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Respiratory RNA Viruses

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  • Author: Richard L. Hodinka1
  • Editors: Randall T. Hayden2, Donna M. Wolk3, Karen C. Carroll4, Yi-Wei Tang5
  • VIEW AFFILIATIONS HIDE AFFILIATIONS
    Affiliations: 1: Department of Biomedical Sciences, University of South Carolina School of Medicine Greenville, Greenville Health System, Greenville, SC 29605; 2: St. Jude Children’s Research Hospital, Memphis, TN; 3: Geisinger Clinic, Danville, PA; 4: Johns Hopkins University Hospital, Baltimore, MD; 5: Memorial Sloan-Kettering Institute, New York, NY
  • Source: microbiolspec July 2016 vol. 4 no. 4 doi:10.1128/microbiolspec.DMIH2-0028-2016
  • Received 14 April 2016 Accepted 22 April 2016 Published 22 July 2016
  • Richard L. Hodinka, hodinka@greenvillemed.sc.edu
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  • Abstract:

    Acute upper and lower respiratory infections are a major public health problem and a leading cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. At greatest risk are young children, the elderly, the chronically ill, and those with suppressed or compromised immune systems. Viruses are the predominant cause of respiratory tract illnesses and include RNA viruses such as respiratory syncytial virus, influenza virus, parainfluenza virus, metapneumovirus, rhinovirus, and coronavirus. Laboratory testing is required for a reliable diagnosis of viral respiratory infections, as a clinical diagnosis can be difficult since signs and symptoms are often overlapping and not specific for any one virus. Recent advances in technology have resulted in the development of newer diagnostic assays that offer great promise for rapid and accurate detection of respiratory viral infections. This chapter emphasizes the fundamental characteristics and clinical importance of the various RNA viruses that cause upper and lower respiratory tract diseases in the immunocompromised host. It highlights the laboratory methods that can be used to make a rapid and definitive diagnosis for the greatest impact on the care and management of ill patients, and the prevention and control of hospital-acquired infections and community outbreaks.

  • Citation: Hodinka R. 2016. Respiratory RNA Viruses. Microbiol Spectrum 4(4):DMIH2-0028-2016. doi:10.1128/microbiolspec.DMIH2-0028-2016.

Key Concept Ranking

Viral Upper Respiratory Tract Infections
0.42452365
Lower Respiratory Tract Infections
0.4072713
Upper Respiratory Tract Infections
0.40363234
0.42452365

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/content/journal/microbiolspec/10.1128/microbiolspec.DMIH2-0028-2016
2016-07-22
2017-09-26

Abstract:

Acute upper and lower respiratory infections are a major public health problem and a leading cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. At greatest risk are young children, the elderly, the chronically ill, and those with suppressed or compromised immune systems. Viruses are the predominant cause of respiratory tract illnesses and include RNA viruses such as respiratory syncytial virus, influenza virus, parainfluenza virus, metapneumovirus, rhinovirus, and coronavirus. Laboratory testing is required for a reliable diagnosis of viral respiratory infections, as a clinical diagnosis can be difficult since signs and symptoms are often overlapping and not specific for any one virus. Recent advances in technology have resulted in the development of newer diagnostic assays that offer great promise for rapid and accurate detection of respiratory viral infections. This chapter emphasizes the fundamental characteristics and clinical importance of the various RNA viruses that cause upper and lower respiratory tract diseases in the immunocompromised host. It highlights the laboratory methods that can be used to make a rapid and definitive diagnosis for the greatest impact on the care and management of ill patients, and the prevention and control of hospital-acquired infections and community outbreaks.

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Tables

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TABLE 1

Taxonomy and virologic properties of the major human respiratory RNA viruses

Source: microbiolspec July 2016 vol. 4 no. 4 doi:10.1128/microbiolspec.DMIH2-0028-2016
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TABLE 2

Epidemiology and clinical significance of the major human respiratory RNA viruses

Source: microbiolspec July 2016 vol. 4 no. 4 doi:10.1128/microbiolspec.DMIH2-0028-2016
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TABLE 3

Laboratory methods for diagnosis of the major human respiratory RNA viruses

Source: microbiolspec July 2016 vol. 4 no. 4 doi:10.1128/microbiolspec.DMIH2-0028-2016
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TABLE 4

Immunofluorescence kits and reagents for diagnosis of the major human respiratory RNA viruses

Source: microbiolspec July 2016 vol. 4 no. 4 doi:10.1128/microbiolspec.DMIH2-0028-2016
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TABLE 5

Rapid antigen detection tests for diagnosis of respiratory syncytial virus infections

Source: microbiolspec July 2016 vol. 4 no. 4 doi:10.1128/microbiolspec.DMIH2-0028-2016
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TABLE 6

Rapid antigen detection tests for diagnosis of influenza virus types A and B infections

Source: microbiolspec July 2016 vol. 4 no. 4 doi:10.1128/microbiolspec.DMIH2-0028-2016
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TABLE 7

Low-density multiplex real-time PCR assays for diagnosis of major human respiratory RNA viruses

Source: microbiolspec July 2016 vol. 4 no. 4 doi:10.1128/microbiolspec.DMIH2-0028-2016
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TABLE 8

Highly multiplexed molecular tests for diagnosis of major human respiratory RNA viruses

Source: microbiolspec July 2016 vol. 4 no. 4 doi:10.1128/microbiolspec.DMIH2-0028-2016
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TABLE 9

Rapid, sample-to-result automated molecular tests for diagnosis of major human respiratory RNA viruses

Source: microbiolspec July 2016 vol. 4 no. 4 doi:10.1128/microbiolspec.DMIH2-0028-2016

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