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Enteroviruses and Parechoviruses

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  • Author: James J. Dunn1
  • Editors: Randall T. Hayden2, Donna M. Wolk3, Karen C. Carroll4, Yi-Wei Tang5
  • VIEW AFFILIATIONS HIDE AFFILIATIONS
    Affiliations: 1: Department of Pathology, Texas Children’s Hospital, Houston, TX 77030; 2: Clinical and Molecular Microbiology, Department of Pathology, St. Jude’s Children’s Research Hospital, Memphis, TN; 3: Geisinger Clinic, Department of Laboratory Medicine, Danville, PA; 4: Johns Hopkins University Hospital, Baltimore, MD; 5: Clinical Microbiology Service, Memorial Sloane-Kettering Institute, New York, NY
  • Source: microbiolspec June 2016 vol. 4 no. 3 doi:10.1128/microbiolspec.DMIH2-0006-2015
  • Received 11 March 2015 Accepted 23 July 2015 Published 03 June 2016
  • James J. Dunn, jjdunn@texaschildrens.org
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  • Abstract:

    Infections with enteroviruses and human parechoviruses are highly prevalent, particularly in neonates, where they may cause substantial morbidity and mortality. Individuals with B-cell-related immunodeficiencies are at risk for severe enteroviral infections, usually a chronic and fatal meningoencephalitis. In transplant recipients and patients with malignancy, enterovirus infections typically involve the respiratory tract, but cases of severe, disseminated infection have been described. The mainstay of diagnosis for enterovirus and human parechovirus infections involves the use of molecular diagnostic techniques. However, routine nucleic acid-detection methods for enteroviruses will not detect human parechoviruses. Laboratory diagnosis of these viral infections is important in determining a patient’s prognosis and guiding clinical management.

  • Citation: Dunn J. 2016. Enteroviruses and Parechoviruses. Microbiol Spectrum 4(3):DMIH2-0006-2015. doi:10.1128/microbiolspec.DMIH2-0006-2015.

Key Concept Ranking

Cell-Mediated Immune Response
0.4106216
Acute Flaccid Paralysis
0.4106216
0.4106216

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/content/journal/microbiolspec/10.1128/microbiolspec.DMIH2-0006-2015
2016-06-03
2017-03-25

Abstract:

Infections with enteroviruses and human parechoviruses are highly prevalent, particularly in neonates, where they may cause substantial morbidity and mortality. Individuals with B-cell-related immunodeficiencies are at risk for severe enteroviral infections, usually a chronic and fatal meningoencephalitis. In transplant recipients and patients with malignancy, enterovirus infections typically involve the respiratory tract, but cases of severe, disseminated infection have been described. The mainstay of diagnosis for enterovirus and human parechovirus infections involves the use of molecular diagnostic techniques. However, routine nucleic acid-detection methods for enteroviruses will not detect human parechoviruses. Laboratory diagnosis of these viral infections is important in determining a patient’s prognosis and guiding clinical management.

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Tables

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TABLE 1

Human enteroviral species and serotypes

Source: microbiolspec June 2016 vol. 4 no. 3 doi:10.1128/microbiolspec.DMIH2-0006-2015
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TABLE 2

Clinical syndromes associated with EV and HPeV infection in immunocompromised hosts and reported serotypes

Source: microbiolspec June 2016 vol. 4 no. 3 doi:10.1128/microbiolspec.DMIH2-0006-2015
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TABLE 3

Performance characteristics of selected molecular assays for detection of EV and HPeV RNA

Source: microbiolspec June 2016 vol. 4 no. 3 doi:10.1128/microbiolspec.DMIH2-0006-2015
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TABLE 4

Suitability of specimen types for diagnosis of EV or HPeV infections

Source: microbiolspec June 2016 vol. 4 no. 3 doi:10.1128/microbiolspec.DMIH2-0006-2015

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