1887
No metrics data to plot.
The attempt to load metrics for this article has failed.
The attempt to plot a graph for these metrics has failed.

The Basics of Cheesemaking

MyBook is a cheap paperback edition of the original book and will be sold at uniform, low price.
  • HTML
    106.14 Kb
  • PDF
    403.77 Kb
  • XML
    94.52 Kb
  • Author: Paul S. Kindstedt1
  • VIEW AFFILIATIONS HIDE AFFILIATIONS
    Affiliations: 1: Department of Nutrition and Food Sciences, University of Vermont, Burlington, VT 05405-0086; 2: University of Vermont, Burlington, VT
  • Source: microbiolspec October 2013 vol. 1 no. 1 doi:10.1128/microbiolspec.CM-0002-2012
  • Received 18 March 2010 Accepted 23 August 2011 Published 31 October 2013
  • Paul S. Kindstedt, Paul.Kindstedt@uvm.edu
image of The Basics of Cheesemaking
    Preview this microbiology spectrum article:
    Zoom in
    Zoomout

    The Basics of Cheesemaking, Page 1 of 2

    | /docserver/preview/fulltext/microbiolspec/1/1/CM-0002-12-1.gif /docserver/preview/fulltext/microbiolspec/1/1/CM-0002-12-2.gif
  • Abstract:

    All cheeses have a common set of principles that involve a complex web of chemical, biochemical, and microbiological changes. These changes first transform milk into fresh or unripened cheese. Although some cheeses are consumed immediately after manufacture, most are subsequently aged or ripened for weeks to years depending on the variety. During aging or ripening, a cheese's sensory characteristics undergo multifaceted and often dramatic changes. The steps performed during the earliest days of the cheesemaking process are especially critical because they establish the chemical characteristics of the cheese at the start of ripening, and these characteristics in turn affect the ripening process. For most cheeses, the key process on the first day of cheesemaking is the fermentation of lactose to lactic acid by bacteria. The rate at which lactic acid is produced profoundly affects the initial chemical characteristics of the cheese, which selectively influence the complex microbial populations that find their way from the milk and surrounding environment into the cheese. This article discusses the basics of cheesemaking by integrating the practical steps that all cheesemakers use with the scientific principles on which those practices are based. The aim is to paint a conceptual picture in which the microbiology of cheese “fits together” with the basic practices of cheesemaking and the scientific principles that underlie them.

  • Citation: Kindstedt P. 2013. The Basics of Cheesemaking. Microbiol Spectrum 1(1):CM-0002-2012. doi:10.1128/microbiolspec.CM-0002-2012.

References

1. Walstra P, Wouters JTM, Geurts TJ. 2006. Dairy Science and Technology, 2nd ed. CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL.
2. Johnson MA, Law BA. 1999. The origins, development and basic operations of cheesemaking technology, p 132. In Law BA (ed), Technology of Cheesemaking. CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL.
3. MacGibbon AKH, Taylor MW. 2006. Composition and structure of bovine milk lipids, p 142. In Fox PF, McSweeney PLH (ed), Advanced Dairy Chemistry, 3rd ed, vol 2. Lipids. Springer Science+Business Media, Inc., New York, NY.
4. Keenan TW, Mather IH. 2006. Intracellular origin of milk fat globules and the nature of the milk fat globule membrane, p 137172. In Fox PF, McSweeney PLH (ed), Advanced Dairy Chemistry, 3rd ed, vol 2. Lipids. Springer Science+Business Media, Inc., New York, NY.
5. Wright AJ, Marangoni AG. 2006. Crystallization and rheological properties of milk fat, p 245292. In Fox PF, McSweeney PLH (ed), Advanced Dairy Chemistry, 3rd ed, vol 2. Lipids. Springer Science+Business Media, Inc., New York, NY.
6. Collins YF, McSweeney PLH, Wilkinson MG. 2004. Lipolysis and catabolism of fatty acids in cheese, p 373390. In Fox PF, McSweeney PLH, Cogan TM, Guinee TP (ed), Cheese Chemistry, Physics and Microbiology, 3rd ed, vol 1. General Aspects. Elsevier Academic Press, San Diego, CA.
7. Swaisgood H. 2003. Chemistry of the caseins, p 139202. In Fox PF, McSweeney PLH (ed), Advanced Dairy Chemistry, 3rd ed, vol 1. Proteins, Part A. Kluwer Academic/Plenum Publishers, New York, NY.
8. De Kruif CG, Holt C. 2003. Casein micelle structure, functions and interactions, p 233276. In Fox PF, McSweeney PLH (ed), Advanced Dairy Chemistry, 3rd ed, vol 1. Proteins, Part A. Kluwer Academic/Plenum Publishers, New York, NY.
9. Hier E, Janzen T, Henriksen CM, Rattray F, Brockmann E, Johansen E. 1999. The production, application and action of lactic cheese starter cultures, p 99131. In Law BA (ed), Technology of Cheesemaking. CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL.
10. Geurts TJ, Walstra P, Mulder H. 1974. Water binding to milk protein, with particular reference to cheese. Neth Milk Dairy J 28:4672.
11. Fox PF. 2003. Milk proteins: general and historical aspects, p 148. In Fox PF, McSweeney PLH (ed), Advanced Dairy Chemistry, 3rd ed, vol 1. Proteins, Part A. Kluwer Academic/Plenum Publishers, New York, NY.
12. Lucey JA. 2004. Formation, structural properties and rheology of acid-coagulated milk gels, p 105122. In Fox PF, McSweeney PLH, Cogan TM, Guinee TP (ed), Cheese Chemistry, Physics and Microbiology, 3rd ed, vol 1. General Aspects. Elsevier Academic Press, San Diego, CA.
13. Schulz-Collins D, Senge B. 2004. Acid- and acid/rennet-curd cheeses part A: quark, cream cheese and related varieties, p 301328. In Fox PF, McSweeney PLH, Cogan TM, Guinee TP (ed), Cheese Chemistry, Physics and Microbiology, 3rd ed, vol 2. Major Cheese Groups. Elsevier Academic Press, San Diego, CA.
14. Kamber U. 2008. The traditional cheeses of Turkey: cheeses common to all regions. Food Rev Int 24:138.
15. Le Jaouen J-C. 1987. The Fabrication of Farmstead Goat Cheese. Cheesemakers Journal, Ashfield, MA.
16. OConnell JE, Fox PF. 2003. Heat-induced coagulation of milk, p 879945. In Fox PF, McSweeney PLH (ed), Advanced Dairy Chemistry, 3rd ed, vol 1. Proteins, Part B. Kluwer Academic/Plenum Publishers, New York, NY.
17. Horne DS, Banks JM. 2004. Rennet-induced coagulation of milk, p 4770. In Fox PF, McSweeney PLH, Cogan TM, Guinee TP (ed), Cheese Chemistry, Physics and Microbiology, 3rd ed, vol 1. General Aspects. Elsevier Academic Press, San Diego, CA.
18. Andren A. 2003. Rennets and coagulants, p 281286. In Roginski H, Fuquay JW, Fox PF (ed), Encyclopedia of Dairy Sciences, vol 1. Academic Press, San Diego, CA.
19. Harboe M, P. Budtz P. 1999. The production, action and application of rennet and coagulants, p 3365. In Law BA (ed), Technology of Cheesemaking. CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL.
20. Kosikowski FV, Mistry VV. 1997. Cheese and Fermented Milk Foods, vol 1. Origins and Principles. F. V. Kosikowski LLC, Great Falls, VA.
21. Kindstedt PS. 2005. American Farmstead Cheese. Chelsea Green Publishing Co., White River Junction, VT.
22. Parente E, Cogan TM. 2004. Starter cultures: general aspects, p 123148. In Fox PF, McSweeney PLH, Cogan TM, Guinee TP (ed), Cheese Chemistry, Physics and Microbiology, 3rd ed, vol 1. General Aspects. Elsevier Academic Press, San Diego, CA.
23. Dejmek P, Walstra P. 2004. The syneresis of rennet-coagulated curd, p 71104. In Fox PF, McSweeney PLH, Cogan TM, Guinee TP (ed), Cheese Chemistry, Physics and Microbiology, 3rd ed, vol 1. General Aspects. Elsevier Academic Press, San Diego, CA.
24. Fox PF, Guinee TP, Cogan TM, McSweeney PLH. 2000. Fundamentals of Cheese Science. Aspen Publishers, Inc., Gaithersburg, MD.
25. Guinee TP, Fox PF. 2004. Salt in cheese: physical, chemical and biological aspects, p 207260. In Fox PF, McSweeney PLH, Cogan TM, Guinee TP (ed), Cheese Chemistry, Physics and Microbiology, 3rd ed, vol 1. General Aspects. Elsevier Academic Press, San Diego, CA.
26. Gripon J-C. 2003. Mould-ripened cheeses, p 401406. In Roginski H, Fuquay JW, Fox PF (ed), Encyclopedia of Dairy Sciences, vol 1. Academic Press, San Diego, CA.
27. Cantor MD, van den Tempel T, Hansen TK, Ardo Y. 2004. Blue cheese, p 175198. In Fox PF, McSweeney PLH, Cogan TM, Guinee TP (ed), Cheese Chemistry, Physics and Microbiology, 3rd ed, vol 2. Major Cheese Groups. Elsevier Academic Press, San Diego, CA.
28. Law BA. 1999. Cheese ripening and cheese flavour technology, p 163192. In Law BA (ed), Technology of Cheesemaking. CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL.
29. Noel Y, Boyaval P, Thierry A, Gagnaire V, Grappin R. 1999. Eye formation and Swiss-type cheeses, p 222250. In Law BA (ed), Technology of Cheesemaking. CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL.
30. Frohlich-Wyder MT, Bachmann HP. 2004. Cheeses with propionic acid fermentation, p 141156. In Fox PF, McSweeney PLH, Cogan TM, Guinee TP (ed), Cheese Chemistry, Physics and Microbiology, 3rd ed, vol 2. Major Cheese Groups. Elsevier Academic Press, San Diego, CA.
31. Spinnler H-E, Gripon J-C. 2004. Surface mould-ripened cheeses, p 157174. In Fox PF, McSweeney PLH, Cogan TM, Guinee TP (ed), Cheese Chemistry, Physics and Microbiology, 3rd ed, vol 2. Major Cheese Groups. Elsevier Academic Press, San Diego, CA.
32. Brennan NM, Cogan TM, Loessner M, Scherer S. 2004. Bacterial surface-ripened cheeses, p 199226. In Fox PF, McSweeney PLH, Cogan TM, Guinee TP (ed), Cheese Chemistry, Physics and Microbiology, 3rd ed, vol 2. Major Cheese Groups. Elsevier Academic Press, San Diego, CA.
33. McSweeney PLH, Fox PF. 2004. Metabolism of residual lactose and of lactate and citrate, p 361372. In Fox PF, McSweeney PLH, Cogan TM, Guinee TP (ed), Cheese Chemistry, Physics and Microbiology, 3rd ed, vol 1. General Aspects. Elsevier Academic Press, San Diego, CA.
34. Bockelmann W. 2003. Smear-ripened cheeses, p 391401. In Roginski H, Fuquay JW, Fox PF (ed), Encyclopedia of Dairy Sciences, vol 1. Academic Press, San Diego, CA.
35. Cogan TM, Goerges S, Gelsomino R, Larpin S, Hohenegger M, Bora N, Jamet E, Rea MC, Mounier J, Vancanneyt M, Guguen M, Desmasures N, Swings J, Goodfellow M, Ward AC, Sebastiani H, Irlinger F, Chamba J-F, Beduhn R, Scherer S. Biodiversity of the surface microbial consortia from Limburger, Reblochon, Livarot, Tilsit, and Gubbeen cheeses. In Donnelly CW (ed), Cheese and Microbes, in press. ASM Press, Washington, DC.
36. Donnelly CW (ed). Cheese and Microbes, in press. ASM Press, Washington, DC.
microbiolspec.CM-0002-2012.citations
cm/1/1
content/journal/microbiolspec/10.1128/microbiolspec.CM-0002-2012
Loading

Citations loading...

Loading

Article metrics loading...

/content/journal/microbiolspec/10.1128/microbiolspec.CM-0002-2012
2013-10-31
2017-09-19

Abstract:

All cheeses have a common set of principles that involve a complex web of chemical, biochemical, and microbiological changes. These changes first transform milk into fresh or unripened cheese. Although some cheeses are consumed immediately after manufacture, most are subsequently aged or ripened for weeks to years depending on the variety. During aging or ripening, a cheese's sensory characteristics undergo multifaceted and often dramatic changes. The steps performed during the earliest days of the cheesemaking process are especially critical because they establish the chemical characteristics of the cheese at the start of ripening, and these characteristics in turn affect the ripening process. For most cheeses, the key process on the first day of cheesemaking is the fermentation of lactose to lactic acid by bacteria. The rate at which lactic acid is produced profoundly affects the initial chemical characteristics of the cheese, which selectively influence the complex microbial populations that find their way from the milk and surrounding environment into the cheese. This article discusses the basics of cheesemaking by integrating the practical steps that all cheesemakers use with the scientific principles on which those practices are based. The aim is to paint a conceptual picture in which the microbiology of cheese “fits together” with the basic practices of cheesemaking and the scientific principles that underlie them.

Highlighted Text: Show | Hide
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

/deliver/fulltext/microbiolspec/1/1/CM-0002-12.html?itemId=/content/journal/microbiolspec/10.1128/microbiolspec.CM-0002-2012&mimeType=html&fmt=ahah

Figures

Image of FIGURE 1

Click to view

FIGURE 1

Diagrammatic representation of the process of acid coagulation. LAB ferment lactose to lactic acid and acidify the milk to around pH 4.6. Coagulation occurs when casein micelles aggregate to form a net-like matrix. During acidification, micellar calcium phosphate (MCP) is extensively converted to soluble form, resulting in a casein matrix that is highly depleted of MCP. doi:10.1128/microbiolspec.CM-0002-2012.f1

Source: microbiolspec October 2013 vol. 1 no. 1 doi:10.1128/microbiolspec.CM-0002-2012
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint
Image of FIGURE 2

Click to view

FIGURE 2

Diagrammatic representation of the process of rennet coagulation. Rennet coagulation is mediated through the action of rennet enzymes that cleave κ-casein and release caseinomacropeptides (CMP) from the casein micelles. This causes the micelles to aggregate in the form of a net-like matrix. Rennet coagulation occurs at high pH (around pH 6.6 to 6.3, depending on the variety), i.e., before extensive acidification by starter LAB. Therefore, limited conversion of micellar calcium phosphate (MCP) to the soluble form occurs before coagulation, resulting in a casein matrix that is rich in MCP. doi:10.1128/microbiolspec.CM-0002-2012.f2

Source: microbiolspec October 2013 vol. 1 no. 1 doi:10.1128/microbiolspec.CM-0002-2012
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint
Image of FIGURE 3

Click to view

FIGURE 3

Blue-veined cheeses ripening on racks in a cool (ca. 13°C), humid (ca. 90% relative humidity) environment. Note the needle shafts that have pierced the body of each cheese to permit oxygen diffusion into the interior. doi:10.1128/microbiolspec.CM-0002-2012.f3

Source: microbiolspec October 2013 vol. 1 no. 1 doi:10.1128/microbiolspec.CM-0002-2012
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint
Image of FIGURE 4

Click to view

FIGURE 4

Alpine (Swiss)-style cheeses ripening on racks in a warm (ca. 22°C) environment. The cheeses occupying the top shelves have remained in the warm room longer than those on the lower shelves. Note the development of concave surfaces with increasing time in the warm room due to eye formation and volume expansion of the cheese. doi:10.1128/microbiolspec.CM-0002-2012.f4

Source: microbiolspec October 2013 vol. 1 no. 1 doi:10.1128/microbiolspec.CM-0002-2012
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint
Image of FIGURE 5

Click to view

FIGURE 5

Spraying of a suspension of Penicillium camemberti mold spores onto the surfaces of Camembert cheeses at the start of ripening. doi:10.1128/microbiolspec.CM-0002-2012.f5

Source: microbiolspec October 2013 vol. 1 no. 1 doi:10.1128/microbiolspec.CM-0002-2012
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint
Image of FIGURE 6

Click to view

FIGURE 6

Washing of the surface of a washed-rind cheese with dilute salt brine containing an adjunct culture of coryneform bacteria doi:10.1128/microbiolspec.CM-0002-2012.f6

Source: microbiolspec October 2013 vol. 1 no. 1 doi:10.1128/microbiolspec.CM-0002-2012
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint
Image of FIGURE 7

Click to view

FIGURE 7

Simplified summary of the making of rennet-coagulated cheese. See text for explanation. doi:10.1128/microbiolspec.CM-0002-2012.f7

Source: microbiolspec October 2013 vol. 1 no. 1 doi:10.1128/microbiolspec.CM-0002-2012
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint

Supplemental Material

No supplementary material available for this content.

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Please check the format of the address you have entered.
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error