1887
No metrics data to plot.
The attempt to load metrics for this article has failed.
The attempt to plot a graph for these metrics has failed.

Microbiological Quality and Safety Issues in Cheesemaking

MyBook is a cheap paperback edition of the original book and will be sold at uniform, low price.
  • PDF
    696.42 Kb
  • XML
    364.68 Kb
  • HTML
    362.71 Kb
  • Author: Dennis J. D'amico1
  • Editor: Catherine W. Donnelly2
  • VIEW AFFILIATIONS HIDE AFFILIATIONS
    Affiliations: 1: Department of Animal Science, University of Connecticut, Storrs, CT 06268; 2: University of Vermont, Burlington, VT
  • Source: microbiolspec February 2014 vol. 2 no. 1 doi:10.1128/microbiolspec.CM-0011-2012
  • Received 22 July 2011 Accepted 04 April 2012 Published 07 February 2014
  • Dennis J. D'Amico, ddamico@uconn.edu
image of Microbiological Quality and Safety Issues in Cheesemaking
    Preview this microbiology spectrum article:
    Zoom in
    Zoomout

    Microbiological Quality and Safety Issues in Cheesemaking, Page 1 of 2

    | /docserver/preview/fulltext/microbiolspec/2/1/CM-0011-2012-1.gif /docserver/preview/fulltext/microbiolspec/2/1/CM-0011-2012-2.gif
  • Abstract:

    As the manufacture of cheese relies in part on the select outgrowth of microorganisms, such conditions can also allow for the multiplication of unwanted contaminants. Milk ultimately becomes contaminated with microorganisms originating from infection, the farm environment, and feedstuffs, as well as milking and processing equipment. Thus, poor sanitation, improper milk handling, and animal health issues can result in not only decreased yield and poor quality but also sporadic cases and outbreaks of dairy-related disease. The entry, establishment, and persistence of food-borne pathogens in dairy processing environments also present a considerable risk to products postprocessing. Food safety management systems coupled with regulatory policies and microbiological standards for milk and milk products currently implemented in various nations work to reduce risk while improving the quality and safety of cheese and other dairy products. With that, cheese has enjoyed an excellent food safety record with relatively few outbreaks of food-borne disease considering the amount of cheese produced and consumed worldwide. However, as cheese production and consumption continue to grow, we must remain vigilant in ensuring the continued production of safe, high-quality cheese.

  • Citation: D'amico D. 2014. Microbiological Quality and Safety Issues in Cheesemaking. Microbiol Spectrum 2(1):CM-0011-2012. doi:10.1128/microbiolspec.CM-0011-2012.

Key Concept Ranking

Central Nervous System Diseases
0.4466115
Milk and Milk Products
0.42493394
0.4466115

References

1. Touch V, Deeth HC. 2009. Microbiology of raw and market milks, p 48–71. In Tamime AY (ed), Milk Processing and Quality Management. Wiley-Blackwell, West Sussex, United Kingdom.
2. Desmasures N, Opportune W, Guéguen M. 1997. Lactococcus spp., yeasts and Pseudomonas spp. on teats and udders of milking cows as potential sources of milk contamination. Int Dairy J 7:643–646.
3. Lafarge V, Ogier JC, Girard V, Maladen V, Leveau JY, Gruss A, Delacroix-Buchet A. 2004. Raw cow milk bacterial population shifts attributable to refrigeration. Appl Environ Microbiol 70:5644–5650. [PubMed][CrossRef]
4. Bhowmik T, Marth EH. 1990. Role of Micrococcus and Pediococcus species in cheese ripening: a review. J Dairy Sci 73:859–866.
5. Hileman JL. 1940. Thermoduric bacteria in pasteurized milk. A review of literature.J Dairy Sci 23:1143–1160.
6. Bhowmik T, Riesteren B, van Boekel MAJS, Marth EH. 1990. Characteristics of low-fat Cheddar cheese made with added Micrococcus or Pediococcus species. Milchwissenschaft 45:230–235.
7. Nath KR, Ledford RA. 1971. Stimulation of the rate of acid production by lactobacilli in media containing a capsular substance from micrococci. J Dairy Sci 54:1784–1789.
8. Martin JH. 1981. Heat resistant mesophilic microorganisms. J Dairy Sci 64:149–156.
9. van den Berg G, Meijer WC, Dusterhoft EM, Smit G. 2004. Gouda and related cheeses, p 103–140. In Fox PF, McSweeney PLH, Cogan TM, Guinee TP (ed), Cheese Chemistry, Physics and Microbiology, vol 2. Major Cheese Groups. Elsevier Academic Press, London, United Kingdom.
10. Fox PF, Guinee TP, Cogan TM, McSweeney PLH. 2000. Bacteriology of cheese milk, p 45–53. In Fox PF, Guinee TP, Cogan TM, McSweeney PLH (ed), Fundamentals of Cheese Science. Aspen Publishers, Gathersburg, MD.
11. Axelsson, L. 2004. Lactic acid bacteria: classification and physiology, p 367–388. In Salminen S, von Wright A, Ouwehand A (ed), Lactic Acid Bacteria: Microbiological and Functional Aspects, 3rd ed. Marcel Dekker, Inc., New York, NY.
12. Lawrence RC, Gilles J, Creamer LK, Crow VL, Heap HA, Honorė CG, Johnston KA, Samal PK. 2004. Cheddar cheese and related dry-salted cheese varieties, p 71–102. In Fox PF, McSweeney PLH, Cogan TM, Guinee TP (ed), Cheese Chemistry, Physics and Microbiology, vol 2. Major Cheese Groups. Elsevier Academic Press, London, United Kingdom.
13. Upadhyay VK, McSweeney PLH. 2003. Acceleration of cheese ripening, p 419–447. In Smit G (ed), Dairy Processing: Improving Quality. CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL.
14. Hemme D, Foucaud-Scheunemann C. 2004. Leuconostoc, characteristics, use in dairy technology and prospects in functional foods. Int Dairy J 14:467–494.
15. Fox PF, Guinee TP, Cogan TM, McSweeney PLH. 2000. Factors that affect cheese quality, p 341–348. In Fox PF, Guinee TP, Cogan TM, McSweeney PLH (ed), Fundamentals of Cheese Science. Aspen Publishers, Gathersburg, MD.
16. Foulquié Moreno MR., Sarantinopoulos P, Tsakalidou E, De Vuyst L. 2006. The role and application of enterococci in food and health. Int J Food Microbiol 106:1–24. [PubMed]
17. Bintsis T, Angelidis AS, Psoni L. 2008. Modern laboratory practices—analysis of dairy products, p 183–261. In Britz TJ, Robinson RK (ed), Advanced Dairy Science and Technology. Blackwell Publishing, Oxford, United Kingdom.
18. Gelsomino R, Vancanneyt M, Cogan TM, Condon S, Swings J. 2002. Source of enterococci in a farmhouse raw-milk cheese. Appl Environ Microbiol 68:3560–3565. [PubMed]
19. Champagne CP, Laing RR, Roy D, Mafu AA, Griffiths MW, White C. 1994. Psychrotrophs in dairy products: their effects and their control. Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr 34:1–30. [PubMed][CrossRef]
20. Franz CMAP, Stiles ME, Schleifer KH, Holzapfel WH. 2003. Enterococci in foods—a conundrum for food safety. Int J Food Microbiol 88:105–122. [PubMed]
21. Desmasures N, Bazin F, Gueguen M. 1997. Microbiological composition of raw milk from selected farms in the Camembert region of Normandy. J Appl Microbiol 83:53–58. [PubMed]
22. Cousin MA. 1982. Presence and activity of psychotropic microorganisms in milk and dairy products: a review. J Food Prot 45:172–207.
23. Murphy SC, Boor KJ. 2000. Sources and causes of high bacteria counts in raw milk: an abbreviated review. Dairy Food Environ Sanit 20:1–4. http://www.extension.org/pages/Sources_and_Causes_of_High_Bacteria_Counts_in_Raw_Milk:_An_Abbreviated_Review. Accessed 26 April 2010.
24. Vissers MMM, Driehuis F. 2009. On-farm hygienic milk production, p. 1–22. In Tamime AY (ed), Milk Processing and Quality Management, 1st ed. Wiley-Blackwell, Chichester, West Sussex, United Kingdom.
25. Sørhaug T, Stepaniak L. 1997. Psychrotrophs and their enzymes in milk and dairy products: quality aspects. Trends Food Sci Technol 8:35–41.
26. Schmidt RH. 2008. Microbiological considerations related to dairy processing, p 105–144. In Chandan RC, Kilara A, Shah NP (ed), Dairy Processing & Quality Assurance. Wiley-Blackwell, Ames, IA.
27. Morales P, Fernandez-Garcia E, Nunez M. 2005. Volatile compounds produced in cheese by Pseudomonas strains of dairy origin belonging to six different species. J Agric Food Chem 53:6835–6843. [PubMed][CrossRef]
28. Johnson ME. 2001. Cheese products, p 345–384. In Marth EH, Steele JL (ed), Applied Dairy Microbiology. Marcel Dekker Inc, New York, NY.
29. Walstra P, Wouters JTM, Geurts TJ. 2006. Microbial defects, p 677–686. In Walstra P, Wouters JTM, Geurts TJ (ed), Dairy Science and Technology. CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL.
30. Codex Alimentarius Commission. 2004. Code of Hygienic Practice for Milk and Milk Products, CAC/RCP 57, Amendment 2 2009. Codex Alimentarius Commission, Rome, Italy. http://www.codexalimentarius.net/web/standard_list.jsp. Accessed 10 May 2010.
31. Lewis MJ. 2003. Improvements in the pasteurisation and sterilisation of milk, p 81–103. In Smit G (ed), Dairy Processing Improving Quality. CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL.
32. 32. Jay J, Loessner M, Golden D. 2005. Milk, fermentation, and fermented and nonfermented dairy products, p 149–174. In Jay J, Loessner M, Golden D (ed), Modern Food Microbiology, 7th ed. Springer Science and Business Inc, New York, NY.
33. Meer R, Baker J, Bodyfelt F, Griffiths M. 1991. Psychrotrophic Bacillus spp. in fluid milk products: a review. J Food Prot 54:969–979.
34. Mostert JF, Buys EM. 2008. Hygiene by design, p 75–120. In Britz TJ, Robinson RK (ed), Advanced Dairy Science and Technology. Blackwell Publishing, Oxford, United Kingdom.
35. Herman L, De Block J, Van Renterghem R. 1997. Isolation and detection of Clostridium tyrobutyricum cells in semi-soft and hard cheeses using the polymerase chain reaction. J Dairy Res 64:311–314.
36. Klijn N, Nieuwenhof FFJ, Hoolwerf JD, Van DerWaals CB, Weerkamp AH. 1995. Identification of Clostridium tyrobutyricum as the causative agent of late blowing in cheese by species specific PCR amplification. Appl Environ Microbiol 61:2919–2924. [PubMed]
37. Muck RE. 1988. Factors influencing silage quality and their implications for management. J Dairy Sci 71:2992–3002.
38. Svensson B, Monthán A, Shaheen R, Andersson MA, Salkinoja-Salonen M, Christiansson A. 2006. Occurrence of emetic toxin producing Bacillus cereus in the dairy production chain. Int Dairy J 16:740–749.
39. Andersson A, Rönner U, Granum PE. 1995. What problems does the food industry have with the spore-forming pathogens Bacillus cereus and Clostridium perfringens? Int J Food Microbiol 28:145–155. [PubMed]
40. Ryser ET. 2001. Public health concerns, p 397–546. In Marth EH, Steele JL (ed), Applied Dairy Microbiology. Marcel Dekker Inc, New York, NY.
41. Allore HG, Oltenacu PA, Erb HN. 1997. Effects of season, herd size, and geographic region on the composition and quality of milk in the Northeast. J Dairy Sci 80:3040–3049. [PubMed][CrossRef]
42. Le Roux Y, Laurent, R, Moussaoui F. 2003. Polymorphonuclear proteolytic activity and milk composition change. Vet Res 34:629–645. [PubMed][CrossRef]
43. Saeman AI, Verdi RJ, Galton DM, Barbano DM. 1988. Effect of mastitis on proteolytic activity in bovine milk. J Dairy Sci 71:505–512. [PubMed][CrossRef]
44. Hampton O, Randolph HE. 1969. Influence of mastitis on properties of milk. II. Acid production and curd firmness. J Dairy Sci 52:1562–1565. [PubMed]
45. Cooney S, Tiernan D, Joyce P, Kelly AL. 2000. Effect of somatic cell count and polymorphonuclear leukocyte content of milk on composition and proteolysis during ripening of Swiss-type cheeses. J Dairy Res 67:301–307. [PubMed]
46. Politis I, Ng-Kwai-Hang KF. 1988. Association between somatic cell count of milk and cheese-yielding capacity. J Dairy Sci 71:1720–1727.
47. Politis, I, Ng-Kwai-Hang KF. 1988. Effects of somatic cell count and the coagulation properties of milk. J Dairy Sci 71:1740–1746.
48. Sapru A, Barbano DM, Yun JJ, Klei LR, Oltenacu PA, Bandler DK. 1997. Cheddar cheese: influence of milking frequency and stage of lactation on composition and yield. J Dairy Sci 80:437–446. [PubMed]
49. Lindmark-Mansson H, Svensson U, Paulsson M, Alden G, Frank B, Johnsson G. 2000. Influence of milk components, somatic cells and supplemental zinc on milk processability. Int Dairy J 10:423–433.
50. Ogola H, Shitandi A, Nanua J. 2007. Effect of mastitis on raw milk compositional quality. J Vet Sci 8:237–242. [PubMed]
51. Jaeggi JJ, Govindasamy-Lucey S, Berger YM, Johnson ME, McKusick BC, Thomas DL, Wendorff WL. 2003. Hard ewe's milk cheese manufactured from milk of three different groups of somatic cell counts. J Dairy Sci 86:3082–3089. [PubMed][CrossRef]
52. Politis I, Ng-Kwai-Hang KF. 1988. Effects of somatic cell count and milk composition on cheese composition and cheese making efficiency. J Dairy Sci 71:1711–1719.
53. Creamer LK, Olson NF. 1982. Rheological evaluation of maturing Cheddar cheese. J Food Sci 47:631–636.
54. Azzara CD, Dimick PS. 1985. Lipoprotein lipase activity of milk from cows with prolonged subclinical mastitis. J Dairy Sci 68:3171–3175. [PubMed][CrossRef]
55. Ardö Y. 2007. Blue cheese, p 286–287. In McSweeney PLH (ed), Cheese Problems Solved. CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL.
56. Spinnler H-E, Gripon JC. 2004. Surface mould-ripened cheeses, p 157–174. In Fox PF, McSweeney PLH, Cogan TM, Guinee TP (ed), Cheese Chemistry, Physics and Microbiology, vol 2. Major Cheese Groups. Elsevier Academic Press, London, United Kingdom.
57. Kure CF, Skaar I. 2000. Mould growth on the Norwegian semi-hard cheeses Norvegia and Jarlsberg. Int J Food Microbiol 62:133–137. [PubMed]
58. Kure CF, Skaar I, Brendehaug J. 2004. Mould contamination in production of semi-hard cheese. Int J Food Microbiol 93:41–49. [PubMed][CrossRef]
59. Spinnler H-E, Leclercq-Perlat M-N. 2007. White-mould cheeses, p 279–281. In McSweeney PLH (ed), Cheese Problems Solved. CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL.
60. Sheehan JJ. 2007. Bacterial surface-ripened cheeses, p 293. In McSweeney PLH (ed), Cheese Problems Solved. CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL.
61. D'Amico DJ, Groves E, Donnelly CW. 2008. Low incidence of foodborne pathogens of concern in raw milk utilized for farmstead cheese production. J Food Prot 71:1580–1589. [PubMed]
62. D'Amico DJ, DonnellyCW. 2010. Microbiological quality of raw milk used for small-scale artisan cheese production in Vermont: effect of farm characteristics and practices. J Dairy Sci 93:134–147. [PubMed][CrossRef]
63. Fishbein DB, Raoult D. 1992. A cluster of Coxiella burnetii infections associated with exposure to vaccinated goats and their unpasteurized dairy products. Am J Trop Med Hyg 47:35–40. [PubMed]
64. Hatchette TF, Hudson RC, Schlech WF, Campbell NA, Hatchette JE, Ratnam S, Raoult D, Donovan C, Marrie TJ. 2001. Goat-associated Q fever: a new disease in Newfoundland. Emerg Infect Dis 7:413–419. [PubMed][CrossRef]
65. Maltezou H, Constantopoulou I, Kallergi C, Vlahou V, Georgakopoulos D, Kafetzis D, Raoult D. 2004. Q fever in children in Greece. Am J Trop Med Hyg 70:540. [PubMed]
66. Cerf O, Condron R. 2006. Coxiella burnetii and milk pasteurization: an early application of the precautionary principle?Epidemiol Infect 134:946–951. [PubMed][CrossRef]
67. Braunig J, Hall P. 2005. Milk and dairy products, p 643–715. In Roberts TA, Pitt JI, Cordier J-L, Gorris LGM, Gram L, Swanson KMJ, Tompkin RB (ed), Micro-organisms in Food 6. Microbial Ecology of Food Commodities, 2nd ed. Kluwer Academic/Plenum Publishers, New York, NY.
68. Headrick ML, Korangy S, Bean NH, Angulo FJ, Altekruse SF, Potter ME, Klontz KC. 1998. The epidemiology of raw milk-associated foodborne disease outbreaks reported in the United States, 1973 through 1992. Am J Public Health 88:1219–1221. [PubMed]
69. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. 2009. Campylobacter jejuni infection associated with unpasteurized milk and cheese—Kansas, 2007. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 57:1377–1379. [PubMed]
70. Lindstrom M, Myllykoski J, Sivela S, Korkeala H. 2010. Clostridium botulinum in cattle and dairy products. Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr 50:281–304. [PubMed][CrossRef]
71. Svensson L. 2000. Diagnosis of food borne viral infections in patients. Int J Food Microbiol 59:117–126.
72. Dumpis U, Crook D, Oksi J. 1999. Tick-borne encephalitis. Clin Infect Dis 28:882–890.
73. Jooste PJ, Anelich LECM. 2008. Safety and quality of dairy products, p 153–182. In Britz TJ, Robinson RK (ed), Advanced Dairy Science and Technology. Blackwell Publishing, Oxford, United Kingdom.
74. O’Mahoney M, Fanning S, Whyte P. 2009. The safety of raw liquid milk, p 139–167. In Tamime AY (ed), Milk Processing and Quality Management. Wiley-Blackwell, West Sussex, United Kingdom.
75. Galvano F, Galofaro V, Galvano G. 1996. Occurrence and stability of aflatoxin M1 in milk and milk products: a worldwide review. J Food Prot 59:1079–1090.
76. Cantor MD, van den Tempel T, Hansen TK, Ardo Y. 2004. Blue cheese, p 175–198. In Fox PF, McSweeney PLH, Cogan TM, Guinee TP (ed), Cheese Chemistry, Physics and Microbiology, vol 2. Major Cheese Groups. Elsevier Academic Press, London, United Kingdom.
77. Shalaby AR. 1996. Significance of biogenic amines to food safety and human health. Food Res Int 29:675–690.
78. Stratton JE, Hutkins RW, Taylor SL. 1991. Biogenic amines in cheese and other fermented foods: a review. J Food Prot 54:460–470.
79. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. 1999. Achievements in public health 1900–1999: safer and healthier foods. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 48:905–913.
80. Le Loir Y, Baron F, Gautier M. 2003. Staphylococcus aureus and food poisoning. Genet Mol Res 2:63–76. [PubMed]
81. Lina G, Bohach GA, Nair SP, Hiramatsu K, Jouvin-Marche E, Mariuzza R. 2004. Standard nomenclature for the superantigens expressed by Staphylococcus. J Infect Dis 189:2333–2335. [PubMed][CrossRef]
82. De Reu K, Grijspeerdt K, Herman L. 2004. A Belgian survey of hygiene indicator bacteria and pathogenic bacteria in raw milk and direct marketing of raw milk farm products. J Food Safety 24:17–36.
83. Muehlherr JE, Zweifel C, Corti S, Blanco JE, Stephan R. 2003. Microbiological quality of raw goat's and ewe's bulk-tank milk in Switzerland. J Dairy Sci 86:3849–3856. [PubMed][CrossRef]
84. Tham W, Hajdu LJ, Danielsson-Tham ML. 1990. Bacteriological quality of on-farm manufactured goat cheese. Epidemiol Infect 104:87–100. [PubMed]
85. Jorgensen H, Mork JT, Rorvik LM. 2005. The occurrence of Staphylococcus aureus on a farm with small-scale production of raw milk cheese. J Dairy Sci 88:3810–3817. [PubMed][CrossRef]
86. Kousta M, Mataragas M, Skandamis P, Drosinos EH. 2010. Prevalence and sources of cheese contamination with pathogens at farm and processing levels. Food Control 21:805–815.
87. Tondo EC, Guimarães MCM, Henriques JAP, Ayub MAZ. 2000. Assessing and analysing contamination of a dairy products processing plant by Staphylococcus aureus using antibiotic resistance and PFGE. Can J Microbiol 46:1108–1114. [PubMed]
88. De Buyser M-L, Dufour B, Maire M, Lafarge V. 2001. Implication of milk and milk products in food-borne diseases in France and in different industrialized countries. Int J Food Microbiol 67:1–17. [PubMed]
89. Genigeorgis CA. 1989. Present state of knowledge on staphylococcal intoxication. Int J Food Microbiol 9:327–360. [PubMed]
90. Qi Y, Miller KJ. 2000. Effect of low water activity on staphylococcal enterotoxin A and B synthesis. J Food Prot 63:473–478. [PubMed]
91. Ewald S, Notermans S. 1988. Effect of water activity on growth and enterotoxin D production of Staphylococcus aureus. Int J Food Microbiol 6:25–30. [PubMed]
92. Smith JL, Buchanan RL, Palumbo SA. 1983. Effect of food environment on staphylococcal enterotoxin synthesis: a review. J Food Prot 46:545–555.
93. Charlier C, Cretenet M, Even S, Le Loir Y. 2009. Interactions between Staphylococcus aureus and lactic acid bacteria: an old story with new perspectives. Int J Food Microbiol 131:30–39. [PubMed][CrossRef]
94. Barber LE, Deibel RH. 1972. Effect of pH and oxygen tension on staphylococcal growth and enterotoxin formation in fermented sausage. Appl Environ Microbiol 24:891–898. [PubMed]
95. De Luca G, Zanetti F, Stampi S. 1997. Staphylococcus aureus in dairy products in the Bologna area. Int J Food Microbiol 35:267–270. [PubMed]
96. Altekruse SF, Timbo BB, Mowbray JC, Bean NH, Potter ME. 1998. Cheese-associated outbreaks of human illness in the United States, 1973 to 1992: sanitary manufacturing practices protect consumers. J Food Prot 61:1405–1407. [PubMed]
97. Zehren V, Zehren VF. 1968. Examination of large quantities of cheese for staphylococcal enterotoxin A. J Dairy Sci 51:635–644.
98. Zehren V, Zehren VF. 1968. Relation of acid development during cheesemaking to development of staphylococcal enterotoxin A. J Dairy Sci 51:645–649.
99. Bone FJ, Bogie D, Morgan-Jones SC. 1989. Staphylococcal food poisoning from sheep milk cheese. Epidemiol Infect 103:449–458. [PubMed]
100. Sabioni JG, Hirooka EY, de Souza ML. 1988. Food poisoning by Minas-type cheese contaminated with Staphylococcus aureus. Rev Saude Publica 22:458–461. [PubMed]
101. PereiraML, Do Carmo LS, Santos EJD, Pereira JL, Bergdoll MS. 1996. Enterotoxin H in staphylococcal food poisoning. J Food Prot 59:559–561.
102. D'Amico DJ, Donnelly CW. 2011. Characterization of Staphylococcus aureus strains isolated from raw milk utilized in small-scale artisan cheese production. J Food Prot 74:1353–1358. [PubMed][CrossRef]
103. Garcia ML, Moreno B, Bergdoll MS. 1980. Characterization of staphylococci isolated from mastitic cows in Spain. Appl Environ Microbiol 39:548–553. [PubMed]
104. Matsunaga T, Kamata S, Kakiichi N, Uchida K. 1993. Characteristics of Staphylococcus aureus isolated from peracute, acute and chronic bovine mastitis. J Vet Med Sci 55:297–300. [PubMed]
105. Stephan R, Annemüller C, Hassan AA, Lämmler C. 2001. Characterization of enterotoxigenic Staphylococcus aureus strains isolated from bovine mastitis in north-east Switzerland. Vet Microbiol 78:373–382. [PubMed]
106. Cenci-Goga BT, Karama M, Rossitto PV, Morgante RA, Cullor JS. 2003. Enterotoxin production by Staphylococcus aureus isolated from mastitic cows. J Food Prot 66:1693–1696. [PubMed]
107. Kenny K, Reiser RF, Bastida-Corcuera FD, Norcross NL. 1993. Production of enterotoxins and toxic shock syndrome toxin by bovine mammary isolates of Staphylococcus aureus. J. Clin. Microbiol. 31:706–707. [PubMed]
108. Olson JC, Jr, Casman EP, Baer EF, Stone JE. 1970. Enterotoxigenicity of Staphylococcus aureus cultures isolated from acute cases of bovine mastitis. Appl Environ Microbiol 20:605–607. [PubMed]
109. McLauchlin J, Narayanan GL, Mithani V, O’Neill G. 2000. The detection of enterotoxins and toxic shock syndrome toxin genes in Staphylococcus aureus by polymerase chain reaction. J Food Prot 63:479–488. [PubMed]
110. Wieneke AA, Roberts D, Gilbert RJ. 1993. Staphylococcal food poisoning in the United Kingdom, 1969–90. Epidemiol Infect 110:519–531. [PubMed]
111. Kérouanton A, Hennekinne JA, Letertre C, Petit L, Chesneau O, Brisabois A, De Buyser ML. 2007. Characterization of Staphylococcus aureus strains associated with food poisoning outbreaks in France. Int J Food Microbiol 115:369–375. [PubMed][CrossRef]
112. Delbes C, Alomar J, Chougui N, Martin J-F, Montel M-C. 2006. Staphylococcus aureus growth and enterotoxin production during the manufacture of uncooked, semihard cheese from cows' raw milk. J Food Prot 69:2161–2167. [PubMed]
113. Zarate V, Belda F, Perez C, Cardell E. 1997. Changes in the microbial flora of Tenerife goats' milk cheese during ripening. Int Dairy J 7:635–641.
114. Hamama A, El Hankouri N, El Ayadi M. 2002. Fate of enterotoxigenic Staphylococcus aureus in the presence of nisin-producing Lactococcus lactis strain during manufacture of Jben, a Moroccan traditional fresh cheese. Int Dairy J 12:933–938.
115. Vernozy-Rozand C, Meyrand A, Mazuy C, Delignette-Muller ML, Jaubert G, Perrin G, Lapeyre C, Richard Y. 1998. Behaviour and enterotoxin production by Staphylococcus aureus during the manufacture and ripening of raw goats' milk lactic cheeses. J Dairy Res 65:273–281. [PubMed]
116. Meyrand A, Boutrand-Loei S, Ray-Gueniot S, Mazuy C, Gaspard CE, Jaubert G, Perrin G, Lapeyre C, Vernozy-Rozand C. 1998. Growth and enterotoxin production of Staphylococcus aureus during the manufacture and ripening of Camembert-type cheeses from raw goats' milk. J Appl Microbiol 85:537–544. [PubMed]
117. Gomez-Lucia E, Goyache J, Orden JA, Domenech A, Javier Hernandez F, Ruiz-Santa Quiteria JA, Lopez B, Blanco JL, Suarez G. 1992. Growth of Staphylococcus aureus and synthesis of enterotoxin during ripening of experimental Manchego-type cheese. J Dairy Sci 75:19–26. [PubMed][CrossRef]
118. D'Amico DJ, Donnelly CW. 2011. FDA's Domestic and Imported Cheese Compliance Program results: January 1, 2004–December 31, 2006. Food Prot Trends 31:216–226.
119. Holt JG, Krieg NR, Sneath PHA, Staley JT, Williams ST. 1994. Group 5: facultatively anaerobic Gram-negative rods. In Hensyl WR (ed), Bergey's Manual of Determinative Bacteriology. Williams and Wilkins, Baltimore, MD.
120. Grimont PAD, Weill F-X. 2007. Antigenic Formulae of the Salmonella Serovars, 9th ed. World Health Organization Collaborating Centre for Reference and Research on Salmonella, Institut Pasteur, Paris, France.
121. Tindall BJ, Grimont PAD, Garrity GM, Euzeby JP. 2005. Nomenclature and taxonomy of the genus Salmonella. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 55:521–524. [PubMed]
122. El-Gazzar FE, Marth EH. 1992. Salmonellae, salmonellosis, and dairy foods: a review. J Dairy Sci 75:2327–2343. [PubMed][CrossRef]
123. Fontaine RE, Cohen ML, Martin WT, Vernon TM. 1980. Epidemic salmonellosis from cheddar cheese: surveillance and prevention. Am J Epidemiol 111:247–253. [PubMed]
124. Rea MC, Cogan TM, Tobin S. 1992. Incidence of pathogenic bacteria in raw milk in Ireland. J Appl Bacteriol 73:331–336. [PubMed]
125. Steele ML, McNab WB, Poppe C, Griffiths MW, Chen S, Degrandis SA, Fruhner LC, Larkin CA, Lynch JA, Odermeru JA. 1997. Survey of Ontario bulk tank milk for foodborne pathogens. J Food Prot 60:1341–1346.
126. Jayarao BM, Henning DR. 2001. Prevalence of foodborne pathogens in bulk tank milk. J Dairy Sci 84:2157–2162. [PubMed][CrossRef]
127. Jayarao BM, Donaldson SC, Straley BA, Sawant AA, Hegde NV, Brown JL. 2006. A survey of foodborne pathogens in bulk tank milk and raw milk consumption among farm families in Pennsylvania. J Dairy Sci 89:2451–2458. [PubMed][CrossRef]
128. McManus C, Lanier JM. 1987. Salmonella, Campylobacter jejuni, and Yersinia enterocolitica in raw milk. J Food Prot 50:51–54.
129. Murinda SE, Nguyen LT, Ivey SJ, Gillespie BE, Almeida RA, Draughon FA, Oliver SP. 2002. Molecular characterization of Salmonella spp. isolated from bulk tank milk and cull dairy cow fecal samples. J Food Prot 65:1100–1105. [PubMed]
130. Rohrbach BW, Draughon FA, Davidson PM, Oliver SP. 1992. Prevalence of Listeria monocytogenes, Campylobacter jejuni, Yersinia enterocolitica, and Salmonella in bulk tank milk: risk factors and risk of human exposure. J Food Prot 55:93–97.
131. Van Kessel JA, Karns JS, Gorski L, McCluskey BJ, Perdue ML. 2004. Prevalence of salmonellae, Listeria monocytogenes and fecal coliforms in bulk tank milk on US dairies. J Dairy Sci 87:2822–2830. [PubMed][CrossRef]
132. Foschino R, Barucco R, Stradiotto K. 2002. Microbial composition, including the incidence of pathogens, of goat milk from the Bergamo region of Italy during a lactation year. J Dairy Res 69:213–225. [PubMed]
133. Bryan FL. 1983. Epidemiology of milk-borne diseases. J Food Prot 46:637–649.
134. Lecos C. 1986. Of microbes and milk: probing America's worst Salmonella outbreak. Dairy Food Environ Sanit 6:136–140.
135. Adams D, Well S, Brown BF, Gregorio S, Townsend L, Skaggs JW, Hinds MW. 1984. Salmonellosis from inadequately pasteurized milk—Kentucky. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 33:505–506.
136. Austin C, Saathoff-Huber L, Bordson M, Dobbins C, Gross C, Marishta K, Carlson F, Maurice G, Trevino IC. 2008. Outbreak of multidrug-resistant Salmonella enterica serotype Newport infections associated with consumption of unpasteurized Mexican-style aged cheese—Illinois, March 2006–April 2007. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 57:432–435. [PubMed]
137. Cody SH, Abbott SL, Marfin AA, Schulz B, Wagner P, Robbins K, Mohle-Boetani JC, Vugia DJ. 1999. Two outbreaks of multidrug-resistant Salmonella serotype Typhimurium DT104 infections linked to raw-milk cheese in northern California. JAMA 281:1805–1810. [PubMed]
138. De Valk H, Delarocque-Astagneau E, Colomb G, Ple G, Godard E, Vaillant V, Haeghebaert S, Bouvet PH, Grimont F, Grimont P, Desenclos J-C. 2000. A community-wide outbreak of Salmonella enterica serotype Typhimurium infection associated with eating a raw milk soft cheese in France. Epidemiol Infect 124:1–7. [PubMed]
139. Haeghebaert S, Sulem P, Deroudille L, Vanneroy-Adenot E, Bagnis O, Bouvet P, Grimont F, Brisabois A, Le Querrec F, Hervy C, Espié E, de Valk H, Vaillant V. 2003. Two outbreaks of Salmonella Enteritidis phage type 8 linked to the consumption of Cantal cheese made with raw milk, France, 2001. Euro Surveill 8:151–156. [PubMed]
140. Maguire H, Cowden J, Jacob M, Rowe B, Roberts D, Bruce J, Mitchell E. 1992. An outbreak of Salmonella dublin infection in England and Wales associated with a soft unpasteurized cows' milk cheese. Epidemiol Infect 109:389–396. [PubMed]
141. Rampling A. 1996. Raw milk cheeses and salmonella. Br Med J 312:67–68. [PubMed]
142. Johnson EA, Nelson JH, Johnson M. 1990. Microbiological safety of cheese made from heat-treated milk, part II. Microbiology. J Food Prot 53:519–540.
143. Bezanson GS, Khakhria R, Duck D, Lior H. 1985. Molecular analysis confirms food source and simultaneous involvement of two distinct but related subgroups of Salmonella typhimurium bacteriophage type 10 in major interprovincial Salmonella outbreak. Appl Environ Microbiol 50:1279–1284. [PubMed]
144. Hedberg CW, Korlath JA, D'Aoust JY, White KE, Schell WL, Miller MR, Cameron DN, MacDonald KL, Osterholm MT. 1992. A multistate outbreak of Salmonella javiana and Salmonella oranienburg infections due to consumption of contaminated cheese. JAMA 268:3203–3207. [PubMed]
145. Ellis A, Preston M, Borczyk A, Miller B, Stone P, Hatton B, Chagla A, Hockin J. 1998. A community outbreak of Salmonella Berta associated with a soft cheese product. Epidemiol Infect 120:29–35. [PubMed]
146. Allerberger F, Kreidl P, Dierich MP, Klingsbichel E, Jenewein D, Mader C, Khaschabi D, Schonbauer M, Berghold C. 2000. Salmonella enterica serotype Oranienburg infections associated with consumption of locally produced tyrolean cheese. Euro Surveill 5:123–126. [PubMed]
147. Ratnam S, Stratton F, O’Keefe C, Roberts R, Coats R, Yetman M, Squires S, Khakhria R, Hockin J. 1999. Salmonella enteritidis outbreak due to contaminated cheese—Newfoundland. Can Commun Dis Rep. 25:17–19. [PubMed]
148. Hargrove RE, McDonough FE, Maltingly MA. 1969. Factors affecting survival of salmonella in Cheddar cheese and Colby cheese. J Milk Food Technol 32:480–484.
149. White CH, Custer EW. 1976. Survival of Salmonella in Cheddar cheese. J Milk Food Technol 39:328.
150. Park HS, Marth EH, Goepfert JM, Olson NF. 1970. The fate of Salmonella typhimurium in the manufacture and ripening of low-acid cheddar cheese. J Milk Food Technol 33:280–284.
151. Goepfert JM, Olson NF, Marth EH. 1968. Behavior of Salmonella typhimurium during manufacture and curing of cheddar cheese. Appl Microbiol 16:862–866. [PubMed]
152. Leyer GJ, Johnson EA. 1992. Acid adaptation promotes survival of Salmonella spp. in cheese. Appl Environ Microbiol 58:2075–2080. [PubMed]
153. Smith-Palmer A, Stewart J, Fyfe L. 2001. The potential application of plant essential oils as natural food preservatives in soft cheese. Food Microbiol. 18:463–470.
154. Nataro JP, Kaper JB. 1998. Diarrheagenic Escherichia coli. Clin Microbiol Rev 11:142–201.
155. Kaper JB. 2005. Pathogenic Escherichia coli. Int J Med Microbiol 295:355–356. (Editorial.)
156. Law D. 2000. Virulence factors of Escherichia coli O157 and other Shiga toxin-producing E. coli. J Appl Microbiol 88:729–745. [PubMed]
157. MacDonald KL, Eidson M, Strohmeyer C, Levy ME, Wells JG, Puhr ND, Wachsmuth K, Hargrett NT, Cohen ML. 1985. A multistate outbreak of gastrointestinal illness caused by enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli in imported semisoft cheese. J Infect Dis 151:716–720. [PubMed]
158. Padhye NV, Doyle MP. 1992. Escherichia coli O157:H7: epidemiology, pathogenesis, and methods for detection in food. J Food Prot 55:555–565.
159. Zhang X, McDaniel AD, Wolf LE, Keusch GT, Waldor MK, Acheson DWK. 2000. Quinolone antibiotics induce Shiga toxin encoding bacteriophages, toxin production, and death in mice. J Infect Dis 181:664–670. [PubMed][CrossRef]
160. Fach P, Perelle S, Dilasser F, Grout J. 2001. Comparison between a PCR-ELISA test and the Vero cell assay for detecting Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli in dairy products and characterization of virulence traits of the isolated strains. J Appl Microbiol 90:809–818. [PubMed]
161. Karmali MA. 1989. Infection by verocytotoxin producing Escherichia coli. Clin Microbiol Rev 2:15–38.
162. Su C, Brandt LJ. 1995. Escherichia coli O157:H7 infection in humans. Ann Intern Med 123:698–707. [PubMed]
163. Riley LW, Remis RS, Helgerson SD, McGee HB, Wells JG, Davis BR, Hebert RJ, Olcott ES, Johnson LM, Hargrett NT, Blake PA, Cohen ML. 1983. Hemorrhagic colitis associated with a rare Escherichia coli serotype. N Engl J Med 308:681–685. [PubMed][CrossRef]
164. Mead PS, Slutsker L, Dietz V, McCraig LF, Bresee JS, Shapiro C, Griffin PM, Tauxe RV. 1999. Food related illness and death in the United States. Emerg Infect Dis 5:607–625.
165. Feng P. 1995. Escherichia coli serotype O157:H7: novel vehicles of infection and emergence of phenotypic variants. Emerg Infect Dis 1:47–52. [PubMed]
166. Keene W, Hedberg K, Herriott D, Hancock D, McKay R, Barrett T. 1997. A prolonged outbreak of Escherichia coli O157:H7 infections caused by commercially distributed raw milk. J Infect Dis 176:815–818. [PubMed]
167. Upton P, Coia J. 1994. Outbreak of Escherichia coli O157 infection associated with pasteurized milk supply. Lancet 344:1015. (Letter.) [PubMed]
168. McDonough PL, Rossiter CA, Rebhun RB, Stehman SM, Lein DH, Shin SJ. 2000. Prevalence of Escherichia coli O157:H7 from cull dairy cows in New York State and comparison of culture methods used in pre-harvest food safety investigations. J Clin Microbiol 38:318–322. [PubMed]
169. Wachsmuth IK, Sparling PH, Barrett TJ, Potter ME. 1997. Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli in the United States. FEMS Immunol Med Microbiol 18:233–239. [PubMed]
170. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. 2000. Outbreak of Escherichia coli O157:H7 infection associated with eating fresh cheese curds—Wisconsin, June 1998. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 49:911–913. [PubMed]
171. Strachan NJC, Doyle MP, Kasuga F, Rotariu O, Ogden ID. 2005. Dose response modeling of Escherichia coli O157 incorporating data from foodborne and environmental outbreaks. Int J Food Microbiol 103:35–47. [PubMed][CrossRef]
172. Communicable Disease Surveillance Centre. 1998. Escherichia coli O157 in Somerset. Commun Dis Rep CDR Wkly 8(19):167.
173. Communicable Disease Surveillance Centre. 1999. Escherichia coli O157 associated with eating unpasteurised cheese. Commun Dis Rep CDR Wkly 9(13):116.
174. Communicable Disease Surveillance Centre. 1999. Escherichia coli O157 associated with eating unpasteurised cheese—update. Commun Dis Rep CDR Wkly 9(15):134.
175. Communicable Disease Surveillance Centre. 1999. Outbreak of Vero cytotoxin producing Escherichia coli O157 infection in North Cumbria. Commun Dis Rep CDR Wkly 9(11):8.
176. Communicable Disease Surveillance Centre. 1999. VTEC O157 phage type 21/28 infection in North Cumbria: update. Commun Dis Rep CDR Wkly 9(12):105.
177. Honish L, Predy G, Hislop N, Chui L, Kowalewska-Grochowska K, Trottier L, Kreplin C, Zazulak I. 2005. An outbreak of E. coli O157:H7 hemorrhagic colitis associated with unpasteurized Gouda cheese. Can J Public Health 96:182–184. [PubMed]
178. Public Health Agency of Canada. 2002. Escherichia coli O157:H7 Outbreak Associated with the Ingestion of Unpasteurized Goat's Milk in British Columbia, 2001. Public Health Agency of Canada, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada. http://www.phac-aspc.gc.ca/publicat/ccdr-rmtc/02vol28/dr2801eb.html. Accessed 13 December 2007.
179. Coia J, Johnston Y, Steers N, Hanson M. 2001. A survey of the prevalence of Escherichia coli O157:H7 in raw cow milk and raw milk cheeses in southeast Scotland. Int J Food Microbiol 66:63–69. [PubMed]
180. Wells JG, Shipman LD, Greene KD, Sowers EG, Green JH, Cameron DN, Downes FP, Martin ML, Griffin PM, Ostroff SM, Potter ME, Tauxe RV, Wachsmuth IK. 1991. Isolation of Escherichia coli serotype O157:H7 and other Shiga-like toxin-producing E. coli from dairy cattle. J Clin Microbiol 29:985–989. [PubMed]
181. Bolton DJ, Byrne CM, Sheridan JJ, McDowell DA, Blair IS. 1999. The survival characteristics of a non-toxigenic strain of Escherichia coli O157:H7. J Appl Microbiol 86:407–411. [PubMed]
182. Gagliardi JV, Karns JS. 2000. Leaching of Escherichia coli O157:H7 in diverse soils under various agricultural management practices. Appl Environ Microbiol 66:877–883. [PubMed]
183. Lau MM, Ingham SC. 2001. Survival of faecal indicator bacteria in bovine manure incorporated into soil. Lett Appl Microbiol 33:131–136. [PubMed]
184. Shere JA, Bartlett KJ, Kaspar CW. 1998. Longitudinal study of Escherichia coli O157:H7 dissemination on four dairy farms in Wisconsin. Appl Environ Microbiol 64:1390–1399. [PubMed]
185. Wallace JS, Chesty T, Jones K. 1997. Isolation of Vero cytotoxin-producing Escherichia coli O157 from wild birds. J Appl Microbiol 82:399–404. [PubMed]
186. Murinda SE, Nguyen LT, Ivey SJ, Gillespie BE, Almeida RA, Draughon FA, Oliver SP. 2002. Prevalence and molecular characterization of Escherichia coli O157:H7 in bulk tank milk and fecal samples from cull cows: a 12-month survey of dairy farms in east Tennessee. J Food Prot 65:752–759. [PubMed]
187. Massa S, Goffredo E, Altieri C, Natola K. 1999. Fate of Escherichia coli O157:H7 in unpasteurized milk stored at 8 degrees C. Lett Appl Microbiol 28:89–92. [PubMed]
188. Heuvelink A, Bleumink B, Biggelaar F, Te Giffel M, Beumer R, De Boer E. 1998. Occurrence and survival of verocytotoxin-producing Escherichia coli in raw cow's milk in the Netherlands. J Food Prot 61:1597–1601. [PubMed]
189. D'Aoust JY. 1989. Manufacture of dairy products from unpasteurized milk: a safety assessment. J Food Prot 52:906–912.
190. Morgan D, Newman CP, Hutchinson DN, Walker AM, Rowe B, Majod F. 1993. Verotoxin-producing Escherichia coli O157 associated with consumption of yoghurt. Epidemiol Infect 111:181–183.
191. Ansay SE, Kaspar CW. 1997. Survey of retail cheeses, dairy processing environments and raw milk for Escherichia coli O157:H7. Lett Appl Microbiol 25:131–134. [PubMed]
192. Hudson LM, Chen J, Hill AR, Griffiths MW. 1997. Bioluminescence: a rapid indicator of Escherichia coli O157:H7 in selected yogurt and cheese varieties. J Food Prot 60:891–897.
193. Massa S, Altieri C, Quaranta V, De Pace R. 1997. Survival of Escherichia coli O157:H7 in yoghurt during preparation and storage at 4°C. Lett Appl Microbiol 24:347–350. [PubMed]
194. Dineen SS, Takeuchi K, Soudah JE, Boor KJ. 1998. Persistence of Escherichia coli O157:H7 in dairy fermentation systems. J Food Prot 61:1602–1608. [PubMed]
195. Miller LG, Kaspar CW. 1994. Escherichia coli O157:H7 acid tolerance and survival in apple cider. J Food Prot 57:460–464.
196. Jordan, KN, Oxford L, O’Byrne CP. 1999. Survival of low pH stress by Escherichia coli O157:H7: a correlation between alterations in the cell envelope and increased acid tolerance. Appl Environ Microbiol 65:3048–3055. [PubMed]
197. Maher MM, Jordan KN, Upton ME, Coffey A. 2001. Growth and survival of E. coli O157:H7 during the manufacture and ripening of a smear-ripened cheese produced from raw milk. J Appl Microbiol 90:201–207. [PubMed]
198. Ramsaran H, Chen J, Brunke B, Hill A, Griffiths MW. 1998. Survival of bioluminescent Listeria monocytogenes and Escherichia coli O157:H7 in soft cheeses. J Dairy Sci 81:1810–1817. [PubMed]
199. D'Amico DJ, Druart MJ, Donnelly CW. 2010. Behavior of Escherichia coli O157:H7 during the manufacture and aging of Gouda and stirred-curd Cheddar cheeses manufactured from raw milk. J Food Prot 73:2217–2224. [PubMed]
200. Reitsma C, Henning D. 1996. Survival of enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli O157:H7 during the manufacture and curing of cheddar cheese. J Food Prot 59:460–464.
201. Schlesser JE, Gerdes R, Ravishankar S, Madsen K, Mowbray J, Teo AYL. 2006. Survival of a five-strain cocktail of Escherichia coli O157:H7 during the 60-day aging period of Cheddar cheese made from unpasteurized milk. J Food Prot 69:990–998. [PubMed]
202. Govaris A, Papageorgiou DK, Papatheodorou K. 2002. Behavior of Escherichia coli O157:H7 during the manufacture and ripening of Feta and Telemes cheeses. J Food Prot 65:609–615. [PubMed]
203. Spano G, Goffredo E, Beneduce L, Tarantino D, Dupuy A, Massa S. 2003. Fate of Escherichia coli O157:H7 during the manufacture of Mozzarella cheese. Lett Appl Microbiol 36:73–76. [PubMed]
204. Arocha MM, McVey M, Loder SD, Rupnow JH, Bullerman L. 1992. Behaviour of enterohaemorrhagic E. coli O157:H7 during the manufacture of cottage cheese. J Food Prot 55:379–381.
205. D'Aoust JY, Park CE, Szabo RA, Todd EC, Emmons DB, McKellar RC. 1988. Thermal inactivation of Campylobacter species, Yersinia enterocolitica, and hemorrhagic Escherichia coli O157:H7 in fluid milk. J Dairy Sci 71:3230–3236. [PubMed]
206. Bowen DA, Henning DR. 1994. A research note: coliform bacteria and Staphylococcus aureus in retail natural cheeses. J Food Prot 57:253–255.
207. Vivegnis J, El Lioui M, Leclerq A, Lambert B, Decallonne J. 1999. Detection of Shiga-like toxin producing Escherichia coli from raw milk cheeses produced in Wallonia. Biotechnol Agron Soc Environ 3:159–164.
208. Holt JG, Krieg NR, Sneath PHA, Staley JT, Williams ST. 1994. Group 19: regular, nonsporing Gram-positive rods, genus Listeria, p 565–570. In Hensyl WR (ed), Bergey's Manual of Determinative Bacteriology. Williams and Wilkins, Baltimore, MD.
209. Leclercq A, Clermont D, Gomard M, Grimont PAD, Le Flèche-Matéos A, Roche SM, Buchrieser C, Cadet-Daniel V, Le Monnier A, Lecuit M, Allerberger F. 2010. Listeria rocourtiae sp. nov. Int J Syst Bacteriol 60:2210–2214. [PubMed][CrossRef]
210. Graves LM, Helsel LO, Steigerwalt AG, Morey RE, Daneshvar MI, Roof SE, Orsi RH, Fortes ED, Milillo SR, den Bakker HC, Wiedmann M, Swaminathan B, Sauders BD. 2010. Listeria marthii sp. nov., isolated from the natural environment, Finger Lakes National Forest. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 60:1280–1288. [PubMed][CrossRef]
211. Cummins TJ, Feilding AK, McLauchlin J. 1994. Listeria ivanovii infection in a patient with AIDS. J Infect 28:89–91. [PubMed]
212. Guillet C, Join-Lambert O, Le Monnier A, Leclercq A, Mechaï F, Mamzer-Bruneel M, Bielecka M, Scortti M, Disson O, Berche P. 2010. Human listeriosis caused by Listeria ivanovii. Emerg Infect Dis 16:136–138. [PubMed][CrossRef]
213. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations/World Health Organization. 2004. Risk Assessment of Listeria monocytogenes in Ready-to-Eat Foods. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Rome, Italy. http://www.who.int/foodsafety/publications/micro/en/mra4.pdf. Accessed 10 September 2010.
214. Schlech, WF, III. 2000. Foodborne listeriosis. Clin Infect Dis 31:770–775.
215. Ryser ET. 1999. Foodborne listeriosis, p 300–326. In Ryser ET, Marth EH (ed), Listeria, Listeriosis and Food Safety. Marcel Dekker, Inc, New York, NY.
216. Norton DM, Braden CR. 2007. Foodborne listeriosis, p 305–356. In Ryser ET, Marth EH (ed), Listeria, Listeriosis and Food Safety. Marcel Dekker, Inc, New York, NY.
217. Farber JM, Peterkin PI. 1991. Listeria monocytogenes, a food-borne pathogen. Microbiol Mol Biol Rev 55:476–511. [PubMed]
218. Lovett J, Francis DW, Hunt JM. 1987. Listeria monocytogenes in raw milk: detection, incidence, and pathogenicity. J Food Prot 50:188–192.
219. Muraoka W, Gay C, Knowles D, Borucki M. 2003. Prevalence of Listeria monocytogenes subtypes in bulk milk of the Pacific Northwest. J Food Prot 66:1413–1419. [PubMed]
220. Gaya P, Saralegui C, Medina M, Nunez M. 1996. Occurrence of Listeria monocytogenes and other Listeria spp. in raw caprine milk. J Dairy Sci 79:1936–1941. [CrossRef]
221. Greenwood H, Roberts D, Burden P. 1991. The occurrence of Listeria species in milk and dairy products: a national survey in England and Wales. Int J Food Microbiol 12:197–206. [PubMed]
222. Harvey J, Gilmour A. 1994. Application of multilocus enzyme electrophoresis and restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis to the typing of Listeria monocytogenes strains isolated from raw milk, nondairy foods, and clinical and veterinary sources. Appl Environ Microbiol 60:1547–1553. [PubMed]
223. Sanaa M, Poutrel B, Menard JL, Serieys F. 1993. Risk factors associated with contamination of raw milk by Listeria monocytogenes in dairy farms. J Dairy Sci 76:2891–2898. [PubMed]
224. Waak E, Tham W, Danielsson-Tham ML. 2002. Prevalence and fingerprinting of Listeria monocytogenes strains isolated from raw whole milk in farm bulk tanks and in dairy plant receiving tanks. Appl Environ Microbiol 68:3366–3370. [PubMed]
225. D'Amico DJ, Donnelly CW. 2008. Enhanced detection of Listeria spp. in farmstead cheese processing environments through dual primary enrichment, PCR, and molecular subtyping. J Food Prot 71:2239–2248. [PubMed]
226. Abou-Eleinin AA, Ryser ET, Donnelly CW. 2000. Incidence and seasonal variation of Listeria species in bulk tank goat's milk. J Food Prot 63:1208–1213. [PubMed]
227. Rodriguez JL, Gaya PM, Medina M, Nunez M. 1994. Incidence of Listeria monocytogenes and other Listeria spp. in ewes' raw milk. J Food Prot 57:571–575.
228. Borucki MK, Reynolds J, Gay CC, McElwain KL, Kim SH, Knowles DP, Hu J. 2004. Dairy farm reservoir of Listeria monocytogenes sporadic and epidemic strains. J. Food Prot 67:2496–2499. [PubMed]
229. Nightingale KK, Schukken YH, Nightingale CR, Fortes ED, Ho AJ, Her Z, Grohn YT, McDonough PL, Wiedmann M. 2004. Ecology and transmission of Listeria monocytogenes infecting ruminants and in the farm environment. Appl Environ Microbiol 70:4458–4467. [PubMed][CrossRef]
230. Ueno H, Yokota K, Arai T, Muramatsu Y, Taniyama H, Iida T, Morita C. 1996. The prevalence of Listeria monocytogenes in the environment of dairy farms. Microbiol Immunol 40:121–124. [PubMed]
231. Ryser ET, Arimi SM, Donnelly CW. 1997. Effects of pH on distribution of Listeria ribotypes in corn, hay, and grass silage. Appl Environ Microbiol 63:3695–3697. [PubMed]
232. Wiedmann M, Bruce JL, Knorr R, Bodis M, Cole EM, McDowell CI, McDonough PL, Batt CA. 1996. Ribotype diversity of Listeria monocytogenes strains associated with outbreaks of listeriosis in ruminants. J Clin Microbiol 34:1086–1090. [PubMed]
233. Wiedmann M, Czajka J, Bsat N, Bodis M, Smith MC, Divers TJ, Batt CA. 1994. Diagnosis and epidemiological association of Listeria monocytogenes strains in two outbreaks of listerial encephalitis in small ruminants. J Clin Microbiol 32:991–996. [PubMed]
234. Borucki MK, Gay CC, Reynolds J, McElwain KL, Kim SH, Call DR, Knowles DP. 2005. Genetic diversity of Listeria monocytogenes strains from a high-prevalence dairy farm. Appl Environ Microbiol 71:5893–5899. [PubMed][CrossRef]
235. Schlech, WF, III, Lavigne PM, Bortolussi RA, Allen AC, Haldane EV, Wort AJ, Hightower AW, Johnson SE, King SH, Nicholls ES, Broome CV. 1983. Epidemic listeriosis–evidence for transmission by food. N Engl J Med. 4:203–206. [PubMed][CrossRef]
236. Linnan MJ, Mascola L, Lou XD, Goulet V, May S, Salminen C, Hird DW, Yonekura ML, Hayes P, Weaver R, Auderier A, Plikaytis BD, Fannin SL, Kleks A, Broome CV. 1988. Epidemic listeriosis associated with Mexican-style cheese. N Engl J Med 319:823–828. [PubMed][CrossRef]
237. Lunden J, Tolvanen R, Korkeala H. 2004. Human listeriosis outbreaks linked to dairy products in Europe. J Dairy Sci 87 (E suppl):E6–E11.
238. MacDonald PD, Whitwam RE, Boggs JD, MacCormack JN, Anderson KL, Reardon JW, Saah JR, Graves LM, Hunter SB, Sobel J. 2005. Outbreak of listeriosis among Mexican immigrants as a result of consumption of illicitly produced Mexican-style cheese. Clin Infect Dis 40:677–682. [PubMed][CrossRef]
239. Fleming D, Cochi SL, MacDonald KL, Brondum J, Hayes PS, Plikaytis BD, Holmes MB, Audurier A, Broome CV, Reingold AL. 1985. Pasteurized milk as a vehicle of infection in an outbreak of listeriosis. N Engl J Med 312:404–407. [PubMed][CrossRef]
240. Dalton CB, Austin CC, Sobel J, Hayes PS, Bibb WF, Graves LM, Swaminathan B, Proctor ME, Griffin PM. 1997. An outbreak of gastroenteritis and fever due to Listeria monocytogenes in milk. N Engl J Med 336:100–106. [PubMed][CrossRef]
241. McLauchlin J. 1990. Distribution of serovars of Listeria monocytogenes isolated from different categories of patients with listeriosis. Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis 9:210–213. [PubMed]
242. Koch J, Dworak R, Prager R, Becker B, Brockmann S, Wicke A, Wichmann-Schauer H, Hof H, Werber D, Stark K. 2010. Large listeriosis outbreak linked to cheese made from pasteurized milk, Germany, 2006–2007. Foodborne Pathog Dis 7:1581–1584. [PubMed][CrossRef]
243. Fretz R, Pichler J, Sagel U, Much P, Ruppitsch W, Pietzka AT, Stöger A, Huhulescu S, Heuberger S, Appl G, Werber D, Stark K, Prager R, Flieger A, Karpíšková R, Pfaff G, Allerberger F. 2010. Update: multinational listeriosis outbreak due to ‘Quargel,’ a sour milk curd cheese, caused by two different L. monocytogenes serotype 1/2a strains, 2009–2010. Euro Surveill http://www.eurosurveillance.org/ViewArticle.aspx?ArticleId=19543. Accessed 4 October 2010. [PubMed]
244. Jackson KA, Biggerstaff B, Tobin-D'Angelo M, Sweat D, Klos R, Nosari J, Garrison O, Boothe E, Saathoff-Huber L, Hainstock L, Fagan RP. 2011. Multistate outbreak of Listeria monocytogenes associated with Mexican-style cheese made from pasteurized milk among pregnant, Hispanic women. J Food Prot 74:949–953. [PubMed][CrossRef]
245. U.S. Food and Drug Administration, Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition, United States Department of Agriculture, Food Safety and Inspection Service, and Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. 2003. Quantitative Risk Assessment of the Relative Risk to Public Health from Foodborne Listeria monocytogenes among Selected Categories of Ready-To-Eat Foods. Department of Health and Human Services. http://www.fda.gov/Food/FoodScienceResearch/RiskSafetyAssessment/ucm183966.htm. Accessed 19 September 2007.
246. Borucki MK, Peppin JD, White D, Loge F, Call DR. 2003. Variation in biofilm formation among strains of Listeria monocytogenes. Appl Environ Microbiol 69:7336–7342. [PubMed]
247. D'Amico DJ, Donnelly CW. 2009. Detection, isolation, and incidence of Listeria spp. in small-scale artisan cheese processing facilities: a methods comparison. J Food Prot 72:2499–2507. [PubMed]
248. Ho AJ, Lappi VR, Wiedmann M. 2007. Longitudinal monitoring of Listeria monocytogenes contamination patterns in a farmstead dairy processing facility. J Dairy Sci 90:2517–2524.
249. Hoffman AD, Gall KL, Norton DM, Wiedmann M. 2003. Listeria monocytogenes contamination patterns for the smoked fish processing environment and for raw fish. J Food Prot 66:52–60. [PubMed]
250. Holah JT, Taylor JH, Dawson DJ, Hall KE. 2002. Biocide use in the food industry and the disinfectant resistance of persistent strains of Listeria monocytogenes and Escherichia coli. J Appl Microbiol 92:111–120. [PubMed]
251. Lappi VR, Thimothe J, Nightingale KK, Gall K, Scott VN, Wiedmann M. 2004. Longitudinal studies on Listeria in smoked fish plants: impact of intervention strategies on contamination patterns. J Food Prot 67:2500–2514. [PubMed]
252. Norton DM, McCamey MA, Gall KL, Scarlett JM, Boor KJ, Wiedmann M. 2001. Molecular studies on the ecology of Listeria monocytogenes in the smoked fish processing industry. Appl Environ Microbiol 67:198–205. [PubMed]
253. Sutherland P, Porritt R. 1996. Dissemination and ecology of Listeria monocytogenes in Australian dairy factory environments. Food Aust 48:172–178.
254. Thimothe J, Nightingale KK, Gall K, Scott VN, Wiedmann M. 2004. Tracking of Listeria monocytogenes in smoked fish processing plants. J Food Prot 67:328–341. [PubMed]
255. Wulff G, Gram L, Ahrens P, Vogel BF. 2006. One group of genetically similar Listeria monocytogenes strains frequently dominates and persists in several fish slaughter- and smokehouses. Appl Environ Microbiol 72:4313–4322. [PubMed][CrossRef]
256. Kathariou S. 2002. Listeria monocytogenes virulence and pathogenicity, a food safety perspective. J Food Prot 65:1811–1829. [PubMed]
257. Lee Wong AC. 1998. Biofilms in food processing environments. J Dairy Sci 81:2765–2770. [PubMed]
258. Jacquet C, Rocourt J, Reynaud A. 1993. Study of Listeria monocytogenes contamination in a dairy plant and characterization of the strains isolated. Int J Food Microbiol 20:13–22. [PubMed]
259. Kozak J, Balmer T, Byrne R, Fisher K. 1996. Prevalence of Listeria monocytogenes in foods: incidence in dairy products. Food Control 7:215–221.
260. Kabuki DY, Kuaye AY, Wiedmann M, Boor KJ. 2004. Molecular subtyping and tracking of Listeria monocytogenes in Latin-style fresh-cheese processing plants. J Dairy Sci 87:2803–2812. [PubMed][CrossRef]
261. Klausner RB, Donnelly CW. 1991. Environmental sources of Listeria and Yersinia in Vermont dairy plants. J Food Prot 54:607–611.
262. Makino SI, Kawamoto K, Takeshi K, Okada Y, Yamasaki M, Yamamoto S, Igimi S. 2005. An outbreak of food-borne listeriosis due to cheese in Japan, during 2001. Int J Food Microbiol 104:189–196. [PubMed][CrossRef]
263. Pritchard TJ, Flanders KJ, Donnelly CW. 1995. Comparison of the incidence of Listeria on equipment versus environmental sites within dairy processing plants. Int J Food Microbiol 26:375–384. [PubMed]
264. Pritchard TJ, Beliveau CM, Flanders KJ, Donnelly CW. 1994. Increased incidence of Listeria species in dairy processing plants having adjacent farm facilities. J Food Prot 57:770–775.
265. Unnerstad H, Bannerman E, Bille J, Danielsson-Tham M-L, Waak E, Tham W. 1996. Prolonged contamination of a dairy with Listeria monocytogenes. Neth Milk Dairy J 50:493–499.
266. Wagner M, Maderner A, Brandl E. 1996. Random amplification of polymorphic DNA for tracing and molecular epidemiology of Listeria contamination in a cheese plant. J Food Prot 59:384–389.
267. Charlton BR, Kinde H, Jensen LH. 1990. Environmental survey for Listeria species in California milk processing plants. J Food Prot 53:198–201.
268. Cox LJ, Kleiss T, Cordier JL, Cordellana C, Konkel P, Pedrazzini C, Beumer R, Siebenga A. 1989. Listeria spp. in food processing, non-food and domestic environments. Food Microbiol 6:49–61.
269. Walker RL, Jensen LH, Kinde H, Alexander AV, Owens LS. 1991. Environmental survey for Listeria species in frozen milk product plants in California. J Food Prot 54:178–182.
270. Arimi SM, Ryser ET, Pritchard TJ, Donnelly CW. 1997. Diversity of Listeria ribotypes recovered from dairy cattle, silage, and dairy processing environments. J Food Prot 60:811–816.
271. Flanders KJ, Pritchard TJ, Donnelly CW. 1995. Enhanced recovery of Listeria from dairy processing environments through combined use of repair enrichment and selective enrichment/detection procedures. J Food Prot 58:404–409.
272. Gabis DA, Flowers RS, Evanson D, Faust RE. 1989. A survey of 18 dry dairy product processing plant environments for Salmonella, Listeria, and Yersinia. J Food Prot 52:122–124.
273. Kells J, Gilmour A. 2004. Incidence of Listeria monocytogenes in two milk processing environments, and assessment of Listeria monocytogenes blood agar for isolation. Int J Food Microbiol 91:167–174. [PubMed][CrossRef]
274. Cotton LN, White CH. 1992. Listeria monocytogenes, Yersinia enterocolitica, and Salmonella in dairy plant environments. J Dairy Sci 75:51–57. [PubMed][CrossRef]
275. Spurlock AT, Zattola EA. 1991. The survival of Listeria monocytogenes in aerosols. J Food Prot 54:910–912.
276. Autio T, Hielm S, Miettinen M, Sjoberg A-M, Aarnisalo K, Bjorkroth J, Mattila-Sandholm T, Korkeala H. 1999. Sources of Listeria monocytogenes contamination in a cold-smoked rainbow trout processing plant detected by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis typing. Appl Environ Microbiol 65:150–155. [PubMed]
277. Uhlich GA, Luchansky JB, Tamplin ML, Molina-Corral FJ, Anandan S, Porto-Fett ACS. 2006. Effect of storage temperature on the growth of Listeria monocytogenes on Queso Blanco slices. J Food Safety 26:202–214.
278. Nolan DA, Chamblin DC, Troller JA. 1992. Minimal water activity levels for growth and survival of Listeria monocytogenes and Listeria innocua. Int J Food Microbiol 16:323–335. [PubMed]
279. Brennan NM, Cogan TM, Looessner M, Scherer S. 2004. Bacterial surface-ripened cheeses, p 199–226. In Fox PF, McSweeney PLH, Cogan TM, Guinee TP (ed), Cheese Chemistry, Physics and Microbiology, vol 2. Major Cheese Groups. Elsevier Academic Press, London, United Kingdom.
280. Bannister BA. 1987. Listeria monocytogenes meningitis associated with eating soft cheese. J Infect 15:165–168. [PubMed]
281. Goulet V, Jacquet C, Vaillant V, Rebiere I, Mouret E, Lorente C, Maillot E, Stainer F, Rocourt J. 1995. Listeriosis from consumption of raw-milk cheese. Lancet 345:1581–1582. [PubMed]
282. Papageorgiou DK, Marth EH. 1989. Fate of Listeria monocytogenes during the manufacture, ripening and storage of feta cheese. J Food Prot 52:2–87.
283. Ryser ET, Marth EH. 1987. Fate of Listeria monocytogenes during the manufacture and ripening of camembert cheese. J Food Prot 50:372–378.
284. Morgan F, Bonnin V, Mallereau MP, Perrin G. 2001. Survival of Listeria monocytogenes during manufacture, ripening and storage of soft lactic cheese made from raw goat milk. Int J Food Microbiol 64:217–221. [PubMed]
285. D'Amico DJ, Druart MJ, Donnelly CW. 2008. 60-Day aging requirement does not ensure safety of surface-mold-ripened soft cheeses manufactured from raw or pasteurized milk when Listeria monocytogenes is introduced as a postprocessing contaminant. J Food Prot 71:1563–1571. [PubMed]
286. Millet L, Saubusse M, Didienne R, Tessier L, Montel MC. 2006. Control of Listeria monocytogenes in raw-milk cheeses. Int J Food Microbiol 108:105–114. [PubMed][CrossRef]
287. Yousef AE, Marth EH. 1988. Behavior of Listeria monocytogenes during the manufacture and storage of Colby cheese. J Food Prot 51:12–15.
288. Mehta A, Tatini SR. 1994. An evaluation of the microbiological safety of reduced-fat Cheddar-like cheese. J Food Prot 57:776–779.
289. Ryser ET, Marth EH. 1987. Behavior of Listeria monocytogenes during the manufacture and ripening of cheddar cheese. J Food Prot 50:7–13.
290. Buazzi MM, Johnson ME, Marth EH. 1992. Survival of Listeria monocytogenes during the manufacture and ripening of Swiss cheese. J Dairy Sci 75:380–386. [PubMed]
291. Bachmann HP, Spahr S. 1995. The fate of potentially pathogenic bacteria in Swiss hard and semihard cheeses made from raw milk. J Dairy Sci 78:476–483. [PubMed][CrossRef]
292. Yousef AE, Marth E. 1990. Fate of Listeria monocytogenes during the manufacture and ripening of Parmesan cheese. J Dairy Sci 73:3351–3356. [PubMed][CrossRef]
293. Codex Alimentarius Commission. 2003. Guidelines on the Judgment of Equivalence of Sanitary Measures Associated with Food Inspection and Certification Systems. CAC/GL 53-2003. Codex Alimentarius Commission, Rome, Italy. http://www.codexalimentarius.net/download/standards/10047/CXG_053e.pdf. Accessed 22 April 2008.
294. Codex Alimentarius Commission. 1997. Guidelines for the Design, Operation, Assessment and Accreditation of Food Import and Export Inspection and Certification Systems. CAC/GL 26-1997. Codex Alimentarius Commission, Rome, Italy. http://www.fao.org/DOCREP/005/X4489E/x4489e03.htm. Accessed 22 April 2008.
295. Food Standards Australia New Zealand. 2004. Guidelines for Determining the Equivalence of Food Safety Measures. http://www.foodstandards.gov.au/publications/Pages/determiningtheequiva5770.aspx. Accessed 22 April 2008.
296. World Trade Organization. 1994. Article 4: Equivalence. Agreement on the Application of Sanitary and Phytosanitary Measures (SPS). World Trade Organization, Geneva, Switzerland. http://www.wto.org/english/tratop_e/sps_e/spsagr_e.htm. Accessed 22 April 2008.
297. World Trade Organization. 1994. Agreement on Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT). Articles 2.7 and 6.1. World Trade Organization, Geneva, Switzerland. http://www.wto.org/english/docs_e/legal_e/17-tbt.pdf. Accessed 22 April 2008.
298. Codex Alimentarius Commission. 2003. The Recommended International Code of Practice General Principles of Food Hygiene, CAC/RCP 1. 1969, Revision 4 (2003). Codex Alimentarius Commission, Rome, Italy. http://www.codexalimentarius.net/web/standard_list.jsp. Accessed 10 May 2010.
299. Codex Alimentarius Commission. 2003. Codex Guidelines for the Establishment and Application of Microbiological Criteria for Foods, CAC/GL-21. 1997. Codex Alimentarius Commission, Rome, Italy. http://www.codexalimentarius.net/web/standard_list.jsp. Accessed 10 May 2010.
300. Codex Alimentarius Commission. 2003. Codex Principles and Guidelines for the Conduct of Microbiological Risk Assessment, CAC/GL-30. 1999. Codex Alimentarius Commission, Rome, Italy. http://www.codexalimentarius.net/web/standard_list.jsp. Accessed 10 May 2010.
301. Codex Alimentarius Commission. 2007. Guidelines on the Application of General Principles of Food Hygiene to the Control of Listeria monocytogenes in Ready-to-Eat Foods (CAC/GL 61-2007). Codex Alimentarius Commission, Rome, Italy.
302. U.S. Food and Drug Administration, Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition. 2010. Grade “A” Pasteurized Milk Ordinance 2009 Revision. Department of Health and Human Services, U.S. Food and Drug Administration, College Park, MD. http://www.fda.gov/downloads/Food/FoodSafety/Product-SpecificInformation/MilkSafety/NationalConferenceonInterstateMilkShipmentsNCIMSModelDocuments/UCM209789.pdf. Accessed 15 July 2010.
303. Zeng SS, Chen SS, Bah B, Tesfai K. 2007. Effect of extended storage on microbiological quality, somatic cell count, and composition of raw goat milk on a farm. J Food Prot 70:1281–1285.
304. Fabian FW. 1946. Cheese and its relation to disease. Am J Public Health 37:987–996. [PubMed]
305. Van Slyke LL, Price WV. 1992. Cheese, 7th ed, p 90–92. Ridgeview Publishing Company, Atascadero, CA.
306. Boor KJ. 2005. Origin of the 60-day minimum holding period requirement for United States cheeses made from sub- or unpasteurized milk. Food Prot Trends 25:767–770.
307. Gilman HL, Dahlberg AC, Marquardt JC. 1946. The occurrence and survival of Brucella abortus in Cheddar and Limburger cheese. J Dairy Sci 29:71–85.
308. U.S. Food and Drug Administration. 2006. Code of Federal Regulations. Chapter 1, Subchapter B. Title 21 Part 133: Cheeses and Related Cheese Products. Department of Health and Human Services, U.S. Food and Drug Administration, Silver Spring, MD. http://www.accessdata.fda.gov/scripts/cdrh/cfdocs/cfcfr/CFRSearch.cfm?fr=133.182. Accessed 10 October 2007.
309. Marth EH. 1963. Microbiological and chemical aspects of Cheddar cheese ripening. A review. J Dairy Sci 46:869–890.
310. U.S. Food and Drug Administration, Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition. 1998. Food Compliance Program for Domestic and Imported Cheese and Cheese Products. Chapter 3: Foodborne Biological Hazards. Department of Health and Human Services. http://www.fda.gov/Food/ComplianceEnforcement/FoodCompliancePrograms/ucm071510.htm. Accessed 19 July 2010.
311. U.S. Food and Drug Administration, Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition. 2010. Guidance for FDA Staff. Compliance Policy Guide Sec. 527.300 Dairy Products—Microbial Contaminants and Alkaline Phosphatase Activity. U.S. Food and Drug Administration, Rockville, MD. http://www.fda.gov/downloads/ICECI/ComplianceManuals/CompliancePolicyGuidanceManual/UCM238465.pdf. Accessed 2 February 2011.
312. Hayes MC, Boor K. 2001. Raw milk and fluid milk products, p 59–76. In Marth EH, Steele JL (ed), Applied Dairy Microbiology. Marcel Dekker Inc, New York, NY.
313. U.S. Food and Drug Administration, Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition. 2008. Compliance Policy Guide. Guidance for FDA Staff. Sec. 555.320, Listeria monocytogenes. U.S. Food and Drug Administration, Rockville, MD. http://www.fda.gov/ICECI/ComplianceManuals/CompliancePolicyGuidanceManual/ucm136694.htm#intro. Accessed 3 March 2012.
314. European Union. 2004. Regulation (EC) no. 852/2004 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 29 April 2004 on the hygiene of foodstuffs. Off J Eur Comm L226, 3–21. http://eur-lex.europa.eu/LexUriServ/LexUriServ.do?uri=CELEX:32004R0852:en:NOT
315. European Union. 2004. Commission regulation (EC) no. 853/2004 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 29 April 2004 laying down specific hygiene rules for food of animal origin. Off J Eur Comm. L 226, 25.6.2004. 22–82. http://eur-lex.europa.eu/LexUriServ/LexUriServ.do?uri=CELEX:32004R0853:en:NOT. Accessed 1 November 2007.
316. Hickey M. 2009. Current legislation of market milks, p 101–138. In Tamime AY (ed), Milk Processing and Quality Management. Wiley-Blackwell, West Sussex, United Kingdom.
317. European Commission. 2007. Commission Regulation (EC) no. 1441/2007 5 December 2007 amending Regulation (EC) No. 2073/2005 on microbiological criteria for foodstuffs. Off J Eur Comm L322, 1–29. http://eur-lex.europa.eu/LexUriServ/LexUriServ.do?uri=CELEX:32005R2073:en:NOT. Accessed 1 November 2007.
318. Australia New Zealand Food Authority. 2008. Australia New Zealand Food Standards Code (ANZFSC). Part 1.6: Microbiological and Processing Requirements. http://www.foodstandards.gov.au/code/Pages/default.aspx.
319. Australia New Zealand Food Authority. 1998. Full Assessment Report and Regulatory Impact Assessment. Subject: A357—Swiss Raw Milk Cheeses. http://www.foodstandards.gov.au/_srcfiles/A357%20FAR.pdf. Accessed 22 April 2008.
320. Australia New Zealand Food Authority. 2002. Final Assessment Report. Proposal P263. Safety Assessment of Raw Milk Very Hard Cooked-Curd Cheeses. http://www.foodstandards.gov.au/code/proposals/Pages/proposalp263hardrawmilkcheese/Default.aspx.
321. Australia New Zealand Food Authority. 2005. Final Assessment Report Application A499 To Permit the Sale of Roquefort Cheese. http://www.foodstandards.gov.au/code/applications/pages/applicationa499toper2374.aspx.
322. New Zealand Food Safety Authority. 2007. Border Opens to Roquefort. Food Focus. August 2007. http://www.nzfsa.govt.nz/publications/food-focus/2007-08/page-08.htm. Accessed 22 May 2008.
323. New Zealand Food Safety Authority. 2009. Animal Products (Raw Milk Products Specifications) Notice 2009. http://www.nzfsa.govt.nz/dairy/publications/specifications/final-raw-milk-spec.pdf. Accessed 21 June 2010.
324. New Zealand Food Safety Authority. 2010. Dairy—Additional Measures for Raw Milk Products—Code of Practice. http://www.foodsafety.govt.nz/elibrary/industry/raw-milk-products-cop/. Accessed 1 April 2011.
325. Food Standards Australia New Zealand. 2011. Proposal P1007. Primary Production and Processing Requirements for Raw Milk Products. 2nd Assessment Report. Executive Summary. http://www.foodstandards.gov.au/foodstandards/proposals/proposalp1007primary3953.cfm. Accessed 25 August 2011.
326. Public Health Agency of Canada. 2004. Food and Drug Regulations. Departmental Consolidation of the Food and Drugs Act and the Food and Drug Regulations. Part B, Division 8. Public Health Agency of Canada, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada. http://laws.justice.gc.ca/en/F-27/C.R.C.-c.870/index.html. Accessed 21 June 2010.
327. Health Canada. 14 May 1996. Health Canada Consultations on Raw Milk Cheese Continuing. Health Canada, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada.
328. Health Canada. 19 July 1996. Health Canada Withdraws Raw Milk Cheese Proposal. Health Canada, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada.
329. Health Canada. 2010. Policy on Listeria monocytogenes in Ready-to-Eat Foods. Health Canada, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada. http://www.hc-sc.gc.ca/fn-an/consult/_listeria/draft-ebauche-eng.php. Accessed 1 March 2011.
330. Ministère de l’Agriculture, des Pêcheries et de l’Alimentation du Québec. 2010. Chapitre 11, Règlement laitiers et succédanés de produits laitiers. http://www2.publicationsduquebec.gouv.qc.ca/dynamicSearch/telecharge.php?type=3&file=/P_29/P29R1.HTM. Accessed 21 June 2010.
331. U.S. Food and Drug Administration, Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition. 2001. Fish and Fishery Products Hazards and Controls Guide, 3rd ed, Table A-1, Appendix 4. Department of Health and Human Services, Public Health Service, Food and Drug Administration, Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition, Office of Seafood, Washington, DC. http://www.fda.gov/food/guidanceregulation/guidancedocumentsregulatoryinformation/seafood/ucm2018426.htm#toc. Accessed 11 October 2010.
332. Coulon JB, Delacroix-Buchet A, Martin B, Pirisi A. 2004. Relationships between ruminant management and sensory characteristics of cheeses: a review. Lait 84:221–241.
333. U.S. Food and Drug Administration. 2006. Code of Federal Regulations. Chapter 1, Subchapter L. Title 21 Part 1240: Control of Communicable Diseases. Subpart D. Section 1240.61: Mandatory pasteurization of all milk and milk products in final package form intended for direct consumption. Department of Health and Human Services, Washington, DC. http://www.accessdata.fda.gov/scripts/cdrh/cfdocs/cfcfr/CFRSearch.cfm?fr=1240.61. Accessed 10 December 2013.
334. Rangel JM, Sparling PH, Crowe C, Griffin PM, Swerdlow DL. 2005. Epidemiology of Escherichia coli O157:H7 outbreaks, United States, 1982–2002. Emerg Infect Dis 11:603–609. [PubMed][CrossRef]
335. Gaya P, Sanchez J, Medina M, Nunez M. 1998. Incidence of Listeria monocytogenes and other Listeria species in raw milk produced in Spain. Food Microbiol 15:551–555.
336. Bertsch D, Rau J, Eugster MR, Haug MC, Lawson PA, Lacroix C, Meile L. 2013. Listeria fleischmannii sp. nov., isolated from cheese. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 63:526–532. [PubMed][CrossRef]
337. Lang Halter E, Neuhaus K, Scherer S. 2013. Listeria weihenstephanensis sp. nov., isolated from the water plant Lemna trisulca taken from a freshwater pond. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 63:641–647. [PubMed][CrossRef]
microbiolspec.CM-0011-2012.citations
cm/2/1
content/journal/microbiolspec/10.1128/microbiolspec.CM-0011-2012
Loading

Citations loading...

Loading

Article metrics loading...

/content/journal/microbiolspec/10.1128/microbiolspec.CM-0011-2012
2014-02-07
2017-03-25

Abstract:

As the manufacture of cheese relies in part on the select outgrowth of microorganisms, such conditions can also allow for the multiplication of unwanted contaminants. Milk ultimately becomes contaminated with microorganisms originating from infection, the farm environment, and feedstuffs, as well as milking and processing equipment. Thus, poor sanitation, improper milk handling, and animal health issues can result in not only decreased yield and poor quality but also sporadic cases and outbreaks of dairy-related disease. The entry, establishment, and persistence of food-borne pathogens in dairy processing environments also present a considerable risk to products postprocessing. Food safety management systems coupled with regulatory policies and microbiological standards for milk and milk products currently implemented in various nations work to reduce risk while improving the quality and safety of cheese and other dairy products. With that, cheese has enjoyed an excellent food safety record with relatively few outbreaks of food-borne disease considering the amount of cheese produced and consumed worldwide. However, as cheese production and consumption continue to grow, we must remain vigilant in ensuring the continued production of safe, high-quality cheese.

Highlighted Text: Show | Hide
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

/deliver/fulltext/microbiolspec/2/1/CM-0011-2012.html?itemId=/content/journal/microbiolspec/10.1128/microbiolspec.CM-0011-2012&mimeType=html&fmt=ahah

Figures

Image of FIGURE 1

Click to view

FIGURE 1

“Early blowing” gas defect in cheese at dehooping. doi:10.1128/microbiolspec.CM-0011-2012.f1

Source: microbiolspec February 2014 vol. 2 no. 1 doi:10.1128/microbiolspec.CM-0011-2012
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint
Image of FIGURE 2

Click to view

FIGURE 2

“Late blowing” gas defect in aged cheese. doi:10.1128/microbiolspec.CM-0011-2012.f2

Source: microbiolspec February 2014 vol. 2 no. 1 doi:10.1128/microbiolspec.CM-0011-2012
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint

Tables

Generic image for table

Click to view

TABLE 1

Cooling requirements for milk utilized for the manufacture of cheese in select regions

Source: microbiolspec February 2014 vol. 2 no. 1 doi:10.1128/microbiolspec.CM-0011-2012
Generic image for table

Click to view

TABLE 2

Human pathogens associated with milk and milk products

Source: microbiolspec February 2014 vol. 2 no. 1 doi:10.1128/microbiolspec.CM-0011-2012
Generic image for table

Click to view

TABLE 3

Limiting conditions for the growth of certain pathogenic microorganisms

Source: microbiolspec February 2014 vol. 2 no. 1 doi:10.1128/microbiolspec.CM-0011-2012
Generic image for table

Click to view

TABLE 4

Microbiological criteria for cheese in the EU as outlined in commission regulation 1441/2007 ( 317 )

Source: microbiolspec February 2014 vol. 2 no. 1 doi:10.1128/microbiolspec.CM-0011-2012
Generic image for table

Click to view

TABLE 5

Microbiological criteria for cheese as outlined in the Australia New Zealand FSC ( 318 )

Source: microbiolspec February 2014 vol. 2 no. 1 doi:10.1128/microbiolspec.CM-0011-2012
Generic image for table

Click to view

TABLE 6

Microbiological criteria for raw milk cheese in New Zealand as outlined in ( 323 )

Source: microbiolspec February 2014 vol. 2 no. 1 doi:10.1128/microbiolspec.CM-0011-2012
Generic image for table

Click to view

TABLE 7

Monitoring criteria and acceptance limits for individual farm dairy raw milk supplies for the manufacture of raw milk products in New Zealand as outlined in ( 324 )

Source: microbiolspec February 2014 vol. 2 no. 1 doi:10.1128/microbiolspec.CM-0011-2012
Generic image for table

Click to view

TABLE 8

Monitoring criteria and acceptance limits for individual farm dairy raw milk supplies for the manufacture of raw milk products in New Zealand as outlined in ( 324 )

Source: microbiolspec February 2014 vol. 2 no. 1 doi:10.1128/microbiolspec.CM-0011-2012
Generic image for table

Click to view

TABLE 9

Microbiological criteria for cheese in Quebec as outlined in ( 330 )

Source: microbiolspec February 2014 vol. 2 no. 1 doi:10.1128/microbiolspec.CM-0011-2012

Supplemental Material

No supplementary material available for this content.

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Please check the format of the address you have entered.
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error