatments of Nutritional Disorders?

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  • Authors: Hubert Plovier1, Patrice D. Cani3
  • Editors: Robert Allen Britton5, Patrice D. Cani6
  • VIEW AFFILIATIONS HIDE AFFILIATIONS
    Affiliations: 1: WELBIO—Walloon Excellence in Life Sciences and Biotechnology, Louvain Drug Research Institute, Université catholique de Louvain, Brussels, Belgium; 2: Metabolism and Nutrition Research Group, Louvain Drug Research Institute, Université catholique de Louvain, Brussels, Belgium; 3: WELBIO—Walloon Excellence in Life Sciences and Biotechnology, Louvain Drug Research Institute, Université catholique de Louvain, Brussels, Belgium; 4: Metabolism and Nutrition Research Group, Louvain Drug Research Institute, Université catholique de Louvain, Brussels, Belgium; 5: Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX 77030; 6: Université catholique de Louvain, Louvain Drug Research Institute, Brussels 1200, Belgium
  • Source: microbiolspec June 2017 vol. 5 no. 3 doi:10.1128/microbiolspec.BAD-0002-2016
  • Received 09 November 2016 Accepted 01 December 2016 Published 09 June 2017
  • Patrice Cani, patrice.cani@uclouvain.be
image of Microbial Impact on Host Metabolism: Opportunities for Novel Treatments of Nutritional Disorders?
  • Abstract:

    Malnutrition is the cause of major public health concerns worldwide. On the one hand, obesity and associated pathologies (also known as the metabolic syndrome) affect more than 10% of the world population. Such pathologies might arise from an elevated inflammatory tone. We have discovered that the inflammatory properties of high-fat diets were linked to the translocation of lipopolysaccharide (LPS). We proposed a mechanism associating the gut microbiota with the onset of insulin resistance and low-grade inflammation, a phenomenon that we called “metabolic endotoxemia.” We and others have shown that bacteria as well as host-derived immune-related elements control microbial communities and eventually contribute to the phenotype observed during diet-induced obesity, diabetes, and metabolic inflammation. On the other hand, undernutrition is one of the leading causes of death in children. A diet poor in energy and/or nutrients causes incomplete development of the gut microbiota and may profoundly affect energy absorption, initiating stunted growth, edema, and diarrhea. In this review, we discuss how changes in microbiota composition are associated with obesity and undernutrition. We also highlight that opposite consequences exist in terms of energy absorption from the diet (obesity versus undernutrition), but interestingly the two situations share similar defects in term of diversity, functionality, and inflammatory potential.

  • Citation: Plovier H, Cani P. 2017. Microbial Impact on Host Metabolism: Opportunities for Novel Treatments of Nutritional Disorders?. Microbiol Spectrum 5(3):BAD-0002-2016. doi:10.1128/microbiolspec.BAD-0002-2016.
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/content/journal/microbiolspec/10.1128/microbiolspec.BAD-0002-2016
2017-06-09
2018-07-16

Abstract:

Malnutrition is the cause of major public health concerns worldwide. On the one hand, obesity and associated pathologies (also known as the metabolic syndrome) affect more than 10% of the world population. Such pathologies might arise from an elevated inflammatory tone. We have discovered that the inflammatory properties of high-fat diets were linked to the translocation of lipopolysaccharide (LPS). We proposed a mechanism associating the gut microbiota with the onset of insulin resistance and low-grade inflammation, a phenomenon that we called “metabolic endotoxemia.” We and others have shown that bacteria as well as host-derived immune-related elements control microbial communities and eventually contribute to the phenotype observed during diet-induced obesity, diabetes, and metabolic inflammation. On the other hand, undernutrition is one of the leading causes of death in children. A diet poor in energy and/or nutrients causes incomplete development of the gut microbiota and may profoundly affect energy absorption, initiating stunted growth, edema, and diarrhea. In this review, we discuss how changes in microbiota composition are associated with obesity and undernutrition. We also highlight that opposite consequences exist in terms of energy absorption from the diet (obesity versus undernutrition), but interestingly the two situations share similar defects in term of diversity, functionality, and inflammatory potential.

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FIGURE 1

Dysbiosis during undernutrition and the metabolic syndrome: two sides of the same coin? Gut microbiota composition is modified in people suffering from undernutrition as well as the metabolic syndrome, the two extremes of malnutrition. Changes in the composition are associated with opposite consequences in terms of energy absorption from the diet, but lead to similar defects in terms of ecological fitness and inflammatory potential.

Source: microbiolspec June 2017 vol. 5 no. 3 doi:10.1128/microbiolspec.BAD-0002-2016
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