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Microbiota, Liver Diseases, and Alcohol

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  • Authors: Anne-Marie Cassard1, Philippe Gérard2, Gabriel Perlemuter3
  • Editors: Robert Allen Britton5, Patrice D. Cani6
  • VIEW AFFILIATIONS HIDE AFFILIATIONS
    Affiliations: 1: INSERM U996 Inflammation, Chemokines and Immunopathology, DHU Hepatinov, Univ Paris-Sud, Université Paris-Saclay, 92140 Clamart, France; 2: Micalis Institute, INRA, AgroParisTech, Université Paris-Saclay, 78350 Jouy-en-Josas, France; 3: INSERM U996 Inflammation, Chemokines and Immunopathology, DHU Hepatinov, Univ Paris-Sud, Université Paris-Saclay, 92140 Clamart, France; 4: AP-HP, Hepatogastroenterology and Nutrition, Hôpital Antoine-Béclère, Clamart, France; 5: Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX; 6: Université catholique de Louvain, Brussels, Belgium
  • Source: microbiolspec August 2017 vol. 5 no. 4 doi:10.1128/microbiolspec.BAD-0007-2016
  • Received 26 September 2016 Accepted 01 December 2016 Published 25 August 2017
  • Anne-Marie Casssaard, cassard.doulcier@u-psud.fr
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  • Abstract:

    Being overweight and obesity are the leading causes of liver disease in Western countries. Liver damage induced by being overweight can range from steatosis, harmless in its simple form, to steatohepatitis, fibrosis, cirrhosis, and hepatocellular carcinoma. Alcohol consumption is an additional major cause of liver disease. Not all individuals who are overweight or excessively consume alcohol develop nonalcoholic fatty liver diseases (NAFLD) or alcoholic liver disease (ALD) and advanced liver disease. The role of the intestinal microbiota (IM) in the susceptibility to liver disease in this context has been the subject of recent studies. ALD and NAFLD appear to be influenced by the composition of the IM, and dysbiosis is associated with ALD and NAFLD in rodent models and human patient cohorts. Several microbial metabolites, such as short-chain fatty acids and bile acids, are specifically associated with dysbiosis. Recent studies have highlighted the causal role of the IM in the development of liver diseases, and the use of probiotics or prebiotics improves some parameters associated with liver disease. Several studies have made progress in deciphering the mechanisms associated with the modulation of the IM. These data have demonstrated the intimate relationship between the IM and metabolic liver disease, suggesting that targeting the gut microbiota could be a new preventive or therapeutic strategy for these diseases.

  • Citation: Cassard A, Gérard P, Perlemuter G. 2017. Microbiota, Liver Diseases, and Alcohol. Microbiol Spectrum 5(4):BAD-0007-2016. doi:10.1128/microbiolspec.BAD-0007-2016.

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/content/journal/microbiolspec/10.1128/microbiolspec.BAD-0007-2016
2017-08-25
2017-09-20

Abstract:

Being overweight and obesity are the leading causes of liver disease in Western countries. Liver damage induced by being overweight can range from steatosis, harmless in its simple form, to steatohepatitis, fibrosis, cirrhosis, and hepatocellular carcinoma. Alcohol consumption is an additional major cause of liver disease. Not all individuals who are overweight or excessively consume alcohol develop nonalcoholic fatty liver diseases (NAFLD) or alcoholic liver disease (ALD) and advanced liver disease. The role of the intestinal microbiota (IM) in the susceptibility to liver disease in this context has been the subject of recent studies. ALD and NAFLD appear to be influenced by the composition of the IM, and dysbiosis is associated with ALD and NAFLD in rodent models and human patient cohorts. Several microbial metabolites, such as short-chain fatty acids and bile acids, are specifically associated with dysbiosis. Recent studies have highlighted the causal role of the IM in the development of liver diseases, and the use of probiotics or prebiotics improves some parameters associated with liver disease. Several studies have made progress in deciphering the mechanisms associated with the modulation of the IM. These data have demonstrated the intimate relationship between the IM and metabolic liver disease, suggesting that targeting the gut microbiota could be a new preventive or therapeutic strategy for these diseases.

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Figures

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FIGURE 1

Histology of the liver. Paraffin sections (4 μm thick) were stained with hematoxylin and eosin. Images were obtained using a Hamamatsu scanning module (Hamamatsu LX2000) and appropriate software (magnification, ×100). Healthy tissue; steatosis; steatosis with inflammation; fibrosis.

Source: microbiolspec August 2017 vol. 5 no. 4 doi:10.1128/microbiolspec.BAD-0007-2016
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Image of FIGURE 2
FIGURE 2

Intestinal microbiota in liver disease. Diet and alcohol influence the composition of the gut bacteria. Dysbiosis is associated with changes in bacterial metabolites such as SCFA and BAs. The gut barrier is also altered, leading to increased endotoxemia (LPS). Acetaldehyde is specifically produced by the gut bacteria in ALD. Modifications of BAs and activation of their receptors, FXR and TGR5, participate in the development of liver lesions.

Source: microbiolspec August 2017 vol. 5 no. 4 doi:10.1128/microbiolspec.BAD-0007-2016
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Tables

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TABLE 1

Main differences between ALD and NAFLD

Source: microbiolspec August 2017 vol. 5 no. 4 doi:10.1128/microbiolspec.BAD-0007-2016
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TABLE 2

Microbiotas associated with different stages of NAFLD

Source: microbiolspec August 2017 vol. 5 no. 4 doi:10.1128/microbiolspec.BAD-0007-2016
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TABLE 3

Comparison of healthy microbiotas and microbiotas associated with cirrhosis

Source: microbiolspec August 2017 vol. 5 no. 4 doi:10.1128/microbiolspec.BAD-0007-2016

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