1887
No metrics data to plot.
The attempt to load metrics for this article has failed.
The attempt to plot a graph for these metrics has failed.

Central Nervous System Infections

MyBook is a cheap paperback edition of the original book and will be sold at uniform, low price.
Buy this Microbiology Spectrum Article
Price Non-Member $15.00
  • Authors: Andrea J. Zimmer1, Victoria E. Burke2, Karen C. Bloch3
  • Editors: Randall T. Hayden4, Donna M. Wolk5, Karen C. Carroll6, Yi-Wei Tang7
  • VIEW AFFILIATIONS HIDE AFFILIATIONS
    Affiliations: 1: University of Nebraska Medical Center, Omaha, NE 68198; 2: Louisiana State University Health Sciences Centre, New Orleans, LA 70119; 3: Vanderbilt University Medical Center Departments of Medicine and Health Policy, Nashville, TN 37232; 4: Clinical and Molecular Microbiology, Department of Pathology, St. Jude’s Children’s Research Hospital, Memphis, TN; 5: Geisinger Clinic, Department of Laboratory Medicine, Danville, PA; 6: Johns Hopkins University Hospital, Baltimore, MD; 7: Clinical Microbiology Service, Memorial Sloane-Kettering Institute, New York, NY
  • Source: microbiolspec June 2016 vol. 4 no. 3 doi:10.1128/microbiolspec.DMIH2-0012-2015
  • Received 12 May 2015 Accepted 22 December 2015 Published 24 June 2016
  • Karen Bloch, karen.bloch@vanderbilt.edu
image of Central Nervous System Infections
    Preview this microbiology spectrum article:
    Zoom in
    Zoomout

    Central Nervous System Infections, Page 1 of 2

    | /docserver/preview/fulltext/microbiolspec/4/3/DMIH2-0012-2015-1.gif /docserver/preview/fulltext/microbiolspec/4/3/DMIH2-0012-2015-2.gif
  • Abstract:

    This chapter provides an overview of infectious syndromes, pathogens, and diagnostic testing modalities for central nervous system infections in the immunocompromised host.

  • Citation: Zimmer A, Burke V, Bloch K. 2016. Central Nervous System Infections. Microbiol Spectrum 4(3):DMIH2-0012-2015. doi:10.1128/microbiolspec.DMIH2-0012-2015.

Key Concept Ranking

Tumor Necrosis Factor alpha
0.433844
Herpes simplex virus 2
0.4197409
0.433844

References

1. Radetsky M. 2014. Fulminant bacterial meningitis. Pediatr Infect Dis J 33:204–207. [PubMed][CrossRef]
2. Mook-Kanamori BB, Geldhoff M, van der Poll T, van de Beek D. 2011. Pathogenesis and pathophysiology of pneumococcal meningitis. Clin Microbiol Rev 24:557–591. [PubMed][CrossRef]
3. Le EM, Loghin ME. 2014 Posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome: a neurologic phenomenon in cancer patients. Curr Oncol Rep 16:383. [PubMed][CrossRef]
4. Pruitt AA, Graus F, Rosenfeld MR. 2013. Neurological complications of solid organ transplantation. Neurohospitalist 3:152–166. [PubMed][CrossRef]
5. Bruner KE, Coop CA, White KM. 2014. Trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole-induced aseptic meningitis–not just another sulfa allergy. Ann Allergy Asthma Immunol 113:520–526. [PubMed][CrossRef]
6. Capone PM, Cohen ME. 1991. Seizures and cerebritis associated with administration of OKT3. Pediatr Neurol 7:299–301. [PubMed][CrossRef]
7. Heckenberg SG, Brouwer MC, van de Beek D. 2014. Bacterial meningitis. Handb Clin Neurol 121:1361–1375 [PubMed][CrossRef]
8. Pruitt AA. 2012. CNS infections in patients with cancer. Continuum 18:384–405. [PubMed][CrossRef]
9. Safdieh JE, Mead PA, Sepkowitz KA, Kiehn TE, Abrey LE. 2008. Bacterial and fungal meningitis in patients with cancer. Neurology 70:943–947. [PubMed][CrossRef]
10. Tunkel AR, Hartman BJ, Kaplan SL, Kaufman BA, Roos KL, Scheld WM, Whitley RJ. 2004. Practice guidelines for the management of bacterial meningitis. Clin Infect Dis 39:1267–1284. [PubMed][CrossRef]
11. Swanson PA, 2nd, McGavern DB. 2015. Viral diseases of the central nervous system. Curr Opin Virol 11C:44–54. [PubMed][CrossRef]
12. Zunt JR, Baldwin KJ. 2012. Chronic and subacute meningitis. Continuum 18:1290–1318. [CrossRef]
13. Venkatesan A, Tunkel AR, Bloch KC, Lauring AS, Sejvar J, Bitnun A, Stahl JP, Mailles A, Drebot M, Rupprecht CE, Yoder J, Cope JR, Wilson MR, Whitley RJ, Sullivan J, Granerod J, Jones C, Eastwood K, Ward KN, Durrheim DN, Solbrig MV, Guo–Dong L, Glaser CA; International Encephalitis Consortium. 2013. Case definitions, diagnostic algorithms, and priorities in encephalitis: consensus statement of the international encephalitis consortium. Clin Infect Dis 57:1114–1128. [PubMed][CrossRef]
14. Glaser CA, Honarmand S, Anderson LJ, Schnurr DP, Forghani B, Cossen CK, Schuster FL, Christie LJ, Tureen JH. 2006. Beyond viruses: clinical profiles and etiologies associated with encephalitis. Clin Infect Dis 43:1565–1577. [PubMed][CrossRef]
15. Vora NM, Holman RC, Mehal JM, Steiner CA, Blanton J, Sejvar J. 2014. Burden of encephalitis-associated hospitalizations in the United States, 1998–2010. Neurology 82:443–451. [PubMed][CrossRef]
16. Hicar MD, Edwards K, Bloch K. 2011. Powassan virus infection presenting as acute disseminated encephalomyelitis in Tennessee. Pediatr Infect Dis J 30:86–88. [PubMed][CrossRef]
17. Bloch KC, Glaser C. 2007. Diagnostic approaches for patients with suspected encephalitis. Curr Infect Dis Rep 9:315–322. [PubMed][CrossRef]
18. Tunkel AR, Glaser CA, Bloch KC, Sejvar JJ, Marra CM, Roos KL, Hartman BJ, Kaplan SL, Scheld WM, Whitley RJ; Infectious Diseases Society of America. 2008. The management of encephalitis: clinical practice guidelines by the Infectious Diseases Society of America. Clin Infect Dis 47:303–327. [PubMed][CrossRef]
19. Brouwer MC, Tunkel AR, van de Beek D. 2014. Brain abscess. N Engl J Med 371:447–456. [PubMed][CrossRef]
20. Berger JR, Sabet A. 2002. Infectious myelopathies. Semin Neurol 22:133–142. [PubMed][CrossRef]
21. Sejvar JJ, Leis AA, Stokic DS, Van Gerpen JA, Marfin AA, Webb R, Haddad MB, Tierney BC, Slavinski SA, Polk JL, Dostrow V, Winkelmann M, Petersen LR. 2003. Acute flaccid paralysis and West Nile virus infection. Emerg Infect Dis 9:788–793. [PubMed][CrossRef]
22. Tan IL, Smith BR, von Geldern G, Mateen FJ, McArthur JC. 2012. HIV-associated opportunistic infections of the CNS. Lancet Neurol 11:605–617. [PubMed][CrossRef]
23. Kovalevich J, Langford D. 2012. Neuronal toxicity in HIV CNS disease. Future Virol 7:687–698. [PubMed][CrossRef]
24. Hanson KE, Reckleff J, Hicks L, Castellano C, Hicks CB. 2008. Unsuspected HIV infection in patients presenting with acute meningitis. Clin Infect Dis 47:433–434. [PubMed][CrossRef]
25. Desplats P, Dumaop W, Smith D, Adame A, Everall I, Letendre S, Ellis R, Cherner M, Grant I, Masliah E. 2013. Molecular and pathologic insights from latent HIV-1 infection in the human brain. Neurology 80:1415–1423. [PubMed][CrossRef]
26. Spudich S. 2013. HIV and neurocognitive dysfunction. Curr HIV/AIDS Rep 10:235–243. [PubMed][CrossRef]
27. Cavaliere R, Petroni G, Lopes MB, Schiff D; International Primary Central Nervous System Lymphoma Collaborative Group. 2010. Primary central nervous system post–transplantation lymphoproliferative disorder: an International Primary Central Nervous System Lymphoma Collaborative Group report. Cancer 116:863–870. [PubMed][CrossRef]
28. Burnett MM, Hess CP, Roberts JP, Bass NM, Douglas VC, Josephson SA. 2010. Presentation of reversible posterior leukoencephalopathy syndrome in patients on calcineurin inhibitors. Clin Neurol Neurosurg 112:886–891. [PubMed][CrossRef]
29. Fugate JE, Claassen DO, Cloft HJ, Kallmes DF, Kozak OS, Rabinstein AA. 2010. Posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome: associated clinical and radiologic findings. Mayo Clin Proc 85:427–432. [PubMed][CrossRef]
30. Engels EA, Ellis CA, Supran SE, Schmid CH, Barza M, Schenkein DP, Koc Y, Miller KB, Wong JB. 1999. Early infection in bone marrow transplantation: quantitative study of clinical factors that affect risk. Clin Infect Dis 28:256–266. [PubMed][CrossRef]
31. Krüger W, Rüssmann B, Kröger N, Salomon C, Ekopf N, Elsner HA, Kaulfers PM, Mack D, Fuchs N, Dürken M, Kabisch H, Erttmann R, Zander AR. 1999. Early infections in patients undergoing bone marrow or blood stem cell transplantation—a 7 year single center investigation of 409 cases. Bone Marrow Transplant 23:589–597. [PubMed][CrossRef]
32. Tomblyn M, Chiller T, Einsele H, Gress R, Sepkowitz K, Storek J, Wingard JR, Young JA, Boeckh MJ; Center for International Blood and Marrow Research; National Marrow Donor Program; European Blood and Marrow Transplant Group; American Society of Blood and Marrow Transplantation; Canadian Blood and Marrow Transplant Group; Infectious Diseases Society of America; Society for Healthcare Epidemiology of America; Association of Medical Microbiology and Infectious Disease Canada; Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. 2009. Guidelines for preventing infectious complications among hematopoietic cell transplantation recipients: a global perspective. Biol Blood Marrow Transplant 15:1143–1238. [PubMed][CrossRef]
33. Morrison VA. 2014. Immunosuppression associated with novel chemotherapy agents and monoclonal antibodies. Clin Infect Dis 59(Suppl 5):S360–S364. [PubMed][CrossRef]
34. Ordonez ME, Farraye FA, Di Palma JA. 2013. Endemic fungal infections in inflammatory bowel disease associated with anti-TNF antibody therapy. Inflamm Bowel Dis 19:2490–2500. [PubMed][CrossRef]
35. Wallis RS, Broder MS, Wong JY, Hanson ME, Beenhouwer DO. 2004. Granulomatous infectious diseases associated with tumor necrosis factor antagonists. Clin Infect Dis 38:1261–1265. [PubMed][CrossRef]
36. Carson KR, Focosi D, Major EO, Petrini M, Richey EA, West DP, Bennett CL. 2009. Monoclonal antibody-associated progressive multifocal leucoencephalopathy in patients treated with rituximab, natalizumab and efalizumab: a Review from the Research on Adverse Drug Events and Reports (RADAR) project. Lancet Oncol 10:816–824. [PubMed][CrossRef]
37. Ram S, Lewis LA, Rice PA. 2010. Infections of people with complement deficiencies and patients who have undergone splenectomy. Clin Microbiol Rev 23:740–780. [PubMed][CrossRef]
38. Pruitt AA. 2010. Central nervous system infections in cancer patients. Semin Neurol 30:296–310. [PubMed][CrossRef]
39. van de Beek D, Drake JM, Tunkel AR. 2010. Nosocomial bacterial meningitis. N Engl J Med 362:146–154. [PubMed][CrossRef]
40. Michael BD, Powell G, Curtis S, Bailey L, Almond S, McGill F, Cousins D, Hart IJ, Griffiths M, Kneen R, Solomon T. 2013. Improving the diagnosis of central nervous system infections in adults through introduction of a simple lumbar puncture pack. Emerg Med J 30:402–405. [PubMed][CrossRef]
41. Szvalb AD, Raad II, Weinberg JS, Suki D, Mayer R, Viola GM. 2014. Ommaya reservoir-related infections: clinical manifestations and treatment outcomes. J Infect 68:216–224. [PubMed][CrossRef]
42. Laxmi S, Tunkel AR. Healthcare-associated bacterial meningitis. 2011 Curr Infect Dis Rep 13:367–373. [PubMed][CrossRef]
43. Domingo P, Suarez–Lozano I, Torres F, Pomar V, Ribera E, Galindo MJ, Cosin J, Garcia–Alcalde ML, Vidal F, Lopez-Aldeguer J, Roca B, Gonzalez J, Lozano F, Garrido M; VACH Cohort Study Group. 2009. Bacterial meningitis in HIV-1-infected patients in the era of highly active antiretroviral therapy. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr 51:582–587. [PubMed][CrossRef]
44. Anonymous. 2013. Use of 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine and 23-valent pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine among children aged 6–18 years with immunocompromising conditions: recommendations of the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP). MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 62:521–524. [PubMed]
45. Cohn AC, MacNeil JR, Clark TA, Ortega–Sanchez IR, Briere EZ, Meissner HC, Baker CJ, Messonnier NE; Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). 2013. Prevention and control of meningococcal disease: recommendations of the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP). MMWR Recomm Rep 62(RR–2):1–28. [PubMed]
46. Castelblanco RL, Lee M, Hasbun R. 2014. Epidemiology of bacterial meningitis in the USA from 1997–2010: a population-based observational study. Lancet Infect Dis 14:813–819. [CrossRef]
47. Thigpen MC, Whitney GC, Messonnier NE, Zell ER, Lynfield R, Hadler JL, Harrison LH, Farley MM, Reingold A, Bennett NM, Craig AS, Schaffner W, Thomas A, Lewis MM, Scallan E, Schuchat A; Emerging Infections Programs Network. 2011. Bacterial meningitis in the United States, 1998–2007. N Engl J Med 364:2016–2025. [PubMed][CrossRef]
48. Briere EC, Rubin L, Moro PL, Cohn A, Clark T, Messonnier N; Division of Bacterial Diseases, National Center for Immunization and Respiratory Diseases, CDC. 2014. Prevention and control of Haemophilus influenzae type b disease: recommendations of the advisory committee on immunization practices (ACIP). MMWR Recomm Rep 63(RR–01):1–14. [PubMed]
49. Cartwright EJ, Jackson KA, Johnson SD, Graves LM, Silk BJ, Mahon BE. 2013. Listeriosis outbreaks and associated food vehicles, United States, 1998–2008. Emerg Infect Dis 19:1–9. [PubMed][CrossRef]
50. Anonymous. 2013. Vital signs: Listeria illnesses, deaths, and outbreaks—United States, 2009–2011. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 62:448–452. [PubMed]
51. Leonard MK, Murrow JR, Jurado R, Gaynes R. 2002. Salmonella meningitis in adults infected with HIV: case report and review of the literature. Am J Med Sci 323:266–268. [PubMed][CrossRef]
52. Keiser PB, Nutman TB. 2004. Strongyloides stercoralis in the immunocompromised population. Clin Microbiol Rev 17:208–217. [CrossRef]
53. Woll F, Gotuzzo E, Montes M. 2013. Strongyloides stercoralis infection complicating the central nervous system. Handb Clin Neurol 114:229–234. [PubMed][CrossRef]
54. Marra CM. Update on neurosyphilis. 2009. Curr Infect Dis Rep 11:127–134. [PubMed][CrossRef]
55. Workowski KA, Bolan GA; Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. 2015. Sexually transmitted diseases treatment guidelines. MMWR Recomm Rep 64(RR–03):1–137. [PubMed]
56. Paddock CD, Folk SM, Shore GM, Machado LJ, Huycke MM, Slater LN, Liddell AM, Buller RS, Storch GA, Monson TP, Rimland D, Sumner JW, Singleton J, Bloch KC, Tang YW, Standaert SM, Childs JE. 2001. Infections with Ehrlichia chaffeensis and Ehrlichia ewingii in persons coinfected with human immunodeficiency virus. Clin Infect Dis 33:1586–1594. [PubMed][CrossRef]
57. Thomas LD, Hongo I, Bloch KC, Tang YW, Dummer S. 2007. Human ehrlichiosis in transplant recipients. Am J Transplant 7:1641–1647. [PubMed][CrossRef]
58. Butler T. 2015. Capnocytophaga canimorsus: an emerging cause of sepsis, meningitis, and post-splenectomy infection after dog bites. Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis 34:1271–1280. [PubMed][CrossRef]
59. Wang HL, Seo YH, LaSala PR, Tarrand JJ, Han XY. 2014. Nocardiosis in 132 patients with cancer: microbiological and clinical analyses. Am J Clin Pathol 142:513–523. [PubMed][CrossRef]
60. Khan BA, Duncan M, Reynolds J, Wilkes DS. 2008. Nocardia infection in lung transplant recipients. Clin Transplant 22:562–566. [PubMed][CrossRef]
61. Kumar VA, Augustine D, Panikar D, Nandakumar A, Dinesh KR, Karim S, Philip R. 2014. Nocardia farcinica brain abscess: epidemiology, pathophysiology, and literature review. Surg Infect (Larchmt) 15:640–646. [PubMed][CrossRef]
62. Uhde KB, Pathak S, McCullum I, Jannat–Khah DP, Shadomy SV, Dykewicz CA, Clark TA, Smith TL, Brown JM. 2010. Antimicrobial-resistant nocardia isolates, United States, 1995–2004. Clin Infect Dis 51:1445–1448. [PubMed][CrossRef]
63. Anagnostou T, Arvanitis M, Kourkoumpetis TK, Desalermos A, Carneiro HA, Mylonakis E. 2014. Nocardiosis of the central nervous system: experience from a general hospital and review of 84 cases from the literature. Medicine (Baltimore) 93:19–32. [PubMed][CrossRef]
64. Grover D, Newsholme W, Brink N, Manji H, Miller R. 2004. Herpes simplex virus infection of the central nervous system in human immunodeficiency virus-type 1-infected patients. Int J STD AIDS 15:597–600. [PubMed][CrossRef]
65. Tan IL, McArthur JC, Venkatesan A, Nath A. 2012. Atypical manifestations and poor outcome of herpes simplex encephalitis in the immunocompromised. Neurology 79:2125–2132. [PubMed][CrossRef]
66. Bloch KC. 2012. Atypical herpes simplex encephalitis after total cranial irradiation: casting a wider net? Crit Care Med. 40:1385–1386. [PubMed][CrossRef]
67. Sermer DJ, Woodley JL, Thomas CA, Hedlund JA. 2014. Herpes simplex encephalitis as a complication of whole-brain radiotherapy: a case report and review of the literature. Case Rep Oncol 7:774–779. [PubMed][CrossRef]
68. Silvano G, Lazzari G, Resta F, Buccoliero G, Pezzella G, Pisconti S. 2007. Herpes simplex virus-1 fatal encephalitis following chemo-radiotherapy, steroids and prophylactic cranial irradiation in a small cell lung cancer patient. Lung Cancer 57:243–246. [PubMed][CrossRef]
69. Miller S, Mateen FJ, Aksamit AJ, Jr. 2013. Herpes simplex virus 2 meningitis: a retrospective cohort study. J Neurovirol 19:166–171. [PubMed][CrossRef]
70. Baringer JR. 2008. Herpes simplex infections of the nervous system. Neurol Clin 26:657–674, viii. [PubMed][CrossRef]
71. Weil AA, Glaser CA, Amad Z, Forghani B. 2002. Patients with suspected herpes simplex encephalitis: rethinking an initial negative polymerase chain reaction result. Clin Infect Dis 34:1154–1157. [PubMed][CrossRef]
72. Gnann JW, Jr. 2002. Varicella–zoster virus: atypical presentations and unusual complications. J Infect Dis 186(Suppl 1):S91–S98. [PubMed][CrossRef]
73. Hovens MM, Vaessen N, Sijpkens YW, de Fijter JW. 2007. Unusual presentation of central nervous system manifestations of Varicella zoster virus vasculopathy in renal transplant recipients. Transpl Infect Dis 9:237–240. [PubMed][CrossRef]
74. Nagel MA, Gilden D. 2014. Neurological complications of varicella zoster virus reactivation. Curr Opin Neurol 27:356–360. [PubMed][CrossRef]
75. Gilden D. 2004. Varicella zoster virus and central nervous system syndromes. Herpes 11(Suppl 2):89A–94A. [PubMed]
76. Tselis A, Duman R, Storch GA, Lisak RP. 1997. Epstein-Barr virus encephalomyelitis diagnosed by polymerase chain reaction: detection of the genome in the CSF. Neurology 48:1351–1355. [PubMed][CrossRef]
77. Weinberg A, Bloch KC, Li S, Tang YW, Palmer M, Tyler KL. 2005. Dual infections of the central nervous system with Epstein-Barr virus. J Infect Dis 191:234–237. [PubMed][CrossRef]
78. Weinberg A, Li S, Palmer M, Tyler KL. 2002. Quantitative CSF PCR in Epstein-Barr virus infections of the central nervous system. Ann Neurol 52:543–548. [PubMed][CrossRef]
79. Bilgrami M, O’Keefe P. 2014. Neurologic diseases in HIV-infected patients. Handb Clin Neurol 121:1321–1344. [PubMed][CrossRef]
80. DeBiasi RL, Kleinschmidt-DeMasters BK, Weinberg A, Tyler KL. 2002. Use of PCR for the diagnosis of herpesvirus infections of the central nervous system. J Clin Virol 25(Suppl 1):S5–S11. [CrossRef]
81. Chan PK, Ng HK, Hui M, Cheng AF. 2001. Prevalence and distribution of human herpesvirus 6 variants A and B in adult human brain. J Med Virol 64:42–46. [PubMed][CrossRef]
82. Ward KN, Leong HN, Thiruchelvam AD, Atkinson CE, Clark DA. 2007. Human herpesvirus 6 DNA levels in cerebrospinal fluid due to primary infection differ from those due to chromosomal viral integration and have implications for diagnosis of encephalitis. J Clin Microbiol 45:1298–1304. [PubMed][CrossRef]
83. Schacker T, Collier AC, Hughes J, Shea T, Corey L. 1996. Clinical and epidemiologic features of primary HIV infection. Ann Intern Med 125:257–264. [PubMed][CrossRef]
84. Clifford DB, Ances BM. 2013. HIV-associated neurocognitive disorder. Lancet Infect Dis 13:976–986. [PubMed][CrossRef]
85. Ramanan P, Deziel PJ, Norby SM, Yao JD, Garza I, Razonable RR. 2015. Donor-derived HTLV-1 associated myelopathy after transplantation: a call for targeted screening. Am J Transplant 15:1125. [PubMed][CrossRef]
86. Sato T, Coler–Reilly A, Utsunomiya A, Araya N, Yagishita N, Ando H, Yamauchi J, Inouse E, Ueno T, Hasegawa Y, Nishioka K, Nakajima T, Jacobson S, Izumo S, Yamano Y. 2013. CSF CXCL10, CXCL9, and neopterin as candidate prognostic biomarkers for HTLV–1–associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis. PLoS Negl Trop Dis 7:e2479. [PubMed][CrossRef]
87. Berger JR. 2007. Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy. Curr Neurol Neurosci Rep 7:461–469. [PubMed][CrossRef]
88. Steiner I, Berger JR. 2012. Update on progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy. Curr Neurol Neurosci Rep 12:680–686. [PubMed][CrossRef]
89. Tan CS, Ellis LC, Wuthrich C, Ngo L, Broge TA, Jr, Saint-Aubyn J, Miller JS, Koralnik IJ. 2010. JC virus latency in the brain and extraneural organs of patients with and without progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy. J Virol 84:9200–9209. [PubMed][CrossRef]
90. Rocha A, Faria S, Costa T, Marques L, Freitas C, Mota C. 2014. BK virus nephropathy complicated with meningoencephalitis after kidney transplantation. Pediatr Transplant 18:E48–E51. [PubMed][CrossRef]
91. Chittick P, Williamson JC, Ohl CA. 2013. BK virus encephalitis: case report, review of the literature, and description of a novel treatment modality. Ann Pharmacother 47:1229–1233. [PubMed][CrossRef]
92. Petersen LR, Brault AC, Nasci RS. 2013. West Nile virus: review of the literature. JAMA 310:308–315. [PubMed][CrossRef]
93. Levi ME. 2013. West Nile virus infection in the immunocompromised patient. Curr Infect Dis Rep 15:478–485. [PubMed][CrossRef]
94. Winston DJ, Vikram HR, Rabe IB, Dhillon G, Mulligan D, Hong JC, Busuttil RW, Nowicki MJ, Mone T, Civen R, Tecle SA, Trivedi KK, Hocevar SN; West Nile Virus Transplant–Associated Transmission Investigation Team. 2104. Donor-derived West Nile virus infection in solid organ transplant recipients: report of four additional cases and review of clinical, diagnostic, and therapeutic features. Transplantation 97:881–889. [PubMed][CrossRef]
95. Levi ME, Quan D, Ho JT, Kleinschmidt–Demasters BK, Tyler KL, Grazia TJ. 2010. Impact of rituximab-associated B-cell defects on West Nile virus meningoencephalitis in solid organ transplant recipients. Clin Transplant 24:223–228. [PubMed][CrossRef]
96. Penn RG, Guarner J, Sejvar JJ, Hartman H, McComb RD, Nevins DL, Bhatnagar J, Zaki SR. 2006. Persistent neuroinvasive West Nile virus infection in an immunocompromised patient. Clin Infect Dis 42:680–683. [PubMed][CrossRef]
97. Misbah SA, Spickett GP, Ryba PC, Hockaday JM, Kroll JS, Sherwood C, Kurtz JB, Moxon ER, Chapel HM. 1992. Chronic enteroviral meningoencephalitis in agammaglobulinemia: case report and literature review. J Clin Immunol 12:266–270. [PubMed][CrossRef]
98. Rotbart HA, Sawyer MH, Fast S, Lewinski C, Murphy N, Keyser EF, Spadoro J, Kao SY, Loeffelholz M. 1994. Diagnosis of enteroviral meningitis by using PCR with a colorimetric microwell detection assay. J Clin Microbiol 32:2590–2592. [PubMed]
99. Han J, Ma XJ, Wan JF, Liu YH, Han YL, Chen C, Tian C, Gao C, Wang M, Dong XP. 2010. Long persistence of EV71 specific nucleotides in respiratory and feces samples of the patients with Hand-Foot-Mouth Disease after recovery. BMC Infect Dis 10:178. [PubMed][CrossRef]
100. Kupila L, Vuorinen T, Vainionpäā R, Marttila RJ, Kotilainen P. 2005. Diagnosis of enteroviral meningitis by use of polymerase chain reaction of cerebrospinal fluid, stool, and serum specimens. Clin Infect Dis 40:982–987. [PubMed][CrossRef]
101. Davis JA, Horn DL, Marr KA, Fishman JA. 2009. Central nervous system involvement in cryptococcal infection in individuals after solid organ transplantation or with AIDS. Transpl Infect Dis 11:432–437. [PubMed][CrossRef]
102. Dismukes WE, Cloud G, Gallis HA, Kerkering TM, Medoff G, Craven PC, Kaplowitz LG, Fisher JF, Gregg CR, Bowles CA, Shadomy S, Stamm AM, Diasio RB, Kaufman L, Soong S, Blackwelder WC; National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Mycoses Study Group. 1987. Treatment of cryptococcal meningitis with combination amphotericin B and flucytosine for four as compared with six weeks. N Engl J Med 317:334–341. [PubMed][CrossRef]
103. Tanner DC, Weinstein MP, Fedorciw B, Joho KL, Thorpe JJ, Reller L. 1997. Comparison of commercial kits for detection of cryptococcal antigen. J Clin Microbiol 32:1680–1684. [PubMed]
104. Hansen J, Slechta ES, Gates–Hollingsworth MA, Neary B, Barker AP, Bauman S, Kozel TR, Hanson KE. 2013. Large–scale evaluation of the immuno-mycologics lateral flow and enzyme-linked immunoassays for detection of cryptococcal antigen in serum and cerebrospinal fluid. Clin Vaccine Immunol 20:52–55. [PubMed][CrossRef]
105. Kauffman CA, Freifeld AG, Andes DR, Baddley JW, Herwaldt L, Walker RC, Alexander BD, Anaissie EJ, Benedict K, Ito JI, Knapp KM, Lyon GM, Marr KA, Morrison VA, Park BJ, Patterson TF, Schuster MG, Chiller TM, Pappas PG. 2014. Endemic fungal infections in solid organ and hematopoietic cell transplant recipients enrolled in the Transplant-Associated Infection Surveillance Network (TRANSNET). Transpl Infect Dis 16:213–224. [PubMed][CrossRef]
106. Johnson RH, Einstein HE. 2006. Coccidioidal meningitis. Clin Infect Dis 42:103–107. [PubMed][CrossRef]
107. Mathisen G, Shelub A, Truong J, Wigen C. 2010. Coccidioidal meningitis clinical presentation and management in the fluconazole era. Medicine (Baltimore) 89:251–284. [PubMed][CrossRef]
108. Drake KW, Adam RD. 2009. Coccidioidal meningitis and brain abscesses: analysis of 71 cases at a referral center. Neurology 73:1780–1786. [PubMed][CrossRef]
109. Simons CM, Stratton CW, Kim AS. 2011. Peripheral blood eosinophilia as a clue to the diagnosis of an occult Coccidioides infection. Hum Pathol 42:449–453. [PubMed][CrossRef]
110. Kassis C, Zaidi S, Kuberski T, Moran A, Gonzalez O, Hussain S, Hartmann–Manrique C, Al–Jashaami L, Chebbo A, Myers RA, Wheat LJ. 2015. Role of Coccidioides antigen testing in the cerebrospinal fluid for the diagnosis of coccidioidal meningitis. Clin Infect Dis 61:1521–1526. [PubMed][CrossRef]
111. Bariola JR, Perry P, Pappas PG, Proia L, Shealey W, Wright PW, Sizemore JM, Robinson M, Bradsher RW, Jr. 2010. Blastomycosis of the central nervous system: a multicenter review of diagnosis and treatment in the modern era. Clin Infect Dis 50:797–804. [PubMed][CrossRef]
112. Klein BS, Vergeront JM, Kaufman L, Bradsher RW, Kumar UN, Mathai G, Varkey B, Davis JP. 1987. Serological tests for blastomycosis: assessments during a large point–source outbreak in Wisconsin. J Infect Dis 155:262–268. [PubMed][CrossRef]
113. Smith JA, Kauffman CA. 2010. Blastomycosis. Proc Am Thorac Soc 7:173–180. [PubMed][CrossRef]
114. Assi MA, Sandid MS, Baddour LM, Roberts GD, Walker RC. 2007. Systemic histoplasmosis: a 15–year retrospective institutional review of 111 patients. Medicine (Baltimore) 86:162–169. [PubMed][CrossRef]
115. Wheat LJ, Batteiger BE, Sathapatayavongs B. 1990. Histoplasma capsulatum infections of the central nervous system. A clinical review. Medicine (Baltimore) 69:244–260. [CrossRef]
116. Saccente M. 2008. Central nervous system histoplasmosis. Curr Treat Options Neurol 10:161–167. [PubMed][CrossRef]
117. Wheat LJ, Musial CE, Jenny-Avital E. 2005. Diagnosis and management of central nervous system histoplasmosis. Clin Infect Dis 40:844–852. [PubMed][CrossRef]
118. Klont RR, Mennink-Kersten MA, Verweij PE. 2004. Utility of Aspergillus antigen detection in specimens other than serum specimens. Clin Infect Dis 39:1467–1474. [PubMed][CrossRef]
119. Kourkoumpetis TK, Desalermos A, Muhamme M, Mylonakis E. 2012. Central nervous system aspergillosis: a series of 14 cases from a general hospital and review of 123 cases from the literature. Medicine (Baltimore) 91:328–336. [PubMed][CrossRef]
120. Kimura S, Akahoshi Y, Nakano H, Harada N, Kameda K, Ugai T, Wada H, Yamasaki R, Ishihara Y, Kawamura K, Sakamoto K, Ashizawa M, Sato M, Terasako-Saito K, Nakasone H, Kikuchi M, Yamazaki R, Kanda J, Kako S, Tanihara A, Nishida J, Kanda Y. 2015. False-positive Aspergillus galactomannan and its kinetics in allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. J Infect 70:520–540. [PubMed][CrossRef]
121. Aguado JM, Vázquez L, Fernández–Ruiz M, Villaescusa T, Ruiz-Camps I, Barba P, Silva JT, Batlle M, Solano C, Gallardo D, Heras I, Polo M, Varela R, Vallejo C, Olave T, López-Jiménez J, Rovira M, Parody R, Cuenca-Estrella M; PCRAGA Study Group; Spanish Stem Cell Transplantation Group; Study Group of Medical Mycology of the Spanish Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases; Spanish Network for Research in Infectious Diseases. 2015. Serum galactomannan versus a combination of galactomannan and polymerase chain reaction-based Aspergillus DNA detection for early therapy of invasive aspergillosis in high-risk hematological patients: a randomized controlled trial. Clin Infect Dis 60:405–414. [PubMed][CrossRef]
122. Reinwald M, Buchheidt D, Hummel M, Duerken M, Bertz H, Schwerdtfeger R, Reuter S, Kiehl MG, Barreto-Miranda M, Hofmann WK, Spiess B. 2013. Diagnostic performance of an Aspergillus-specific nested PCR assay in cerebrospinal fluid samples of immunocompromised patients for detection of central nervous system aspergillosis. PLoS One 8:e56706. [PubMed][CrossRef]
123. Husain S, Alexander BD, Munoz P, Avery RK, Houston S, Pruett T, Jacobs R, Dominguez EA, Tollemar JG, Baumgarten K, Yu CM, Wagener MM, Linden P, Kusne S, Singh N. 2003. Opportunistic mycelial fungal infections in organ transplant recipients: emerging importance of non-Aspergillus mycelial fungi. Clin Infect Dis 37:221–229. [PubMed][CrossRef]
124. Ostrosky-Zeichner L, Alexander BD, Kett DH, Vazquez J, Pappas PG, Saeki F, Ketchum PA, Wingard J, Schiff R, Tamura H, Finkelman MA, Rex JH. 2005. Multicenter clinical evaluation of the (1→3) beta–d–glucan assay as an aid to diagnosis of fungal infections in humans. Clin Infect Dis 41:654–659. [PubMed][CrossRef]
125. Karageorgopoulos DE, Vouloumanou EK, Ntziora F, Michalopoulos A, Rafailidis PI, Falagas ME. 2011. β–d–Glucan assay for the diagnosis of invasive fungal infections: a meta-analysis. Clin Infect Dis 52:750–770. [PubMed][CrossRef]
126. Kodym P, Malý M, Beran O, Jilich D, Rozsypal H, Machala L, Holub M. 2015. Incidence, immunological and clinical characteristics of reactivation of latent Toxoplasma gondii infection in HIV-infected patients. Epidemiol Infect 143:600–607. [PubMed][CrossRef]
127. Sabia C, Montesano ML, Napoli C. 2013. Transplantation and host immune response to Toxoplasma gondii. Transpl Infect Dis 15:E124–E125. [PubMed][CrossRef]
128. Fischer SA, Lu K; AST Infectious Diseases Community of Practice. 2013. Screening of donor and recipient in solid organ transplantation. Am J Transplant 13(Suppl 4):9–21. [PubMed][CrossRef]
129. Anselmo LM, Vilar FC, Lima JE, Yamamoto AY, Bollela VR, Takayanagui OM. 2014. Usefulness and limitations of polymerase chain reaction in the etiologic diagnosis of neurotoxoplasmosis in immunocompromised patients. J Neurol Sci 346:231–234. [PubMed][CrossRef]
130. Robert-Gangneux F, Sterkers Y, Yera H, Accoceberry I, Menotti J, Cassaing S, Brenier-Pinchart MP, Hennequin C, Delhae L, Bonhomme J, Villena I, Scherer E, Dalle F, Touafek F, Filisetti D, Varlet-Marie E, Pelloux H, Bastien P. 2015. Molecular diagnosis of toxoplasmosis in immunocompromised patients: a 3-year multicenter retrospective study. J Clin Microbiol 53:1677–1684. [PubMed][CrossRef]
131. Hakko E, Ozkan HA, Karaman K, Gulbas Z. 2013. Analysis of cerebral toxoplasmosis in a series of 170 allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplant patients. Transpl Infect Dis 15:575–580. [PubMed][CrossRef]
132. Walker M, Zunt JR. 2005. Parasitic central nervous system infections in immunocompromised hosts. Clin Infect Dis 40:1005–1015. [PubMed][CrossRef]
133. Sawanyawisuth K, Chotmongkol V. 2013. Eosinophilic meningitis. Handb Clin Neurol 114:207–215. [PubMed][CrossRef]
134. Thwaites G, Fisher M, Hemingway C, Scott G, Solomon T, Innes J; British Infection Society. 2009. British Infection Society guidelines for the diagnosis and treatment of tuberculosis of the central nervous system in adults and children. J Infect 59:167–187. [PubMed][CrossRef]
135. Erdem H, Ozturk–Engin D, Elaldi N, Gulsun S, Sengoz G, Crisan A, Johansen IS, Inan A, Nechifor M, Al-Mahdawi A, Civljak R, Ozguler M, Savic B, Ceran N, Cacopardo B, Inal AS, Namiduru M, Dayan S, Kayabas U, Parlak E, et al. 2014. The microbiological diagnosis of tuberculous meningitis: results of Haydarpasa-1 study. Clin Microbiol Infect 20:O600–O608. [PubMed][CrossRef]
136. Nelson CA, Zunt JR. 2011. Tuberculosis of the central nervous system in immunocompromised patients: HIV infection and solid organ transplant recipients. Clin Infect Dis 53:915–926. [PubMed][CrossRef]
137. Ripamonti D, Barbo R, Rizzi M, Finazzi MG, Ravasio L, Bonaldi G, Sutter F. 2004. New times for an old disease: intracranial mass lesions caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis in 5 HIV-negative African immigrants. Clin Infect Dis 39:e35–e45. [PubMed][CrossRef]
138. Ammassari A, Cingolani A, Pezzotti P, De Luca DA, Murri R, Giancola ML, Larocca LM, Antinori A. 2000. AIDS-related focal brain lesions in the era of highly active antiretroviral therapy. Neurology 55:1194–1200. [PubMed][CrossRef]
139. Mutton K, Guiver M. 2011. Laboratory techniques for human viral encephalitis diagnosis. Infect Disord Drug Targets 11:206–234. [PubMed][CrossRef]
140. Tang YW. 2007 Laboratory diagnosis of CNS infections by molecular amplification techniques. Expert Opin Med Diagn 1:489–509. [PubMed][CrossRef]
141. de Graaf MT, van den Broek PD, Kraan J, Luitwieler RL, van den Bent MJ, Boonstra JG, Schmitz PI, Gratama JW, Sillevis Smitt PA. 2011. Addition of serum–containing medium to cerebrospinal fluid prevents cellular loss over time. J Neurol 258:1507–1512. [PubMed][CrossRef]
142. Kennedy DH, Fallon RJ. 1979. Tuberculous meningitis. JAMA 241:264–268. [PubMed][CrossRef]
143. Dunbar SA, Eason RA, Musher DM, Clarridge JE, 3rd. 1998. Microscopic examination and broth culture of cerebrospinal fluid in diagnosis of meningitis. J Clin Microbiol 36:1617–1620. [PubMed]
144. Neuman MI, Tolford S, Harper MB. 2008. Test characteristics and interpretation of cerebrospinal fluid gram stain in children. Pediatr Infect Dis J 27:309–313. [PubMed][CrossRef]
145. Yadhav MlK. 2014. Study of bacterial meningitis in children below 5 years with comparative evaluation of gram staining, culture and bacterial antigen detection. J Clin Diagn Res 8:DC04–DC06. [PubMed]
146. Hussein AS, Shafran SD. 2000. Acute bacterial meningitis in adults. A 12-year review. Medicine (Baltimore) 79:360–368. [PubMed][CrossRef]
147. Moïsi JC, Saha SK, Falade AG, Njanpop-Lafourcade BM, Oundo J, Zaidi AK, Afroj S, Bakare RA, Buss JK, Lasi R, Mueller J, Odekanmi AA, Sangaré L, Scott JA, Knoll MD, Levine OS, Gessner BD. 2009. Enhanced diagnosis of pneumococcal meningitis with use of the Binax NOW immunochromatographic test of Streptococcus pneumoniae antigen: a multisite study. Clin Infect Dis 48(Suppl 2):S49–S56. [PubMed][CrossRef]
148. Boulware DR, Rolfes MA, Rajasingham R, von Hohenberg M, Qin Z, Taseera K, Schutz C, Kwizera R, Butler EK, Meintjes G, Muzoora C, Bischof JC, Meya DB. 2014. Multisite validation of cryptococcal antigen lateral flow assay and quantification by laser thermal contrast. Emerg Infect Dis 20:45–53. [PubMed][CrossRef]
149. Kabanda T, Siedner MJ, Klausner JD, Muzoora C, Boulware DR. 2014. Point-of-care diagnosis and prognostication of cryptococcal meningitis with the cryptococcal antigen lateral flow assay on cerebrospinal fluid. Clin Infect Dis 58:113–116. [PubMed][CrossRef]
150. Gazzoni AF, Severo CB, Salles EF, Severo LC. 2009. Histopathology, serology and cultures in the diagnosis of cryptococcosis. Rev Inst Med Trop Sao Paulo 51:255–259. [PubMed][CrossRef]
151. Soeffker G, Wichmann D, Loderstaedt U, Sobottk I, Deuse T, Kluge S. 2013. Aspergillus galactomannan antigen for diagnosis and treatment monitoring in cerebral aspergillosis. Prog Transplant 23:71–74. [PubMed][CrossRef]
152. Viscoli C, Machetti M, Gazzola P, De Maria A, Paola D, Van Lint MT, Gualandi F, Truini M, Bacigalupo A. 2002. Aspergillus galactomannan antigen in the cerebrospinal fluid of bone marrow transplant recipients with probable cerebral aspergillosis. J Clin Microbiol 40:1496–1499. [CrossRef]
153. Malani AN, Singal B, Wheat LJ, Al Sous O, Summons TA, Durkin MM, Pettit AC. 2015. (1,3)–β–d–glucan in cerebrospinal fluid for diagnosis of fungal meningitis associated with contaminated methylprednisolone injections. J Clin Microbiol. 53:799–803. [PubMed][CrossRef]
154. Salvatore CM, Chen TK, Toussi SS, DeLaMora P, Petraitiene R, Finkelman MA, Walsh TJ. 2015. (1→3)–β–d–Glucan in cerebrospinal fluid as a biomarker for Candida and Aspergillus infections of the central nervous system in pediatric patients. J Pediatric Infect Dis Soc doi:10.1093/jpids/piv014. [PubMed][CrossRef]
155. Lyons JL, Thakur KT, Lee R, Watkins T, Pardo CA, Carson KA, Markley B, Finkelman MA, Marr KA, Roos KL, Zhang SX. 2015. Utility of measuring (1,3)–β–d–glucan in cerebrospinal fluid for diagnosis of fungal central nervous system infection. J Clin Microbiol 53:319–322. [PubMed][CrossRef]
156. Rhein J, Bahr NC, Morawski BM, Schutz C, Zhang Y, Finkelman M, Meya DB, Meintjes G, Boulware DR. 2014. Detection of high cerebrospinal fluid levels of (1→3)–β–d–glucan in cryptococcal meningitis. Open Forum Infect Dis 1:ofu105. [PubMed][CrossRef]
157. Anonymous. 2004. Effect of new susceptibility breakpoints on reporting of resistance in Streptococcus pneumoniae—United States, 2003. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 53:152–154. [PubMed]
158. Anonymous. 2010. Nonpolio enterovirus and human parechovirus surveillance—United States, 2006–2008. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 59:1577–1580. [PubMed]
159. Sauerbrei A, Eichhorn U, Hottenrott G, Wutzler P. 2000. Virological diagnosis of herpes simplex encephalitis. J Clin Virol 17:31–36. [PubMed][CrossRef]
160. Sambri V, Capobianchi MR, Cavrini F, Charrel R, Donoso-Mantke O, Escadafal C, Franco L, Gaibani P, Gould EA, Niedrig M, Papa A, Pierro A, Rossini G, Sanchini A, Tenorio A, Varani S, Vázquez A, Vocale C, Zeller H. 2013. Diagnosis of west nile virus human infections: overview and proposal of diagnostic protocols considering the results of external quality assessment studies. Viruses 5:2329–2348. [PubMed][CrossRef]
161. Wong T, Fonseca K, Chernesky MA, Garceau R, Levett PN, Serhir B. 2015. Canadian Public Health Laboratory Network laboratory guidelines for the diagnosis of neurosyphilis in Canada. Can J Infect Dis Med Microbiol 26(Suppl A):18A–22A. [PubMed][CrossRef]
162. Nagel MA, Forghani B, Mahalingam R, Wellish MC, Cohrs RJ, Russman AN, Katzan I, Lin R, Gardner CJ, Gilden DH. 2007. The value of detecting anti–VZV IgG antibody in CSF to diagnose VZV vasculopathy. Neurology 68:1069–1073. [PubMed][CrossRef]
163. Leveque N, Van Haecke A, Renois F, Boutolleau D, Talmud D, Andreoletti L. 2011. Rapid virological diagnosis of central nervous system infections by use of a multiplex reverse transcription–PCR DNA microarray. J Clin Microbiol 49:3874–3879. [PubMed][CrossRef]
164. Siddiqi OK, Ghebremichael M, Dang X, Atadzhanov M, Kaonga P, Khoury MN, Koralnik IJ. 2014. Molecular diagnosis of central nervous system opportunistic infections in HIV–infected Zambian adults. Clin Infect Dis 58:1771–1777. [PubMed][CrossRef]
165. Smalling TW, Sefers SE, Li H, Tang YW. 2002. Molecular approaches to detecting herpes simplex virus and enteroviruses in the central nervous system. J Clin Microbiol 40:2317–2322. [PubMed][CrossRef]
166. Lévêque N, Legoff J, Mengelle C, Mercier-Delarue S, N’guyen Y, Renois F, Tissier F, Simon F, Izopet J, Andréoletti L. 2014. Virological diagnosis of central nervous system infections by use of PCR coupled with mass spectrometry analysis of cerebrospinal fluid samples. J Clin Microbiol 52:212–217. [PubMed][CrossRef]
167. Kleines M, Scheithauer S, Schiefer J, Häusler M. 2014. Clinical application of viral cerebrospinal fluid PCR testing for diagnosis of central nervous system disorders: a retrospective 11–year experience. Diagn Microbiol Infect Dis 80:207–215. [PubMed][CrossRef]
168. Inazawa N, Hori T, Yamamoto M, Hatakeyama N, Yoto Y, Nojima M, Yasui H, Suzuki N, Shimizu N, Tsutsumi H. 2016. HHV–6 encephalitis may complicate the early phase after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation: Detection by qualitative multiplex PCR and subsequent quantitative real–time PCR. J Med Virol 88:319–323. [PubMed][CrossRef]
169. Berger JR, Aksamit AJ, Clifford DB, Davis L, Koralnik IJ, Sejvar JJ, Bartt R, Major EO, Nath A. 2013. PML diagnostic criteria: consensus statement from the AAN Neuroinfectious Disease Section. Neurology 80:1430–1438. [PubMed][CrossRef]
170. Kleinschmidt-DeMasters BK, DeBiasi RL, Tyler KL. 2001. Polymerase chain reaction as a diagnostic adjunct in herpesvirus infections of the nervous system. Brain Pathol 11:452–464. [PubMed][CrossRef]
171. Bhaskaran A, Racsa L, Gander R, Southern P, Cavuoti D, Alatoom A. 2013. Interpretation of positive molecular tests of common viruses in the cerebrospinal fluid. Diagn Microbiol Infect Dis 77:236–240. [PubMed][CrossRef]
172. Agut H, Bonnafous P, Gautheret-Dejean A. 2015. Laboratory and clinical aspects of human herpesvirus 6 infections. Clin Microbiol Rev 28:313–335. [PubMed][CrossRef]
173. Yasukawa K, Patel SM, Flash CA, Stager CE, Goodman JC, Woc-Colburn L. 2014. Trypanosoma cruzi meningoencephalitis in a patient with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. Am J Trop Med Hyg 91:84–85. [PubMed][CrossRef]
microbiolspec.DMIH2-0012-2015.citations
cm/4/3
content/journal/microbiolspec/10.1128/microbiolspec.DMIH2-0012-2015
Loading

Citations loading...

Loading

Article metrics loading...

/content/journal/microbiolspec/10.1128/microbiolspec.DMIH2-0012-2015
2016-06-24
2017-11-20

Abstract:

This chapter provides an overview of infectious syndromes, pathogens, and diagnostic testing modalities for central nervous system infections in the immunocompromised host.

Highlighted Text: Show | Hide
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

Figures

Image of FIGURE 1
FIGURE 1

meningoencephalitis in a patient with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. Case published as reference 173 .

Source: microbiolspec June 2016 vol. 4 no. 3 doi:10.1128/microbiolspec.DMIH2-0012-2015
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint
Image of FIGURE 2
FIGURE 2

trypomastigote in CSF stained with Giemsa. Image courtesy of CDC Division of Parasitic Diseases and Malaria, DPDx. http://www.cdc.gov/dpdx/trypanosomiasisAmerican/gallery.html#tcruzicsf trypomastigote in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) stained with Giemsa. Image courtesy of CDC Division of Parasitic Diseases and Malaria, DPDx. http://www.cdc.gov/dpdx/trypanosomiasisAmerican/gallery.html#tcruzi

Source: microbiolspec June 2016 vol. 4 no. 3 doi:10.1128/microbiolspec.DMIH2-0012-2015
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint

Tables

Generic image for table
TABLE 1

Major infectious causes of meningitis among immunocompromised hosts

Source: microbiolspec June 2016 vol. 4 no. 3 doi:10.1128/microbiolspec.DMIH2-0012-2015
Generic image for table
TABLE 2

Major infectious causes of encephalitis or mass lesions of the brain among immunocompromised hosts

Source: microbiolspec June 2016 vol. 4 no. 3 doi:10.1128/microbiolspec.DMIH2-0012-2015
Generic image for table
TABLE 3

Infectious causes of myelitis among immunocompromised patients

Source: microbiolspec June 2016 vol. 4 no. 3 doi:10.1128/microbiolspec.DMIH2-0012-2015
Generic image for table
TABLE 4

Microbiological methods used for laboratory diagnosis of CNS infections

Source: microbiolspec June 2016 vol. 4 no. 3 doi:10.1128/microbiolspec.DMIH2-0012-2015

Supplemental Material

No supplementary material available for this content.

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Please check the format of the address you have entered.
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error