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Multifaceted Roles of microRNAs in Host-Bacterial Pathogen Interaction

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  • Authors: Carmen Aguilar1, Miguel Mano2, Ana Eulalio3
  • Editors: Pascale Cossart5, Craig R. Roy6, Philippe Sansonetti7
  • VIEW AFFILIATIONS HIDE AFFILIATIONS
    Affiliations: 1: Host RNA Metabolism Group, Institute for Molecular Infection Biology (IMIB), University of Würzburg, Würzburg, Germany; 2: Functional Genomics and RNA-Based Therapeutics Group, Center for Neuroscience and Cell Biology (CNC), University of Coimbra, Coimbra, Portugal; 3: Host RNA Metabolism Group, Institute for Molecular Infection Biology (IMIB), University of Würzburg, Würzburg, Germany; 4: RNA & Infection Group, Center for Neuroscience and Cell Biology (CNC), University of Coimbra, Coimbra, Portugal; 5: Institut Pasteur, Paris, France; 6: Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut; 7: Institut Pasteur, Paris, France
  • Source: microbiolspec May 2019 vol. 7 no. 3 doi:10.1128/microbiolspec.BAI-0002-2019
  • Received 20 March 2018 Accepted 17 May 2018 Published 31 May 2019
  • Ana Eulalio, [email protected]
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  • Abstract:

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a well-characterized class of small noncoding RNAs that act as major posttranscriptional regulators of gene expression. Accordingly, miRNAs have been associated with a wide range of fundamental biological processes and implicated in human diseases. During the past decade, miRNAs have also been recognized for their role in the complex interplay between the host and bacterial pathogens, either as part of the host response to counteract infection or as a molecular strategy employed by bacteria to subvert host pathways for their own benefit. Importantly, the characterization of downstream miRNA targets and their underlying mechanisms of action has uncovered novel molecular factors and pathways relevant to infection. In this article, we review the current knowledge of the miRNA response to bacterial infection, focusing on different bacterial pathogens, including , , spp., and , among others.

  • Citation: Aguilar C, Mano M, Eulalio A. 2019. Multifaceted Roles of microRNAs in Host-Bacterial Pathogen Interaction. Microbiol Spectrum 7(3):BAI-0002-2019. doi:10.1128/microbiolspec.BAI-0002-2019.

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/content/journal/microbiolspec/10.1128/microbiolspec.BAI-0002-2019
2019-05-31
2019-06-18

Abstract:

MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a well-characterized class of small noncoding RNAs that act as major posttranscriptional regulators of gene expression. Accordingly, miRNAs have been associated with a wide range of fundamental biological processes and implicated in human diseases. During the past decade, miRNAs have also been recognized for their role in the complex interplay between the host and bacterial pathogens, either as part of the host response to counteract infection or as a molecular strategy employed by bacteria to subvert host pathways for their own benefit. Importantly, the characterization of downstream miRNA targets and their underlying mechanisms of action has uncovered novel molecular factors and pathways relevant to infection. In this article, we review the current knowledge of the miRNA response to bacterial infection, focusing on different bacterial pathogens, including , , spp., and , among others.

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FIGURE 1

Overview of the canonical miRNA biogenesis pathway. miRNA genes are transcribed as pri-miRNAs by RNA polymerase II. The main proteins involved in the multistep miRNA processing are indicated. Repression of target gene expression occurs through inhibition of translation and mRNA degradation.

Source: microbiolspec May 2019 vol. 7 no. 3 doi:10.1128/microbiolspec.BAI-0002-2019
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FIGURE 2

Regulation of miRNAs upon infection by bacterial pathogens impacts multiple crucial host cell functions. miRNA modulation upon infection has been shown to be an integral part of the host response or a mechanism exploited by bacteria to promote infection.

Source: microbiolspec May 2019 vol. 7 no. 3 doi:10.1128/microbiolspec.BAI-0002-2019
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FIGURE 3

spp.-induced miRNA changes have a strong impact on autophagy. The autophagic flux is controlled by multiple miRNAs that are regulated as a consequence of mycobacterial infection. Most studies report that miRNA modulation inhibits specific steps of the autophagy pathway, thus impairing bacterial degradation.

Source: microbiolspec May 2019 vol. 7 no. 3 doi:10.1128/microbiolspec.BAI-0002-2019
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TABLE 1

Host cell miRNAs regulated upon infection by bacterial pathogens

Source: microbiolspec May 2019 vol. 7 no. 3 doi:10.1128/microbiolspec.BAI-0002-2019

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