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From Pasteur to Probiotics: A Historical Overview of Cheese and Microbes

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  • Author: Catherine W. Donnelly1
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    Affiliations: 1: Vermont Institute for Artisan Cheese, The University of Vermont, Burlington, VT 05405; 2: University of Vermont, Burlington, VT
  • Source: microbiolspec October 2013 vol. 1 no. 1 doi:10.1128/microbiolspec.CM-0001-12
  • Received 30 August 2012 Accepted 07 November 2012 Published 25 October 2013
  • Catherine W. Donnelly, Catherine.Donnelly@uvm.edu
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  • Abstract:

    Cheese is a food which has been produced for centuries. While cheese was originally developed as a product which extended the shelf life of milk, over time distinct cheese varieties arose, being shaped by geographic, climate, cultural, and economic factors. Global demand for artisan cheeses is creating new economic opportunities. Consumers seeking distinctive products with regional flavor, or , are becoming connoisseurs of hand-crafted cheeses with distinctive tastes and character. These demands have spurred new inquiry into microorganisms used as starter cultures and adjunct cultures, as well as the microbiological consortia of finished cheeses. Such demands have also created new concerns for food safety and international trade. New bacterial pathogens such as O157:H7 and serovar Typhimurium DT104 have emerged in the food supply, causing a reevaluation of the efficacy of traditional cheesemaking procedures to control these pathogens. Similarly, pathogens such as pose problems to susceptible human populations, and cheese can be a vehicle of transmission for this deadly pathogen. With changes in sanitary requirements due to the globalization of the food industry, governments around the world are increasingly requiring assurances of cheese safety. While many governments recognize the safety of traditional artisan cheeses manufactured from raw milk, others are demanding pasteurization of all milk intended for cheesemaking to provide assurance of microbiological safety. In response, new technologies are being proposed to increase cheese safety, but these technologies fundamentally alter the traditional artisan practices and may not enhance microbiological safety. A reevaluation of the safety of traditional artisan practices, validation thereof, and communication of the scientific principles which promote safety will be necessary to enable the continued production of traditional artisan cheeses in global commerce. This also affords the opportunity to more fully explore the microbial diversity and microbial ecology of the great cheeses of the world.

  • Citation: Donnelly C. 2013. From Pasteur to Probiotics: A Historical Overview of Cheese and Microbes. Microbiol Spectrum 1(1):CM-0001-12. doi:10.1128/microbiolspec.CM-0001-12.

References

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12. Rea MC, Grges S, Gelsomino R, Brennan NM, Mounier J, Vancanneyt M, Scherer S, Swings J, Cogan TM. 2007. Stability of the biodiversity of the surface consortia of Gubbeen, a red smear cheese. J Dairy Sci 90:22002210.
13. Crow V, Curry B, Christison M, Hellier K, Holand R, Liu S-Q. 2002. Raw milk flora and NSLAB as adjuncts. Aust J Dairy Technol 57:99105.
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21. D'Amico DJ, Druart MJ, Donnelly CW. 2010. Behavior of Escherichia coli O157:H7 during the manufacture and aging of Gouda and stirred-curd Cheddar cheeses manufactured from raw milk. J Food Prot 73:22172224.
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25. Hochstrasser W, Price WV. 1927. Camembert cheese from pasteurized milk. J Dairy Sci 10:448459.
26. Lafarge V, Ogier J-C, Girard V, Maladen V, Leveau J-Y, Gruss A, Delacroix-Buchet A. 2004. Raw cow milk bacterial population shifts attributable to refrigeration. Appl Environ Microbiol 70:56445650.
27. Quigley L, O'Sullivan O, Beresford TP, Ross RP, Fitzgerald GF, Cotter PD. 2012. High-throughput sequencing detects subpopulations of bacteria not previously associated with artisanal cheeses. Appl Environ Microbiol 78:57175723.
28. Bachmann HP, Spahr U. 1995. The fate of potentially pathogenic bacteria in Swiss hard and semihard cheeses made from raw milk. J Dairy Sci 78:476483.
29. Pellegrino L, Resmini P. 2001. Cheesemaking conditions and compositional characteristics supporting the safety of raw milk cheese Italian Grana. Sci Tec Latt-Cas 52:105114.
30. Food Standards Australia New Zealand (FSANZ). 20 November 2002. Proposal P263safety assessment of raw milk very hard cooked-curd cheeses. Full assessment report. http://www.foodstandards.gov.au/foodstandards/proposals/proposalp263hardrawmilkcheese/p263farexecsummary201809.cfm. Food Standards Australia New Zealand, Canberra, Australia, and Wellington, New Zealand.
31. Westhoff DC. 1978. Heating milk for microbial destruction: a historical outline and update. J Food Prot 41:122130.
32. Corroler D, Mangin I, Desmasures N, Gueguen M. 1998. An ecological study of lactococci isolated from raw milk in the Camembert cheese registered designation of origin area. Appl Environ Microbiol 64:47294735.
33. National Advisory Committee on Microbiological Criteria for Foods. 2006. Requisite scientific parameters for establishing the equivalence of alternative methods of pasteurization. J Food Prot 69:11901216.
34. D'Amico DJ, Druart MJ, Donnelly CW. 2008. The 60 day aging requirement does not ensure safety of bloomy rind cheeses manufactured from raw or pasteurized milk when Listeria monocytogenes are introduced as post-processing contaminants. J Food Prot 71:15631571.
35. Kindstedt PS. The basics of cheesemaking. In Donnelly CW (ed), Cheese and Microbes, in press. ASM Press, Washington, DC.
36. Almena-Aliste M, Mietton B. Cheese classification, characterization, and categorization: a global perspective. In Donnelly CW (ed), Cheese and Microbes, in press. ASM Press, Washington, DC.
37. Lortal S, Licitra G, Valence-Bertel F. Wooden tools: reservoirs of microbial biodiversity in traditional cheesemaking. In Donnelly CW (ed), Cheese and Microbes, in press. ASM Press, Washington, DC.
38. Cogan TM, Goerges S, Gelsomino R, Larpin S, Hohenegger M, Bora N, Jamet E, Rea MC, Mounier J, Vancanneyt M, Guguen M, Desmasures N, Swings J, Goodfellow M, Ward AC, Sebastiani H, Irlinger F, Chamba J-F, Beduhn R, Scherer S. Biodiversity of the surface microbial consortia from Limburger, Reblochon, Livarot, Tilsit, and Gubbeen cheeses. In Donnelly CW (ed), Cheese and Microbes, in press. ASM Press, Washington, DC.
39. Beuvier E, Duboz G. The microbiology of traditional hard and semihard cooked mountain cheeses. In Donnelly CW (ed), Cheese and Microbes, in press. ASM Press, Washington, DC.
40. Marcellino N, Benson DR. The good, the bad, and the ugly: tales of fungus-ripened cheese. In Donnelly CW (ed), Cheese and Microbes, in press. ASM Press, Washington, DC.
41. Wolfe BE, Dutton RJ. Towards an ecosystem approach to cheesemaking. In Donnelly CW (ed), Cheese and Microbes, in press. ASM Press, Washington, DC.
42. D'Amico DJ. Microbiological quality and safety issues in cheesemaking. In Donnelly CW (ed), Cheese and Microbes, in press. ASM Press, Washington, DC.
43. Bnard R, Panckoucke CJ, Plomteux C. 1784. Recueil de Planches de l'Encyclopdie, par ordre de matires, Tome troisime. Panckoucke, Paris, France, and Plomteux, Lige, Belgium.
44. van Leeuwenhoek A. 1674. Letter to the Royal Scoiety, London (7 September 1674), p. 28. In Carey J (ed), Eyewitness to Science: Scientists and Writers Illuminate Natural Phenomena from Fossils to Fractals. Harvard University Press, Cambridge, MA, 1997.
45. U.S. Code of Federal Regulations. 2012. Title 21, Chapter 1, Subchapter B, Part 133. Cheeses and related cheese products. http://www.accessdata.fda.gov/scripts/cdrh/cfdocs/cfcfr/cfrsearch.cfm?cfrpart=133 (accessed 24 June 2013).
46. U.S. Code of Federal Regulations. 2004. Title 7, Chapter 1, Subchapter C, Part 58.439. Cheese from unpasteurized milk. http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/granule/CFR-2004-title7-vol3/CFR-2004-title7-vol3-sec58-439/content-detail.html (accessed 24 June 2013).
47. U.S. Code of Federal Regulations. 2012. Title 21, Chapter 1, Subchapter L, Part 1240. Control of communicable diseases. http://www.accessdata.fda.gov/scripts/cdrh/cfdocs/cfcfr/CFRSearch.cfm?fr=1240.61 (accessed 24 June 2013).
48. Donnelly CW (ed). Cheese and Microbes, in press. ASM Press, Washington, DC.
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2013-10-25
2017-11-18

Abstract:

Cheese is a food which has been produced for centuries. While cheese was originally developed as a product which extended the shelf life of milk, over time distinct cheese varieties arose, being shaped by geographic, climate, cultural, and economic factors. Global demand for artisan cheeses is creating new economic opportunities. Consumers seeking distinctive products with regional flavor, or , are becoming connoisseurs of hand-crafted cheeses with distinctive tastes and character. These demands have spurred new inquiry into microorganisms used as starter cultures and adjunct cultures, as well as the microbiological consortia of finished cheeses. Such demands have also created new concerns for food safety and international trade. New bacterial pathogens such as O157:H7 and serovar Typhimurium DT104 have emerged in the food supply, causing a reevaluation of the efficacy of traditional cheesemaking procedures to control these pathogens. Similarly, pathogens such as pose problems to susceptible human populations, and cheese can be a vehicle of transmission for this deadly pathogen. With changes in sanitary requirements due to the globalization of the food industry, governments around the world are increasingly requiring assurances of cheese safety. While many governments recognize the safety of traditional artisan cheeses manufactured from raw milk, others are demanding pasteurization of all milk intended for cheesemaking to provide assurance of microbiological safety. In response, new technologies are being proposed to increase cheese safety, but these technologies fundamentally alter the traditional artisan practices and may not enhance microbiological safety. A reevaluation of the safety of traditional artisan practices, validation thereof, and communication of the scientific principles which promote safety will be necessary to enable the continued production of traditional artisan cheeses in global commerce. This also affords the opportunity to more fully explore the microbial diversity and microbial ecology of the great cheeses of the world.

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FIGURE 1

Robert Hooke's 1665 depiction of a “hairy mold” colony which was subsequently identified as Mucor. doi:10.1128/microbiolspec.CM-0001-2012.f1

Source: microbiolspec October 2013 vol. 1 no. 1 doi:10.1128/microbiolspec.CM-0001-12
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FIGURE 2

Antique engraving by Charles-Joseph Panckoucke, 1784, depicting wooden cheesemaking tools for Gruyère production. From Recueil de Planches de l'Encyclopédie, par ordre de matières, Tome troisième (43) (author's collection). doi:10.1128/microbiolspec.CM-0001-2012.f2

Source: microbiolspec October 2013 vol. 1 no. 1 doi:10.1128/microbiolspec.CM-0001-12
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FIGURE 3

Map depicting U.S. locations of cheese made on farms in 1849. From reference 17; downloaded from Maps ETC (http://etc.usf.edu/maps). doi:10.1128/microbiolspec.CM-0001-2012.f3

Source: microbiolspec October 2013 vol. 1 no. 1 doi:10.1128/microbiolspec.CM-0001-12
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FIGURE 4

Antique Brie and Coulommiers label from Fromagerie Lorraine Renard-Gillard, located in Biencourt, near Montiers-sur-Saulx, France. Alfred Renard-Gillard worked from 1906 to 1922 with P. Mazé of the Pasteur Institute on improved techniques of cheese production, including the use of pasteurized milk for cheese manufacturing. (Author's collection.) doi:10.1128/microbiolspec.CM-0001-2012.f4

Source: microbiolspec October 2013 vol. 1 no. 1 doi:10.1128/microbiolspec.CM-0001-12
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FIGURE 5

Microbial biodiversity of soft cheese (a), semihard cheese (b), hard cheese (c), and cheese rinds (d). Reproduced with permission from reference 27. doi:10.1128/microbiolspec.CM-0001-2012.f5

Source: microbiolspec October 2013 vol. 1 no. 1 doi:10.1128/microbiolspec.CM-0001-12
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Tables

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TABLE 1

Years of origin of noted cheese varieties a

Source: microbiolspec October 2013 vol. 1 no. 1 doi:10.1128/microbiolspec.CM-0001-12

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