1887
No metrics data to plot.
The attempt to load metrics for this article has failed.
The attempt to plot a graph for these metrics has failed.

Detection of Shiga Toxin-Producing from Nonhuman Sources and Strain Typing

MyBook is a cheap paperback edition of the original book and will be sold at uniform, low price.
  • XML
    280.02 Kb
  • PDF
    540.49 Kb
  • HTML
    256.73 Kb
  • Authors: Lothar Beutin, Patrick Fach
  • VIEW AFFILIATIONS HIDE AFFILIATIONS
    Affiliations: 3: University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX; 4: University of Idaho, Moscow, ID
  • Source: microbiolspec June 2014 vol. 2 no. 3 doi:10.1128/microbiolspec.EHEC-0001-2013
  • Received 18 April 2013 Accepted 23 July 2013 Published 13 June 2014
  • Lothar Beutin, lothar.beutin@bfr.bund.de
image of Detection of Shiga Toxin-Producing <span class="jp-italic">Escherichia coli</span> from Nonhuman Sources and Strain Typing
    Preview this microbiology spectrum article:
    Zoom in
    Zoomout

    Detection of Shiga Toxin-Producing from Nonhuman Sources and Strain Typing, Page 1 of 2

    | /docserver/preview/fulltext/microbiolspec/2/3/EHEC-0001-2013-1.gif /docserver/preview/fulltext/microbiolspec/2/3/EHEC-0001-2013-2.gif
  • Abstract:

    Shiga toxin-producing (STEC) strains are commonly found in the intestine of ruminant species of wild and domestic animals. Excretion of STEC with animal feces results in a broad contamination of food and the environment. Humans get infected with STEC through ingestion of contaminated food, by contact with the environment, and from STEC-excreting animals and humans. STEC strains can behave as human pathogens, and some of them, called enterohemorrhagic (EHEC), may cause hemorrhagic colitis (HC) and hemolytic-uremic syndrome (HUS). Because of the diversity of STEC types, detection strategies for STEC and EHEC are based on the identification of Shiga toxins or the underlying genes. Cultural enrichment of STEC from test samples is needed for identification, and different protocols were developed for this purpose. Multiplex real-time PCR protocols (ISO/CEN TS13136 and USDA/FSIS MLG5B.01) have been developed to specifically identify EHEC by targeting the LEE (locus of enterocyte effacement)-encoded gene and genes for EHEC-associated O groups. The employment of more genetic markers ( and CRISPR) is a future challenge for better identification of EHEC from any kinds of samples. The isolation of STEC or EHEC from a sample is required for confirmation, and different cultivation protocols and media for this purpose have been developed. Most STEC strains present in food, animals, and the environment are negative, but some of these strains can cause HC and HUS in humans as well. Phenotypic assays and molecular tools for typing EHEC and STEC strains are used to detect and characterize human pathogenic strains among members of the STEC group.

  • Citation: Beutin L, Fach P. 2014. Detection of Shiga Toxin-Producing from Nonhuman Sources and Strain Typing. Microbiol Spectrum 2(3):EHEC-0001-2013. doi:10.1128/microbiolspec.EHEC-0001-2013.

References

1. Konowalchuk J, Speirs JI, Stavric S. 1977. Vero response to a cytotoxin of Escherichia coli. Infect Immun 18:775779. [PubMed]
2. Wade WG, Thom BT, Evans N. 1979. Cytotoxic enteropathogenic Escherichia coli. Lancet ii:12351236. [PubMed][CrossRef]
3. Wilson MW, Bettelheim KA. 1980. Cytotoxic Escherichia coli serotypes. Lancet i:201. [PubMed][CrossRef]
4. Riley LW, Remis RS, Helgerson SD, McGee HB, Wells JG, Davis BR, Hebert RJ, Olcott ES, Johnson LM, Hargrett NT, Blake PA, Cohen ML. 1983. Hemorrhagic colitis associated with a rare Escherichia coli serotype. N Engl J Med 308:681685. [PubMed][CrossRef]
5. Orskov F, Orskov I, Villar JA. 1987. Cattle as reservoir of verotoxin-producing Escherichia coli O157:H7. Lancet ii:276. [PubMed][CrossRef]
6. Martin ML, Shipman LD, Wells JG, Potter ME, Hedberg K, Wachsmuth IK, Tauxe RV, Davis JP, Arnoldi J, Tilleli J. 1986. Isolation of Escherichia coli O157:H7 from dairy cattle associated with two cases of haemolytic uraemic syndrome. Lancet ii:1043. [PubMed][CrossRef]
7. Borczyk AA, Karmali MA, Lior H, Duncan LM. 1987. Bovine reservoir for verotoxin-producing Escherichia coli O157:H7. Lancet i:98. [PubMed][CrossRef]
8. Mathusa EC, Chen Y, Enache E, Hontz L. 2010. Non-O157 Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli in foods. J Food Prot 73:17211736. [PubMed]
9. Blanco J, Blanco M, Blanco J, Mora A, Alonso MP, Gonzalez EA, Bernardez MI. 2001. Epidemiology of verocytotoxigenic Escherichia coli (VTEC) in ruminants, p 113148. In Duffy G, Garvey P, McDowell DA (ed), Verocytotoxigenic E. coli. Food & Nutrition Press, Inc, Trumbull, CT.
10. Karch H, Denamur E, Dobrindt U, Finlay BB, Hengge R, Johannes L, Ron EZ, Tonjum T, Sansonetti PJ, Vicente M. 2012. The enemy within us: lessons from the 2011 European Escherichia coli O104:H4 outbreak. EMBO Mol Med 4:841848. [PubMed][CrossRef]
11. Beutin L, Martin A. 2012. Outbreak of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) O104:H4 infection in Germany causes a paradigm shift with regard to human pathogenicity of STEC strains. J Food Prot 75:408418. [PubMed][CrossRef]
12. Sanchez S, Garcia-Sanchez A, Martinez R, Blanco J, Blanco JE, Blanco M, Dahbi G, Mora A, Hermoso DM, Alonso JM, Rey J. 2009. Detection and characterisation of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli other than Escherichia coli O157:H7 in wild ruminants. Vet J 180:384388. [PubMed][CrossRef]
13. Beutin L, Geier D, Steinruck H, Zimmermann S, Scheutz F. 1993. Prevalence and some properties of verotoxin (Shiga-like toxin)-producing Escherichia coli in seven different species of healthy domestic animals. J Clin Microbiol 31:24832488. [PubMed]
14. Caprioli A, Morabito S, Brugre H, Oswald E. 2005. Enterohaemorrhagic Escherichia coli: emerging issues on virulence and modes of transmission. Vet Res 36:289311. [PubMed][CrossRef]
15. Mora A, Herrera A, Lopez C, Dahbi G, Mamani R, Pita JM, Alonso MP, Llovo J, Bernardez MI, Blanco JE, Blanco M, Blanco J. 2011. Characteristics of the Shiga-toxin-producing enteroaggregative Escherichia coli O104:H4 German outbreak strain and of STEC strains isolated in Spain. Int Microbiol 14:121141. [PubMed]
16. Asakura H, Makino S, Shirahata T, Tsukamoto T, Kurazono H, Ikeda T, Takeshi K. 1998. Detection and genetical characterization of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli from wild deer. Microbiol Immunol 42:815822. [PubMed][CrossRef]
17. Ferens WA, Hovde CJ. 2011. Escherichia coli O157:H7: animal reservoir and sources of human infection. Foodborne Pathog Dis 8:465487. [PubMed][CrossRef]
18. Martin A, Beutin L. 2011. Characteristics of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli from meat and milk products of different origins and association with food producing animals as main contamination sources. Int J Food Microbiol 146:99104. [PubMed][CrossRef]
19. Franz E, van Bruggen AH. 2008. Ecology of E. coli O157:H7 and Salmonella enterica in the primary vegetable production chain. Crit Rev Microbiol 34:143161. [PubMed][CrossRef]
20. Loukiadis E, Kerouredan M, Beutin L, Oswald E, Brugere H. 2006. Characterization of Shiga toxin gene (stx)-positive and intimin gene (eae)-positive Escherichia coli isolates from wastewater of slaughterhouses in France. Appl Environ Microbiol 72:32453251. [PubMed][CrossRef]
21. Gourmelon M, Montet MP, Lozach S, Le Mennec C, Pommepuy M, Beutin L, Vernozy-Rozand C. 2006. First isolation of Shiga toxin 1d producing Escherichia coli variant strains in shellfish from coastal areas in France. J Appl Microbiol 100:8597. [PubMed][CrossRef]
22. Bennani M, Badri S, Baibai T, Oubrim N, Hassar M, Cohen N, Amarouch H. 2011. First detection of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli in shellfish and coastal environments of Morocco. Appl Biochem Biotechnol 165:290299. [PubMed][CrossRef]
23. Kauffman MD., LeJeune J. 2011. European starlings (Sturnus vulgaris) challenged with Escherichia coli O157 can carry and transmit the human pathogen to cattle. Lett Appl Microbiol 53:596601. [PubMed][CrossRef]
24. Ihekweazu C, Carroll K, Adak B, Smith G, Pritchard GC, Gillespie IA, Verlander NQ, Harvey-Vince L, Reacher M, Edeghere O, Sultan B, Cooper R, Morgan G, Kinross PT, Boxall NS, Iversen A, Bickler G. 2011. Large outbreak of verocytotoxin-producing Escherichia coli O157 infection in visitors to a petting farm in South East England, 2009. Epidemiol Infect 114.
25. Henderson H. 2008. Direct and indirect zoonotic transmission of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli. J Am Vet Med Assoc 232:848859. [PubMed][CrossRef]
26. Fremaux B, Raynaud S, Beutin L, Rozand CV. 2006. Dissemination and persistence of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) strains on French dairy farms. Vet Microbiol 117:180191. [PubMed][CrossRef]
27. Fremaux B, Prigent-Combaret C, Vernozy-Rozand C. 2008. Long-term survival of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli in cattle effluents and environment: an updated review. Vet Microbiol 132:118. [PubMed][CrossRef]
28. Muniesa M, Serra-Moreno R, Jofre J. 2004. Free Shiga toxin bacteriophages isolated from sewage showed diversity although the stx genes appeared conserved. Environ Microbiol 6:716725. [PubMed][CrossRef]
29. Imamovic L, Jofre J, Schmidt H, Serra-Moreno R, Muniesa M. 2009. Phage-mediated Shiga toxin 2 gene transfer in food and water. Appl Environ Microbiol 75:17641768. [PubMed][CrossRef]
30. Scheutz F, Strockbine NA. 2005. Genus I. Escherichia, p 607624. In Garrity GM, Brenner DJ, Krieg NR, Staley JT (ed), Bergey's Manual of Systematic Bacteriology, 2nd ed. Springer, New York, NY.
31. Bettelheim KA. 2007. The non-O157 Shiga-toxigenic (verocytotoxigenic) Escherichia coli; under-rated pathogens. Crit Rev Microbiol 33:6787. [PubMed][CrossRef]
32. Delannoy S, Beutin L, Fach P. 2013. Towards a molecular definition of enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC): detection of genes located on O island 57 as markers to distinguish EHEC from closely related enteropathogenic E. coli strains. J Clin Microbiol 51:10831088. [PubMed][CrossRef]
33. European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control and European Food Safety Authority. 2011. Shiga toxin/verotoxin-producing Escherichia coli in humans, food and animals in the EU/EEA, with special reference to the German outbreak strain STEC O104. European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control, Stockholm, Sweden, and European Food Safety Authority, Parma, Italy.
34. Beutin L, Krause G, Zimmermann S, Kaulfuss S, Gleier K. 2004. Characterization of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli strains isolated from human patients in Germany over a 3-year period. J Clin Microbiol 42:10991108. [PubMed][CrossRef]
35. Kappeli U, Hachler H, Giezendanner N, Cheasty T, Stephan R. 2010. Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli O157 associated with human infections in Switzerland, 20002009. Epidemiol Infect 28:18.
36. Brooks JT, Sowers EG, Wells JG, Greene KD, Griffin PM, Hoekstra RM, Strockbine NA. 2005. Non-O157 Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli infections in the United States, 19832002. J Infect Dis 192:14221429. [PubMed][CrossRef]
37. Karmali MA, Mascarenhas M, Shen S, Ziebell K, Johnson S, Reid-Smith R, Isaac-Renton J, Clark C, Rahn K, Kaper JB. 2003. Association of genomic O island 122 of Escherichia coli EDL 933 with verocytotoxin-producing Escherichia coli seropathotypes that are linked to epidemic and/or serious disease. J Clin Microbiol 41:49304940. [PubMed][CrossRef]
38. Konczy P, Ziebell K, Mascarenhas M, Choi A, Michaud C, Kropinski AM, Whittam TS, Wickham M, Finlay B, Karmali MA. 2008. Genomic O island 122, locus for enterocyte effacement, and the evolution of virulent verocytotoxin-producing Escherichia coli. J Bacteriol 190:58325840. [PubMed][CrossRef]
39. Coombes BK, Wickham ME, Mascarenhas M, Gruenheid S, Finlay BB, Karmali MA. 2008. Molecular analysis as an aid to assess the public health risk of non-O157 Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli strains. Appl Environ Microbiol 74:21532160. [PubMed][CrossRef]
40. Bugarel M, Beutin L, Martin A, Gill A, Fach P. 2010. Micro-array for the identification of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) seropathotypes associated with hemorrhagic colitis and hemolytic uremic syndrome in humans. Int J Food Microbiol 142:318329. [PubMed][CrossRef]
41. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. 1995. Outbreak of acute gastroenteritis attributable to Escherichia coli serotype O104:H21Helena, Montana, 1994. Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 44:501503. [PubMed]
42. Kaper JB, Nataro JP, Mobley HL. 2004. Pathogenic Escherichia coli. Nat Rev Microbiol 2:123140. [PubMed][CrossRef]
43. Bielaszewska M, Mellmann A, Zhang W, Kock R, Fruth A, Bauwens A, Peters G, Karch H. 2011. Characterisation of the Escherichia coli strain associated with an outbreak of haemolytic uraemic syndrome in Germany, 2011: a microbiological study. Lancet Infect Dis 11:671676. [PubMed][CrossRef]
44. Bettelheim KA, Beutin L. 2003. Rapid laboratory identification and characterization of verocytotoxigenic (Shiga toxin producing) Escherichia coli (VTEC/STEC). J Appl Microbiol 95:205217. [PubMed][CrossRef]
45. Paton JC, Paton AW. 2003. Methods for detection of STEC in humans. An overview. Methods Mol Med 73:926. [PubMed]
46. Scheutz F, Teel LD, Beutin L, Pierard D, Buvens G, Karch H, Mellmann A, Caprioli A, Tozzoli R, Morabito S, Strockbine NA, Melton-Celsa AR, Sanchez M, Persson S, OBrien AD. 2012. Multicenter evaluation of a sequence-based protocol for subtyping shiga toxins and standardizing stx nomenclature. J Clin Microbiol 50:29512963. [PubMed][CrossRef]
47. Muthing J, Schweppe CH, Karch H, Friedrich AW. 2009. Shiga toxins, glycosphingolipid diversity, and endothelial cell injury. Thromb Haemost 101:252264. [PubMed]
48. Paton JC, Paton AW. 1998. Pathogenesis and diagnosis of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli infections. Clin Microbiol Rev 11:450479. [PubMed]
49. Smith HR, Scotland SM. 1988. Vero cytotoxin-producing strains of Escherichia coli. J Med Microbiol 26:7785. [PubMed][CrossRef]
50. Strockbine NA, Wells JG, Bopp CA, Barrett TJ. 1998. Overview of detection and subtyping methods, p 331356. In Kaper JB, O'Brien AD (ed), Escherichia coli O157:H7and Other Shiga Toxin-Producing E. coli Strains. American Society for Microbiology, Washington, DC.
51. Beutin L, Steinruck H, Krause G, Steege K, Haby S, Hultsch G, Appel B. 2007. Comparative evaluation of the RidascreenVerotoxin enzyme immunoassay for detection of Shiga-toxin producing strains of Escherichia coli (STEC) from food and other sources. J Appl Microbiol 102:630639. [PubMed][CrossRef]
52. Beutin L, Kruger U, Krause G, Miko A, Martin A, Strauch E. 2008. Evaluation of major types of Shiga toxin 2e producing Escherichia coli present in food, pigs and in the environment as potential pathogens for humans. Appl Environ Microbiol 74:48064816. [PubMed][CrossRef]
53. Staples M, Jennison AV, Graham RM, Smith HV. 2012. Evaluation of the Meridian Premier EHEC assay as an indicator of Shiga toxin presence in direct faecal specimens. Diagn Microbiol Infect Dis 73:322325. [PubMed][CrossRef]
54. Segura-Alvarez M, Richter H, Conraths FJ, Geue L. 2003. Evaluation of enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays and a PCR test for detection of shiga toxins for Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli in cattle herds. J Clin Microbiol 41:57605763. [PubMed][CrossRef]
55. Watarai S, Tana, Inoue K, Kushi Y, Isogai E, Yokota K, Naka K, Oguma K, Kodama H. 2001. Inhibition of Vero cell cytotoxic activity in Escherichia coli O157:H7 lysates by globotriaosylceramide, Gb3, from bovine milk. Biosci Biotechnol Biochem 65:414419. [PubMed][CrossRef]
56. Gallegos KM, Conrady DG, Karve SS, Gunasekera TS, Herr AB, Weiss AA. 2012. Shiga toxin binding to glycolipids and glycans. PLoS One 7:e30368. [PubMed][CrossRef]
57. Beutin L, Zimmermann S, Gleier K. 1996. Rapid detection and isolation of Shiga-like toxin (verocytotoxin)-producing Escherichia coli by direct testing of individual enterohemolytic colonies from washed sheep blood agar plates in the VTEC-RPLA assay. J Clin Microbiol 34:28122814. [PubMed]
58. Karmali MA, Petric M, Bielaszewska M. 1999. Evaluation of a microplate latex agglutination method (Verotox-F assay) for detecting and characterizing verotoxins (Shiga toxins) in Escherichia coli. J Clin Microbiol 37:396399. [PubMed]
59. Burgos Y, Beutin L. 2012. Evaluation of an immuno-chromatographic detection system for Shiga toxins and the E. coli O157 antigen, p 2940. In Abuelzein E (ed), Trends in Immunolabelled and Related Techniques, 1st ed. InTech, Rijeka, Croatia. [CrossRef]
60. Feng PC, Jinneman K, Scheutz F, Monday SR. 2011. Specificity of PCR and serological assays in the detection of Escherichia coli Shiga toxin subtypes. Appl Environ Microbiol 77:66996702. [PubMed][CrossRef]
61. Beutin L, Martin A, Krause G, Steege K, Haby S, Pries K, Albrecht N, Miko A, Jahn S. 2010. Ergebnisse, Schlussfolgerungen und Empfehlungen aus zwei Ringversuchen zum Nachweis und zur Isolierung von Shiga (Vero) Toxin bildenden Escherichia coli (STEC) aus Hackfleischproben. JVerbrauchLebensm 5:2134.
62. Parma YR, Chacana PA, Lucchesi PM, Roge A, Granobles Velandia CV, Kruger A, Parma AE, Fernandez-Miyakawa ME. 2012. Detection of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli by sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay using chicken egg yolk IgY antibodies. Front Cell Infect Microbiol 2:84. [PubMed][CrossRef]
63. Kehl SC. 2002. Role of the laboratory in the diagnosis of enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli infections. J Clin Microbiol 40:27112715. [PubMed][CrossRef]
64. Zhang W, Bielaszewska M, Pulz M, Becker K, Friedrich AW, Karch H, Kuczius T. 2008. A new immuno-PCR assay for the detection of low concentrations of Shiga toxin 2 and its variants. J Clin Microbiol 46:12921297. [PubMed][CrossRef]
65. Ge B, Zhao S, Hall R, Meng J. 2002. A PCR-ELISA for detecting Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli. Microbes Infect 4:285290. [PubMed][CrossRef]
66. Auvray F, Lecureuil C, Tache J, Leclerc V, Deperrois V, Lombard B. 2007. Detection, isolation and characterization of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli in retail-minced beef using PCR-based techniques, immunoassays and colony hybridization. Lett Appl Microbiol 45:646651. [PubMed][CrossRef]
67. Fach P, Perelle S, Dilasser F, Grout J. 2001. Comparison between a PCR-ELISA test and the vero cell assay for detecting Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli in dairy products and characterization of virulence traits of the isolated strains. J Appl Microbiol 90:809818. [PubMed][CrossRef]
68. Beutin L, Zimmermann S, Gleier K. 2002. Evaluation of the VTEC-screen Seiken test for detection of different types of Shiga toxin (verotoxin)-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) in human stool samples. Diagn Microbiol Infect Dis 42:18. [PubMed][CrossRef]
69. Klie H, Timm M, Richter H, Gallien P, Perlberg KW, Steinruck H. 1997. Detection and occurrence of verotoxin-forming and/or shigatoxin producing Escherichia coli (VTEC and/or STEC) in milk. Berl Munch Tierarztl Wochenschr 110:337341. (In German.) [PubMed]
70. Richter H, Klie H, Timm M, Gallien P, Steinruck H, Perlberg KW, Protz D. 1997. Verotoxin-producing E. coli (VTEC) in feces from cattle slaughtered in Germany. Berl Munch Tierarztl Wochenschr 110:121127. (In German.) [PubMed]
71. Desrosiers A, Fairbrother JM, Johnson RP, Desautels C, Letellier A, Quessy S. 2001. Phenotypic and genotypic characterization of Escherichia coli verotoxin-producing isolates from humans and pigs. J Food Prot 64:19041911. [PubMed]
72. Hull AE, Acheson DW, Echeverria P, Donohue-Rolfe A, Keusch GT. 1993. Mitomycin immunoblot colony assay for detection of Shiga-like toxin-producing Escherichia coli in fecal samples: comparison with DNA probes. J Clin Microbiol 31:11671172. [PubMed]
73. Timm M, Klie H, Richter H, Perlberg KW. 1996. A method for specific isolation of verotoxin-producing Escherichia coli colonies. Berl Munch Tierarztl Wochenschr 109:270-272. (In German.) [PubMed]
74. Thomas A, Smith HR, Willshaw GA, Rowe B. 1991. Non-radioactively labelled polynucleotide and oligonucleotide DNA probes, for selectively detecting Escherichia coli strains producing Vero cytotoxins VT1, VT2 and VT2 variant. Mol Cell Probes 5:129135. [PubMed][CrossRef]
75. Karch H, Meyer T. 1989. Evaluation of oligonucleotide probes for identification of Shiga-like-toxin-producing Escherichia coli. J Clin Microbiol 27:11801186. [PubMed]
76. Tokhi AM, Peiris JS, Scotland SM, Willshaw GA, Smith HR, Cheasty T. 1993. A longitudinal study of Vero cytotoxin producing Escherichia coli in cattle calves in Sri Lanka. Epidemiol Infect 110:197208. [PubMed][CrossRef]
77. Todd EC, Szabo RA, MacKenzie JM, Martin A, Rahn K, Gyles C, Gao A, Alves D, Yee AJ. 1999. Application of a DNA hybridization-hydrophobic-grid membrane filter method for detection and isolation of verotoxigenic Escherichia coli. Appl Environ Microbiol 65:47754780. [PubMed]
78. Montenegro MA, Bulte M, Trumpf T, Aleksic S, Reuter G, Bulling E, Helmuth R. 1990. Detection and characterization of fecal verotoxin-producing Escherichia coli from healthy cattle. J Clin Microbiol 28:14171421. [PubMed]
79. Dorn CR, Scotland SM, Smith HR, Willshaw GA, Rowe B. 1989. Properties of Vero cytotoxin-producing Escherichia coli of human and animal origin belonging to serotypes other than O157:H7. Epidemiol Infect 103:8395. [PubMed][CrossRef]
80. Kobayashi H, Shimada J, Nakazawa M, Morozumi T, Pohjanvirta T, Pelkonen S, Yamamoto K. 2001. Prevalence and characteristics of shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli from healthy cattle in Japan. Appl Environ Microbiol 67:484489. [PubMed][CrossRef]
81. Lin Z, Kurazono H, Yamasaki S, Takeda Y. 1993. Detection of various variant verotoxin genes in Escherichia coli by polymerase chain reaction. Microbiol Immunol 37:543548. [PubMed][CrossRef]
82. Karch H, Meyer T. 1989. Single primer pair for amplifying segments of distinct Shiga-like-toxin genes by polymerase chain reaction. J Clin Microbiol 27:27512757. [PubMed]
83. Paton AW, Paton JC. 1998. Detection and characterization of Shiga toxigenic Escherichia coli by using multiplex PCR assays for stx1, stx2, eaeA, enterohemorrhagic E. coli hlyA, rfbO111, and rfbO157. J Clin Microbiol 36:598602. [PubMed]
84. Gannon VP, King RK, Kim JY, Thomas EJ. 1992. Rapid and sensitive method for detection of Shiga-like toxin-producing Escherichia coli in ground beef using the polymerase chain reaction. Appl Environ Microbiol 58:38093815. [PubMed]
85. Ziebell KA, Read SC, Johnson RP, Gyles CL. 2002. Evaluation of PCR and PCR-RFLP protocols for identifying Shiga toxins. Res Microbiol 153:289300. [PubMed][CrossRef]
86. Beutin L, Miko A, Krause G, Pries K, Haby S, Steege K, Albrecht N. 2007. Identification of human-pathogenic strains of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli from food by a combination of serotyping and molecular typing of Shiga toxin genes. Appl Environ Microbiol 73:47694775. [PubMed][CrossRef]
87. Miko A, Pries K, Haby S, Steege K, Albrecht N, Krause G, Beutin L. 2009. Assessment of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli isolates from wildlife meat as potential pathogens for humans. Appl Environ Microbiol 75:64626470. [PubMed][CrossRef]
88. Stephan R, Zweifel C, Fach P, Morabito S, Beutin L. 2011. Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli in food, p 229239. In Hoorfar J (ed), Rapid Detection, Characterization, and Enumeration of Foodborne Pathogens. ASM Press, Washington, DC.
89. Wang G, Clark CG, Rodgers FG. 2002. Detection in Escherichia coli of the genes encoding the major virulence factors, the genes defining the O157:H7 serotype, and components of the type 2 Shiga toxin family by multiplex PCR. J Clin Microbiol 40:36133619. [PubMed][CrossRef]
90. Peitz R, Weber H, Gleier K, Zimmermann S, Beutin L. 2000. Detection of enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) in raw meat and raw meat sausages. Fleischwirtschaft 3:7174.
91. Urdahl AM, Solheim HT, Vold L, Hasseltvedt V, Wasteson Y. 2013. Shiga toxin-encoding genes (stx genes) in human faecal samples. APMIS 121:202210. [PubMed][CrossRef]
92. Wang F, Jiang L, Yang Q, Prinyawiwatkul W, Ge B. 2012. Rapid and specific detection of Escherichia coli serogroups O26, O45, O103, O111, O121, O145, and O157 in ground beef, beef trim, and produce by loop-mediated isothermal amplification. Appl Environ Microbiol 78:27272736. [PubMed][CrossRef]
93. Reischl U, Youssef MT, Kilwinski J, Lehn N, Zhang WL, Karch H, Strockbine NA. 2002. Real-time fluorescence PCR assays for detection and characterization of Shiga toxin, intimin, and enterohemolysin genes from Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli. J Clin Microbiol 40:25552565. [PubMed][CrossRef]
94. Sekse C, Solberg A, Petersen A, Rudi K, Wasteson YB. 2005. Detection and quantification of Shiga toxin-encoding genes in sheep faeces by real-time PCR. Mol Cell Probes 19:363370. [PubMed][CrossRef]
95. Stefan A, Scaramagli S, Bergami R, Mazzini C, Barbanera M, Perelle S, Fach P. 2007. Real-time PCR and enzyme-linked fluorescent assay methods for detecting Shiga-toxin-producing Escherichia coli in mincemeat samples. Can J Microbiol 53:337342. [PubMed][CrossRef]
96. Perelle S, Dilasser F, Grout J, Fach P. 2007. Screening food raw materials for the presence of the world's most frequent clinical cases of Shiga toxin-encoding Escherichia coli O26, O103, O111, O145 and O157. Int J Food Microbiol 113:284288. [PubMed][CrossRef]
97. Perelle S, Dilasser F, Grout J, Fach P. 2004. Detection by 5-nuclease PCR of Shiga-toxin producing Escherichia coli O26, O55, O91, O103, O111, O113, O145 and O157:H7, associated with the worlds most frequent clinical cases. Mol Cell Probes 18:185192. [PubMed][CrossRef]
98. Chassagne L, Pradel N, Robin F, Livrelli V, Bonnet R, Delmas J. 2009. Detection of stx1, stx2, and eae genes of enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli using SYBR Green in a real-time polymerase chain reaction. Diagn Microbiol Infect Dis 64:98101. [PubMed][CrossRef]
99. Beutin L, Jahn S, Fach F. 2009. Evaluation of the "GeneDisc" real-time PCR system for detection of enterohaemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) O26, O103, O111, O145 and O157 strains according to their virulence markers and their O- and H-antigen-associated genes. J Appl Microbiol 106:11221132. [PubMed][CrossRef]
100. Fratamico PM, Bagi LK. 2012. Detection of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli in ground beef using the GeneDisc real-time PCR system. Front Cell Infect Microbiol 2:152. [PubMed][CrossRef]
101. Fratamico PM, Bagi LK, Cray WC, Jr, Narang N, Yan X, Medina M, Liu Y. 2011. Detection by multiplex real-time polymerase chain reaction assays and isolation of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli serogroups O26, O45, O103, O111, O121, and O145 in ground beef. Foodborne Pathog Dis 8:601607. [PubMed][CrossRef]
102. Tzschoppe M, Martin A, Beutin L. 2012. A rapid procedure for the detection and isolation of enterohaemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) serogroup O26, O103, O111, O118, O121, O145 and O157 strains and the aggregative EHEC O104:H4 strain from ready-to-eat vegetables. Int J Food Microbiol 152:1930. [PubMed][CrossRef]
103. Chui L, Couturier MR, Chiu T, Wang G, Olson AB, McDonald RR, Antonishyn NA, Horsman G, Gilmour MW. 2010. Comparison of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli detection methods using clinical stool samples. J Mol. Diagn 12:469475. [PubMed][CrossRef]
104. International Organization for Standardization (ISO). 2012. ISO/TS 13136:2012, Microbiology of food and animal feedReal-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based method for the detection of food-borne pathogensHorizontal method for the detection of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) and the determination of O157, O111, O26, O103 and O145 serogroups. (ISO/TS 13136:2012). 11-7-2012. International Organization for Standardization, ISO Central Secretariat, Geneva, Switzerland.
105. USDA Working Group. 2011. Detection and isolation of non-O157 Shiga-toxin producing Escherichia coli strains (STEC) from meat products, p 116. In Laboratory QA/QC Division (ed), Laboratory Guidebook. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Laboratory QA/QC Division, Athens, GA.
106. European Food Safety Authority. 2012. Manual for Reporting on Zoonoses, Zoonotic Agents and Antimicrobial Resistance in the Framework of Directive 2003/99/EC and of Some Other Pathogenic Microbiological Agents for Information Derived from the Year 2011. European Food Safety Authority, Parma, Italy.
107. European Food Safety Authority. 2012. The European Union summary report on trends and sources of zoonoses, zoonotic agents and food-borne outbreaks in 2010. EFSA J 10:2597.
108. Mellmann A, Bielaszewska M, Kock R, Friedrich AW, Fruth A, Middendorf B, Harmsen D, Schmidt MA, Karch H. 2008. Analysis of collection of hemolytic uremic syndrome-associated enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli. Emerg Infect Dis 14:12871290. [PubMed][CrossRef]
109. Nielsen EM, Andersen MT. 2003. Detection and characterization of verocytotoxin-producing Escherichia coli by automated 5 nuclease PCR assay. J Clin Microbiol 41:28842893. [CrossRef]
110. Shelton DR, Karns JS, Higgins JA, Van Kessel JA, Perdue ML, Belt KT, Russell-Anelli J, Debroy C. 2006. Impact of microbial diversity on rapid detection of enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli in surface waters. FEMS Microbiol Lett 261:95101. [PubMed][CrossRef]
111. Krause G, Zimmermann S, Beutin L. 2005. Investigation of domestic animals and pets as a reservoir for intimin (eae) gene positive Escherichia coli types. Vet Microbiol 106:8795. [PubMed][CrossRef]
112. Kozub-Witkowski E, Krause G, Frankel G, Kramer D, Appel B, Beutin L. 2008. Serotypes and virutypes of enteropathogenic and enterohaemorrhagic Escherichia coli strains from stool samples of children with diarrhoea in Germany. J Appl Microbiol 104:403410. [PubMed]
113. Feng PC, Keys C, Lacher D, Monday SR, Shelton D, Rozand C, Rivas M, Whittam T. 2010. Prevalence, characterization and clonal analysis of Escherichia coli O157: non-H7 serotypes that carry eae alleles. FEMS Microbiol Lett 308:6267. [PubMed][CrossRef]
114. Alonso MZ, Padola NL, Parma AE, Lucchesi PM. 2011. Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli contamination at different stages of the chicken slaughtering process. Poult Sci 90:26382641. [PubMed][CrossRef]
115. Anklam KS, Kanankege KS, Gonzales TK, Kaspar CW, Dopfer D. 2012. Rapid and reliable detection of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli by real-time multiplex PCR. J Food Prot 75:643650. [PubMed][CrossRef]
116. Sekse C, O'Sullivan K, Granum PE, Rorvik LM, Wasteson Y, Jorgensen HJ. 2009. An outbreak of Escherichia coli O103. Int J Food Microbiol 133:259264. [PubMed][CrossRef]
117. Iguchi A, Iyoda S, Ohnishi M. 2012. Molecular characterization reveals three distinct clonal groups among clinical shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli strains of serogroup O103. J Clin Microbiol 50:28942900. [PubMed][CrossRef]
118. Maidhof H, Guerra B, Abbas S, Elsheikha HM, Whittam TS, Beutin L. 2002. A multiresistant clone of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli O118:[H16] is spread in cattle and humans over different European countries. Appl Environ Microbiol 68:58345842. [PubMed][CrossRef]
119. Bielaszewska M, Prager R, Vandivinit L, Musken A, Mellmann A, Holt NJ, Tarr PI, Karch H, Zhang W. 2009. Detection and characterization of the fimbrial sfp cluster in enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli O165:H25/NM isolates from humans and cattle. Appl Environ Microbiol 75:6471. [PubMed][CrossRef]
120. Delannoy S, Beutin L, Burgos YK, Fach P. 2012. Specific detection of enteroaggregative hemorrhagic Escherichia coli O104:H4 strains using the CRISPR locus as target for a diagnostic real-time PCR. J Clin Microbiol 50:34853492. [PubMed][CrossRef]
121. Jelacic JK, Damrow T, Chen GS, Jelacic S, Bielaszewska M, Ciol M, Carvalho HM, Melton-Celsa AR, OBrien AD, Tarr PI. 2003. Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli in Montana: bacterial genotypes and clinical profiles. J Infect Dis 188:719729. [PubMed][CrossRef]
122. Paton AW, Srimanote P, Woodrow MC, Paton JC. 2001. Characterization of Saa, a novel autoagglutinating adhesin produced by locus of enterocyte effacement-negative Shiga-toxigenic Escherichia coli strains that are virulent for humans. Infect Immun 69:69997009. [PubMed][CrossRef]
123. Hauser E, Mellmann A, Semmler T, Stoeber H, Wieler LH, Karch H, Kuebler N, Fruth A, Harmsen D, Weniger T, TietzeE, Schmidt H. 2013. Phylogenetic and molecular analysis of food-borne Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli. Appl Environ Microbiol 79:27312740. [PubMed][CrossRef]
124. Shimizu T, Ohta Y, Noda M. 2009. Shiga toxin 2 is specifically released from bacterial cells by two different mechanisms. Infect Immun 77:28132823. [PubMed][CrossRef]
125. Rocha LB, Piazza RM. 2007. Production of Shiga toxin by Shiga toxin-expressing Escherichia coli (STEC) in broth media: from divergence to definition. Lett Appl Microbiol 45:411417. [PubMed][CrossRef]
126. McGannon CM, Fuller CA, Weiss AA. 2010. Different classes of antibiotics differentially influence shiga toxin production. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 54:37903798. [PubMed][CrossRef]
127. Zhang X, McDaniel AD, Wolf LE, Keusch GT, Waldor MK, Acheson DW. 2000. Quinolone antibiotics induce Shiga toxin-encoding bacteriophages, toxin production, and death in mice. J Infect Dis 181:664670. [PubMed][CrossRef]
128. Bielaszewska M, Idelevich EA, Zhang W, Bauwens A, Schaumburg F, Mellmann A, Peters G, Karch H. 2012. Effects of antibiotics on Shiga toxin 2 production and bacteriophage induction by epidemic Escherichia coli O104:H4 strain. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 56:32773282. [PubMed][CrossRef]
129. Hussein HS, Bollinger LM. 2008. Influence of selective media on successful detection of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli in food, fecal, and environmental samples. Foodborne Pathog Dis 5:227244. [PubMed][CrossRef]
130. International Organization for Standardization. 2009. ISO 16654: Microbiology of food and animal feeding stuffshorizontal method for the detection of Escherichia coli O157. International Organization for Standardization, Geneva, Switzerland.
131. de Boer E, Heuvelink AE. 2000. Methods for the detection and isolation of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli. Symp Ser Soc Appl Microbiol 29:133S143S. [PubMed][CrossRef]
132. World Health Organization. 1998. Zoonotic non-O157 Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC). Report of a WHO Scientific Working Group Meeting, Berlin, Germany, 2326 June 1998. WHO/CSR/APH/98.8, 130. 1998. World Health Organization, Geneva, Switzerland.
133. Vimont A, Vernozy-Rozand C, Delignette-Muller ML. 2006. Isolation of E. coli O157:H7 and non-O157 STEC in different matrices: review of the most commonly used enrichment protocols. Lett Appl Microbiol 42:102108. [PubMed][CrossRef]
134. Bolton DJ, OSullivan J, Duffy G, Baylis CL, Tozzoli R, Wasteson Y, Lofdahl S (ed). 2007. Methods for Detection and Molecular Characterisation of Pathogenic Escherichia coli. Ashtown Food Research Centre, Ashtown, Ireland.
135. Vimont A, Vernozy-Rozand C, Montet MP, Lazizzera C, Bavai C, Delignette-Muller ML. 2006. Modeling and predicting the simultaneous growth of Escherichia coli O157:H7 and ground beef background microflora for various enrichment protocols. Appl Environ Microbiol 72:261268. [PubMed][CrossRef]
136. Baylis CL. 2008. Growth of pure cultures of verocytotoxin-producing Escherichia coli in a range of enrichment media. J Appl Microbiol 105:12591265. [PubMed][CrossRef]
137. Kanki M, Seto K, Harada T, Yonog S, Kumeda Y. 2011. Comparison of four enrichment broths for the detection of non-O157 Shiga-toxin-producing Escherichia coli O91, O103, O111, O119, O121, O145 and O165 from pure culture and food samples. Lett Appl Microbiol 53:167173. [PubMed][CrossRef]
138. Auvray F, Lecureuil C, Dilasser F, Tache J, Derzelle S. 2009. Development of a real-time PCR assay with an internal amplification control for the screening of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli in foods. Lett Appl Microbiol 48:554559. [PubMed][CrossRef]
139. Jahn S, Weber H, Beutin L. 2008. Comparison of enzyme immunoassay and quantitiver real time PCR as proof of Shigatoxin producing Escherichia coli (STEC) in mincemeat. J VerbrauchLebensm 3:385395. (In German.)
140. Doyle MP, Schoeni JL. 1984. Survival and growth characteristics of Escherichia coli associated with hemorrhagic colitis. Appl Environ Microbiol 48:855856. [PubMed]
141. Lack WK, Becker B, Holzapfel WH. 1996. Hygienischer Status frischer vorverpackter Mischsalate im Jahr 1995. Arch Lebensmittelhyg 47:129152.
142. Klepzig I, Teufel P, Schott W, Hildebrandt G. 1999. Auswirkungen einer Unterbrechung der Khlkette auf die mikrobiologische Beschaffenheit von vorzerkleinerten Mischsalaten. Arch Lebensmittelhyg 50:95104.
143. Sagoo SK, Little CL, Mitchell RT. 2003. Microbiological quality of open ready-to-eat salad vegetables: effectiveness of food hygiene training of management. J Food Prot 66:15811586. [PubMed]
144. Madic J, Vingadassalon N, Peytavin de Garam C, Marault M, Scheutz F, Brugre H, Jamet E, Auvray, F. 2011. Detection of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) O26:H11, O103:H2, O111:H8, O145:H28 and O157:H7 in raw-milk cheeses by using multiplex real-time PCR. Appl Environ Microbiol 77:20352041. [PubMed][CrossRef]
145. Hussein HS, Bollinger LM, Hall MR. 2008. Growth and enrichment medium for detection and isolation of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli in cattle feces. J Food Prot 71:927933. [PubMed]
146. Gill A, Martinez-Perez A, McIlwham S, Blais B. 2012. Development of a method for the detection of verotoxin-producing Escherichia coli in food. J Food Prot 75:827837. [PubMed][CrossRef]
147. Lehmacher A, Meier H, Aleksic S, Bockemuhl J. 1998. Detection of hemolysin variants of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli by PCR and culture on vancomycin-cefixime-cefsulodin blood agar. Appl Environ Microbiol 64:24492453. [PubMed]
148. Lin A, Nguyen L, Clotilde LM, Kase JA, Son I, Lauzon CR. 2012. Isolation of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli from fresh produce using STEC heart infusion washed blood agar with mitomycin-C. J Food Prot 75:20282030. [PubMed][CrossRef]
149. Sugiyama K, Inoue K, Sakazaki R. 2001. Mitomycin-supplemented washed blood agar for the isolation of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli other than O157:H7. Lett Appl Microbiol 33:193195. [PubMed][CrossRef]
150. Posse B, De Zutter L, Heyndrickx M, Herman L. 2008. Novel differential and confirmation plating media for Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli serotypes O26, O103, O111, O145 and sorbitol-positive and -negative O157. FEMS Microbiol Lett 282:124131. [PubMed][CrossRef]
151. Posse B, De Zutter L, Heyndrickx M, Herman L. 2008. Quantitative isolation efficiency of O26, O103, O111, O145 and O157 STEC serotypes from artificially contaminated food and cattle faeces samples using a new isolation protocol. J Appl Microbiol 105:227235. [PubMed][CrossRef]
152. Vimont A, Delignette-Muller ML, Vernozy-Rozand C. 2007. Supplementation of enrichment broths by novobiocin for detecting Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli from food: a controversial use. Lett Appl Microbiol 44:326331. [PubMed][CrossRef]
153. Gouali M, Ruckly C, Carle I, Lejay-Collin M, Weill FX. 2013. Evaluation of CHROMagar STEC and STEC O104 chromogenic agar media for detection of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli in stool specimens. J Clin Microbiol 51:894900. [PubMed][CrossRef]
154. Taylor DE, Rooker M, Keelan M, Ng LK, Martin I, Perna NT, Burland NT, Blattner FR. 2002. Genomic variability of O islands encoding tellurite resistance in enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli O157:H7 isolates. J Bacteriol 184:46904698. [PubMed][CrossRef]
155. Bielaszewska M, Tarr PI, Karch H, Zhang W, Mathys W. 2005. Phenotypic and molecular analysis of tellurite resistance among enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli O157:H7 and sorbitol-fermenting O157:NM clinical isolates. J Clin Microbiol 43:452454. [PubMed][CrossRef]
156. Orth D, Grif K, Dierich MP, Wurzner R. 2007. Variability in tellurite resistance and the ter gene cluster among Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli isolated from humans, animals and food. Res Microbiol 158:105111. [PubMed][CrossRef]
157. Bielaszewska M, Middendorf B, Tarr PI, Zhang W, Prager R, Aldick T, Dobrindt U, Karch H, Mellmann A. 2011. Chromosomal instability in enterohaemorrhagic Escherichia coli O157:H7: impact on adherence, tellurite resistance and colony phenotype. Mol Microbiol 79:10241044. [PubMed][CrossRef]
158. Schmidt H, Karch H, Beutin L. 1994. The large-sized plasmids of enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli O157 strains encode hemolysins which are presumably members of the E. coli alpha-hemolysin family. FEMS Microbiol Lett 117:189196. [PubMed]
159. Brunder W, Schmidt H, Frosch M, Karch H. 1999. The large plasmids of Shiga-toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) are highly variable genetic elements. Microbiology 145(Pt 5):10051014. [PubMed][CrossRef]
160. Beutin L, Montenegro MA, Orskov I, Prada J, Zimmermann S, Stephan R. 1989. Close association of verotoxin (Shiga-like toxin) production with enterohemolysin production in strains of Escherichia coli. J Clin Microbiol 27:25592564. [PubMed]
161. Burgos Y, Beutin L. 2010. Common origin of plasmid encoded alpha-hemolysin genes in Escherichia coli. BMC Microbiol 10:193. [PubMed][CrossRef]
162. Prada J, Baljer G, De Rycke J, Steinruck H, Zimmermann S, Stephan R, Beutin L. 1991. Characteristics of alpha-hemolytic strains of Escherichia coli isolated from dogs with gastroenteritis. Vet Microbiol 29:5973. [PubMed][CrossRef]
163. Bugarel M, Beutin L, Fach P. 2010. Low-density macroarray targeting non-locus of enterocyte effacement effectors (nle genes) and major virulence factors of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC): a new approach for molecular risk assessment of STEC isolates. Appl Environ Microbiol 76:203211. [PubMed][CrossRef]
164. Karch H, Bielaszewska M. 2001. Sorbitol-fermenting Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli O157:H() strains: epidemiology, phenotypic and molecular characteristics, and microbiological diagnosis. J Clin Microbiol 39:20432049. [PubMed][CrossRef]
165. Bielaszewska M, Kock R, Friedrich AW, von Eiff C, Zimmerhackl LB, Karch H, Mellmann A. 2007. Shiga toxin-mediated hemolytic uremic syndrome: time to change the diagnostic paradigm? PLoS One 2:e1024. [PubMed][CrossRef]
166. Miko A, Lindstedt BA, Brandal LT, Lobersli I, Beutin L. 2010. Evaluation of multiple-locus variable number of tandem-repeats analysis (MLVA) as a method for identification of clonal groups among enteropathogenic, enterohaemorrhagic and avirulent Escherichia coli O26 strains. FEMS Microbiol Lett 303:137146. [PubMed][CrossRef]
167. Bugarel M, Beutin L, Scheutz F, Loukiadis E, Fach P. 2011. Identification of genetic markers for differentiation of Shiga toxin-producing, enteropathogenic and avirulent strains of Escherichia coli O26. Appl Environ Microbiol 77:22752281. [PubMed][CrossRef]
168. Gyles C, Johnson R, Gao A, Ziebell K, Pierard D, Aleksic S, Boerlin P. 1998. Association of enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli hemolysin with serotypes of shiga-like-toxin-producing Escherichia coli of human and bovine origins. Appl Environ Microbiol 64:41344141. [PubMed]
169. Aidar-Ugrinovich L, Blanco J, Blanco M, Blanco JE, Leomil L, Dahbi G, Mora A, Onuma DL, Silveira WD, Pestana de Castro AF. 2007. Serotypes, virulence genes, and intimin types of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) and enteropathogenic E. coli (EPEC) isolated from calves in Sao Paulo, Brazil. Int J Food Microbiol 115:297306. [PubMed][CrossRef]
170. Mora A, Blanco M, Blanco JE, Dahbi G, Lopez C, Justel P, Alonso MP, Echeita A, Bernardez MI, Gonzalez EA, Blanco J. 2007. Serotypes, virulence genes and intimin types of Shiga toxin (verocytotoxin)-producing Escherichia coli isolates from minced beef in Lugo (Spain) from 1995 through 2003. BMC Microbiol 7:13. [PubMed][CrossRef]
171. Pradel N, Livrelli V, Champs C, Palcoux JB, Reynaud A, Scheutz F, Sirot J, Joly B, Forestier C. 2000. Prevalence and characterization of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli isolated from cattle, food, and children during a one-year prospective study in France. J Clin Microbiol 38:10231031. [PubMed]
172. Kaufmann M, Zweifel C, Blanco M, Blanco JE, Blanco J, Beutin L, Stephan RB. 2006. Escherichia coli O157 and non-O157 Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli in fecal samples of finished pigs at slaughter in Switzerland. J Food Prot 69:260266. [PubMed]
173. Karama M, Gyles CL. 2010. Methods for genotyping verotoxin-producing Escherichia coli. Zoonoses Public Health 57:447462. [PubMed][CrossRef]
174. Karch H, Bohm H, Schmidt H, Gunzer F, Aleksic S, Heesemann J. 1993. Clonal structure and pathogenicity of Shiga-like toxin-producing, sorbitol-fermenting Escherichia coli O157:H. J Clin Microbiol 31:12001205. [PubMed]
175. Feng P, Lampel KA, Karch H, Whittam TS. 1998. Genotypic and phenotypic changes in the emergence of Escherichia coli O157:H7. J Infect Dis 177:17501753. [PubMed][CrossRef]
176. Murinda SE, Batson SD, Nguyen LT, Gillespie BE, Oliver SP. 2004. Phenotypic and genetic markers for serotype-specific detection of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli O26 strains from North America. Foodborne Pathog Dis 1:125135. [PubMed][CrossRef]
177. Prager R, Liesegang A, Voigt W, Rabsch W, Fruth A, Tschape H. 2002. Clonal diversity of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli O103:H2/H(-) in Germany. Infect Genet Evol 1:265275. [PubMed][CrossRef]
178. Willshaw GA, Smith HR, Cheasty T, OBrien SJ. 2001. Use of strain typing to provide evidence for specific interventions in the transmission of VTEC O157 infections. Int J Food Microbiol 66:3946. [PubMed][CrossRef]
179. Schroeder CM, Meng J, Zhao S, Debroy C, Torcolini J, Zhao C, McDermott PF, Wagner DD, Walker RD, White DG. 2002. Antimicrobial resistance of Escherichia coli O26, O103, O111, O128, and O145 from animals and humans. Emerg Infect Dis 8:14091414. [PubMed][CrossRef]
180. Ziebell K, Johnson RP, Kropinski AM, Reid-Smith R, Ahmed R, Gannon VP, Gilmour M, Boerlin P. 2011. Gene cluster conferring streptomycin, sulfonamide, and tetracycline resistance in Escherichia coli O157:H7 phage types 23, 45, and 67. Appl Environ Microbiol 77:19001903. [PubMed][CrossRef]
181. Souza MR, Klassen G, Toni FD, Rigo LU, Henkes C, Pigatto CP, Dalagassa CB, Fadel-Picheth CM. 2010. Biochemical properties, enterohaemolysin production and plasmid carriage of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli strains. Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz 105:318321. [PubMed][CrossRef]
182. Zhang WL, Bielaszewska M, Liesegang A, Tschape H, Schmidt H, Bitzan M, Karch H. 2000. Molecular characteristics and epidemiological significance of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli O26 strains. J Clin Microbiol 38:21342140. [PubMed]
183. Pradel N, Boukhors K, Bertin Y, Forestier C, Martin C, Livrelli V. 2001. Heterogeneity of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli strains isolated from hemolytic-uremic syndrome patients, cattle, and food samples in central France. Appl Environ Microbiol 67:24602468. [PubMed][CrossRef]
184. Chaudhuri RR, Henderson IR. 2012. The evolution of the Escherichia coli phylogeny. Infect Genet Evol 12:214226. [PubMed][CrossRef]
185. Whittam TS, Wolfe ML, Wachsmuth IK, Orskov F, Orskov I, Wilson RA. 1993. Clonal relationships among Escherichia coli strains that cause hemorrhagic colitis and infantile diarrhea. Infect Immun 61:16191629. [PubMed]
186. Abu-Ali GS, Lacher DW, Wick LM, Qi W, Whittam TS. 2009. Genomic diversity of pathogenic Escherichia coli of the EHEC 2 clonal complex. BMC Genomics 10:296. [PubMed][CrossRef]
187. Nielsen EM, Scheutz F, Torpdahl M. 2006. Continuous surveillance of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli infections by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis shows that most infections are sporadic. Foodborne Pathog Dis 3:8187. [PubMed][CrossRef]
188. Keskimaki M, Eklund M, Pesonen H, Heiskanen T, Siitonen A. 2001. EPEC, EAEC and STEC in stool specimens: prevalence and molecular epidemiology of isolates. Diagn Microbiol Infect Dis 40:151156. [PubMed][CrossRef]
189. Orskov F, Orskov I. 1984. Serotyping of Escherichia coli, p 43112. In Bergan T (ed), Methods in Microbiology. Academic Press, London, United Kingdom.
190. Scheutz F, Cheasty T, Woodward D, Smith HR. 2004. Designation of O174 and O175 to temporary O groups OX3 and OX7, and six new E. coli O groups that include verocytotoxin-producing E. coli (VTEC): O176, O177, O178, O179, O180 and O181. APMIS 112:569584. [PubMed][CrossRef]
191. Blanco M, Padola NL, Krger A, Sanz ME, Blanco JE, Gonzalez EA, Dahbi G, Mora A, Bernardez MI, Etcheverria AI, Arroyo GH, Lucchesi PMA, Parma AE, Blanco J. 2004. Virulence genes and intimin types of Shiga-toxin-producing Escherichia coli isolated from cattle and beef products in Argentina. Int Microbiol 7:269276. [PubMed]
192. Much P, Pichler J, Kasper SS, Allerberger F. 2009. Foodborne outbreaks, Austria 2007. Wien Klin Wochenschr 121:7785. [PubMed][CrossRef]
193. Scheutz F. 2012. Technical report: external quality assurance scheme for typing of verocytotoxin-producing E. coli (VTEC). 128. 1-4-2012. Stockholm, European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control.
194. Wang L, Rothemund D, Curd H, Reeves PR. 2003. Species-wide variation in the Escherichia coli flagellin (H-antigen) gene. J Bacteriol 185:29362943. [PubMed][CrossRef]
195. Machado J, Grimont F, Grimont PA. 2000. Identification of Escherichia coli flagellar types by restriction of the amplified fliC gene. Res Microbiol 151:535546. [PubMed][CrossRef]
196. Prager R, Strutz U, Fruth A, Tschape H. 2003. Subtyping of pathogenic Escherichia coli strains using flagellar (H)-antigens: serotyping versus fliC polymorphisms. Int J Med Microbiol 292:477486. [PubMed][CrossRef]
197. Fields PI, Blom K, Hughes HJ, Helsel LO, Feng P, Swaminathan B. 1997. Molecular characterization of the gene encoding H antigen in Escherichia coli and development of a PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism test for identification of E. coli O157:H7 and O157:NM. J Clin Microbiol 35:10661070. [PubMed]
198. Beutin L, Strauch E. 2007. Identification of sequence diversity in the Escherichia coli fliC genes encoding flagellar types H8 and H40 and its use in typing of Shiga toxin-producing E. coli O8, O22, O111, O174, and O179 strains. J Clin Microbiol 45:333339. [PubMed][CrossRef]
199. Ayala CO, Ramos Moreno AC, Martinez MB, Burgos YK, Pestana de Castro AF, Bando SY. 2012. Determination of flagellar types by PCR-RFLP analysis of enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC) and Shiga toxin-producing E. coli (STEC) strains isolated from animals in Sao Paulo, Brazil. Res Vet Sci 92:1823. [PubMed][CrossRef]
200. Wang L, Rothemund D, Curd H, Reeves PR. 2000. Sequence diversity of the Escherichia coli H7 fliC Genes: implication for a DNA-based typing scheme for E. coli O157:H7. J Clin Microbiol 38:17861790. [PubMed]
201. Desmarchelier PM, Bilge SS, Fegan N, Mills L, Vary JC, Jr, Tarr PI. 1998. A PCR specific for Escherichia coli O157 based on the rfb locus encoding O157 lipopolysaccharide. J Clin Microbiol 36:18011804. [PubMed]
202. Fratamico PM, Debroy C, Miyamoto T, Liu Y. 2009. PCR detection of enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli O145 in food by targeting genes in the E. coli O145 O-antigen gene cluster and the shiga toxin 1 and shiga toxin 2 genes. Foodborne Pathog Dis 6:605611. [PubMed][CrossRef]
203. OHanlon KA, Catarame TM, Duffy G, Blair, IS, and McDowell DA. 2004. RAPID detection and quantification of E. coli O157/O26/O111 in minced beef by real-time PCR. J Appl Microbiol 96:10131023. [PubMed][CrossRef]
204. Paton AW, Paton JC. 1999. Molecular characterization of the locus encoding biosynthesis of the lipopolysaccharide O antigen of Escherichia coli serotype O113. Infect Immun 67:59305937. [PubMed]
205. Perelle S, Dilasser F, Grout J, Fach P. 2005. Detection of Escherichia coli serogroup O103 by real-time polymerase chain reaction. J Appl Microbiol 98:11621168. [PubMed][CrossRef]
206. Valadez AM, Debroy C, Dudley E, Cutter CN. 2011. Multiplex PCR detection of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli strains belonging to serogroups O157, O103, O91, O113, O145, O111, and O26 experimentally inoculated in beef carcass swabs, beef trim, and ground beef. J Food Prot 74:228239. [PubMed][CrossRef]
207. Ballmer K, Korczak BM, Kuhnert P, Slickers P, Ehricht R, Hachler H. 2007. Fast DNA serotyping of Escherichia coli by use of an oligonucleotide microarray. J Clin Microbiol 45:370379. [PubMed][CrossRef]
208. Anjum MF, Mafura M, Slickers P, Ballmer K, Kuhnert P, Woodward MJ, Ehricht R. 2007. Pathotyping Escherichia coli by using miniaturized DNA microarrays. Appl Environ Microbiol 73:56925697. [PubMed][CrossRef]
209. Lin A, Nguyen L, Lee T, Clotilde LM, Kase JA, Son I, Carter JM, Lauzon CR. 2011. Rapid O serogroup identification of the ten most clinically relevant STECs by Luminex microbead-based suspension array. J Microbiol Methods 87:105110. [PubMed][CrossRef]
210. Lin A, Sultan O, Lau HK, Wong E, Hartman G, Lauzon CR. 2011. O serogroup specific real time PCR assays for the detection and identification of nine clinically relevant non-O157 STECs. Food Microbiol 28:478483. [PubMed][CrossRef]
211. Gilmour MW, Olson AB, Andrysiak AK, Ng LK, Chui L. 2007. Sequence-based typing of genetic targets encoded outside of the O-antigen gene cluster is indicative of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli serogroup lineages. J Med Microbiol 56:620628. [PubMed][CrossRef]
212. Norman KN, Strockbine NA, Bono JL. 2012. Association of nucleotide polymorphisms within the O-antigen gene cluster of Escherichia coli O26, O45, O103, O111, O121, and O145 with serogroups and genetic subtypes. Appl Environ Microbiol 78:66896703. [PubMed][CrossRef]
213. Delannoy S, Beutin L, Fach P. 2012. Use of clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat sequence polymorphisms for specific detection of enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli strains of serotypes O26:H11, O45:H2, O103:H2, O111:H8, O121:H19, O145:H28, and O157:H7 by real-time PCR. J Clin Microbiol 50:40354040. [PubMed][CrossRef]
214. Gerner-Smidt P, Hise K, Kincaid J, Hunter S, Rolando S, Hyytia-Trees E, Ribot EM, Swaminathan B. 2006. PulseNet USA: a five-year update. Foodborne Pathog Dis 3:919. [PubMed][CrossRef]
215. Gerner-Smidt P, Scheutz F. 2006. Standardized pulsed-field gel electrophoresis of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli: the PulseNet Europe feasibility study. Foodborne Pathog Dis 3:7480. [PubMed][CrossRef]
216. Mora A, Lopez C, Dhabi G, Lopez-Beceiro AM, Fidalgo LE, Diaz EA, Martinez-Carrasco C, Mamani R, Herrera A, Blanco JE, Blanco M, Blanco J. 2012. Seropathotypes, phylogroups, Stx subtypes, and intimin types of wildlife-carried, Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli strains with the same characteristics as human-pathogenic isolates. Appl Environ Microbiol 78:25782585. [PubMed][CrossRef]
217. Beutin L, Geier D, Zimmermann S, Aleksic S, Gillespie HA, Whittam TS. 1997. Epidemiological relatedness and clonal types of natural populations of Escherichia coli strains producing Shiga toxins in separate populations of cattle and sheep. Appl Environ Microbiol 63:21752180. [PubMed]
218. Thomas KM, McCann MS, Collery MM, Logan A, Whyte P, McDowell DA, Duffy G. 2012. Tracking verocytotoxigenic Escherichia coli O157, O26, O111, O103 and O145 in Irish cattle. Int J Food Microbiol 153:288296. [PubMed][CrossRef]
219. Welinder-Olsson C, Badenfors M, Cheasty T, Kjellin E, Kaijser B. 2002. Genetic profiling of enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli strains in relation to clonality and clinical signs of infection. J Clin Microbiol 40:959964. [PubMed][CrossRef]
220. Vaz TMI, Irino K, Nishimura LS, Cergole-Novella MC, Guth BEC. 2006. Genetic heterogeneity of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli strains isolated in Sao Paulo, Brazil, from 1976 through 2003, as revealed by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. J Clin Microbiol 44:798804. [PubMed][CrossRef]
221. Mainil JG, Bardiau M, Ooka T, Ogura Y, Murase K, Etoh Y, Ichihara S, Horikawa K, Buvens G, Pierard D, Itoh T, Hayashi T. 2011. Typing of O26 enterohaemorrhagic and enteropathogenic Escherichia coli isolated from humans and cattle with IS621 multiplex PCR-based fingerprinting. J Appl Microbiol 111:773786. [PubMed][CrossRef]
222. Leomil L, Pestana de Castro AF, Krause G, Schmidt H, Beutin L. 2005. Characterization of two major groups of diarrheagenic Escherichia coli O26 strains which are globally spread in human patients and domestic animals of different species. FEMS Microbiol Lett 249:335342. [PubMed][CrossRef]
223. Sugimoto N, Shima K, Hinenoya A, Asakura M, Matsuhisa A, Watanabe H, Yamasaki S. 2011. Evaluation of a PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) assay for molecular epidemiological study of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli. J Vet Med Sci 73:859867. [PubMed][CrossRef]
224. Beutin L, Kaulfuss S, Herold S, Oswald E, Schmidt H. 2005. Genetic analysis of enteropathogenic and enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli serogroup O103 strains by molecular typing of virulence and housekeeping genes and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. J Clin Microbiol 43:15521563. [PubMed][CrossRef]
225. Sonntag AK, Prager R, Bielaszewska M, Zhang W, Fruth A, Tschape H, Karch H. 2004. Phenotypic and genotypic analyses of enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli O145 strains from patients in Germany. J Clin Microbiol 42:954962. [PubMed][CrossRef]
226. Louie M, Read S, Louie L, Ziebell K, Rahn K, Borczyk A, Lior H. 1999. Molecular typing methods to investigate transmission of Escherichia coli O157:H7 from cattle to humans. Epidemiol Infect 123:1724. [PubMed][CrossRef]
227. Beutin L, Bulte M, Weber A, Zimmermann S, Gleier K. 2000. Investigation of human infections with verocytotoxin-producing strains of Escherichia coli (VTEC) belonging to serogroup O118 with evidence for zoonotic transmission. Epidemiol Infect 125:4754. [PubMed][CrossRef]
228. Thomas KM, McCann MS, Collery MM, Moschonas G, Whyte P, McDowell DA, Duffy G. 2013. Transfer of verocytotoxigenic Escherichia coli O157, O26, O111, O103 and O145 from fleece to carcass during sheep slaughter in an Irish export abattoir. Food Microbiol 34:3845. [PubMed][CrossRef]
229. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. 2012. Outbreak of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli O111 infections associated with a correctional facility diaryColorado 2010. Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 61:149152. [PubMed]
230. Serra-Moreno R, Jofre J, Muniesa M. 2007. Insertion site occupancy by stx2 bacteriophages depends on the locus availability of the host strain chromosome. J Bacteriol 189:66456654. [PubMed][CrossRef]
231. Shaikh N, Tarr PI. 2003. Escherichia coli O157:H7 Shiga toxin-encoding bacteriophages: integrations, excisions, truncations, and evolutionary implications. J Bacteriol 185:35963605. [CrossRef]
232. Besser TE, Shaikh N, Holt NJ, Tarr PI, Konkel ME, Malik-Kale P, Walsh CW, Whittam TS, Bono JL. 2007. Greater diversity of Shiga toxin-encoding bacteriophage insertion sites among Escherichia coli O157:H7 isolates from cattle than in those from humans. Appl Environ Microbiol 73:671679. [PubMed][CrossRef]
233. Vanaja SK, Springman AC, Besser TE, Whittam TS, Manning SD. 2010. Differential expression of virulence and stress fitness genes between Escherichia coli O157:H7 strains with clinical or bovine-biased genotypes. Appl Environ Microbiol 76:6068. [PubMed][CrossRef]
234. Shringi S, Schmidt C, Katherine K, Brayton KA, Hancock DD, Besser TE. 2012. Carriage of stx2a differentiates clinical and bovine-biased strains of Escherichia coli O157. PLoS One 7:e51572. [PubMed][CrossRef]
235. Creuzburg K, Schmidt H. 2007. Molecular characterization and distribution of genes encoding members of the type III effector nleA family among pathogenic Escherichia coli strains. J Clin Microbiol 45:24982507. [PubMed][CrossRef]
236. Oswald E, Schmidt H, Morabito S, Karch H, Marches O, Caprioli A. 2000. Typing of intimin genes in human and animal enterohemorrhagic and enteropathogenic Escherichia coli: characterization of a new intimin variant. Infect Immun 68:6471. [PubMed][CrossRef]
237. Jores J, Rumer L, Wieler LH. 2004. Impact of the locus of enterocyte effacement pathogenicity island on the evolution of pathogenic Escherichia coli. Int J Med Microbiol 294:103113. [PubMed][CrossRef]
238. Mora A, Blanco M, Yamamoto D, Dahbi G, Blanco JE, Lopez C, Alonso MP, Vieira MA, Hernandes RT, Abe CM, Piazza RM, Lacher DW, Elias WP, Gomes TA, Blanco J. 2009. HeLa-cell adherence patterns and actin aggregation of enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC) and Shiga-toxin-producing E. coli (STEC) strains carrying different eae and tir alleles. Int Microbiol 12:243251. [PubMed]
239. Creuzburg K, Heeren S, Lis CM, Kranz M, Hensel M, Schmidt H. 2011. Genetic background and mobility of variants of the gene nleA in attaching and effacing Escherichia coli. Appl Environ Microbiol 77:87058713. [PubMed][CrossRef]
240. Persson S, Olsen KE, Ethelberg S, Scheutz F. 2007. Subtyping method for Escherichia coli shiga toxin (verocytotoxin) 2 variants and correlations to clinical manifestations. J Clin Microbiol 45:20202024. [PubMed][CrossRef]
241. Friedrich AW, Bielaszewska M, Zhang WL, Pulz M, Kuczius T, Ammon A, Karch H. 2002. Escherichia coli harboring Shiga toxin 2 gene variants: frequency and association with clinical symptoms. J Infect Dis 185:7484. [PubMed][CrossRef]
242. Friedrich AW, Borell J, Bielaszewska M, Fruth A, Tschape H, Karch H. 2003. Shiga toxin 1c-producing Escherichia coli strains: phenotypic and genetic characterization and association with human disease. J Clin Microbiol 41:24482453. [PubMed][CrossRef]
243. Fratamico PM, Bagi LK, Bush EJ, Solow BT. 2004. Prevalence and characterization of shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli in swine feces recovered in the National Animal Health Monitoring System's Swine 2000 study. Appl Environ Microbiol 70:71737178. [PubMed][CrossRef]
244. Muthing J, Meisen I, Zhang W, Bielaszewska M, Mormann M, Bauerfeind R, Schmidt MA, Friedrich AW, Karch H. 2012. Promiscuous Shiga toxin 2e and its intimate relationship to Forssman. Glycobiology 22:849862. [PubMed][CrossRef]
245. Morabito S, Dell'Omo G, Agrimi U, Schmidt H, Karch H, Cheasty T, Caprioli A. 2001. Detection and characterization of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli in feral pigeons. Vet Microbiol 82:275283. [PubMed][CrossRef]
246. Ooka T, Seto K, Kawano K, Kobayashi H, Etoh Y, Ichihara S, Kaneko A, Isobe J, Yamaguchi K, Horikawa K, Gomes TA, Linden A, Bardiau M, Mainil JG, Beutin L, Ogura Y, Hayashi T. 2012. Clinical significance of Escherichia albertii. Emerg Infect Dis 18:488492. [PubMed][CrossRef]
247. Prager R, Fruth A, Siewert U, Strutz U, Tschape H. 2009. Escherichia coli encoding Shiga toxin 2f as an emerging human pathogen. Int J Med Microbiol 299:343353. [PubMed][CrossRef]
248. Hofer E, Cernela N, Stephan R. 2012. Shiga toxin subtypes associated with Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli strains isolated from red deer, roe deer, chamois, and ibex. Foodborne Pathog Dis 9:792795. [PubMed][CrossRef]
249. Brett KN, Ramachandran V, Hornitzky MA, Bettelheim KA, Walker MJ, Djordjevic SP. 2003. stx1c Is the most common Shiga toxin 1 subtype among Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli isolates from sheep but not among isolates from cattle. J Clin Microbiol 41:926936. [PubMed][CrossRef]
250. Eggert M, Stuber E, Heurich M, Fredriksson-Ahomaa M, Burgos Y, Beutin L, Martlbauer E. 2012. Detection and characterization of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli in faeces and lymphatic tissue of free-ranging deer. Epidemiol Infect 28:19.
251. Kumar A, Taneja N, Kumar Y, Sharma M. 2012. Detection of Shiga toxin variants among Shiga toxin-forming Escherichia coli isolates from animal stool, meat and human stool samples in India. J Appl Microbiol 113:12081216. [PubMed][CrossRef]
252. Masana MO, D'Astek BA, Palladino PM, Galli L, del Castillo LL, Carbonari C, Leotta GA, Vilacoba E, Irino K, Rivas M. 2011. Genotypic characterization of non-O157 Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli in beef abattoirs of Argentina. J Food Prot 74:20082017. [PubMed][CrossRef]
253. D'Astek BA, del Castillo LL, Miliwebsky E, Carbonari C, Palladino PM, Deza N, Chinen I, Manfredi E, Leotta GA, Masana MO, Rivas M. 2012. Subtyping of Escherichia coli O157:H7 strains isolated from human infections and healthy cattle in Argentina. Foodborne Pathog Dis 9:457464. [PubMed][CrossRef]
254. Slanec T, Fruth A, Creuzburg K, Schmidt H. 2009. Molecular analysis of virulence profiles and Shiga toxin genes in food-borne Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli. Appl Environ Microbiol 75:61876197. [PubMed][CrossRef]
255. Vernozy-Rozand C, Montet MP, Bertin Y, Trably F, Girardeau JP, Martin C, Livrelli V, Beutin L. 2004. Serotyping, stx2 subtyping, and characterization of the locus of enterocyte effacement island of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli and E. coli O157:H7 strains isolated from the environment in France. Appl Environ Microbiol 70:25562559. [PubMed][CrossRef]
256. Polifroni R, Etcheverria AI, Sanz ME, Cepeda RE, Kruger A, Lucchesi PM, Fernandez D, Parma AE, Padola NL. 2012. Molecular characterization of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli isolated from the environment of a dairy farm. Curr Microbiol 65:337343. [PubMed][CrossRef]
257. Wasilenko JL, Fratamico PM, Narang N, Tillman GE, Ladely S, Simmons M, Cray WC, Jr. 2012. Influence of primer sequences and DNA extraction method on detection of non-O157 Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli in ground beef by real-time PCR targeting the eae, stx, and serogroup-specific genes. J Food Prot 75:19391950. [PubMed][CrossRef]
258. Deng W, Puente JL, Gruenheid S, Li Y, Vallance BA, Vazquez A, Barba J, Ibarra JA, O'Donnell P, Metalnikov P, Ashman K, Lee S, Goode D, Pawson T, Finlay BB. 2004. Dissecting virulence: systematic and functional analyses of a pathogenicity island. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 101:35973602. [PubMed][CrossRef]
259. Tarr CL, Whittam TS. 2002. Molecular evolution of the intimin gene in O111 clones of pathogenic Escherichia coli. J Bacteriol 184:479487. [CrossRef]
260. Zhang WL, Kohler B, Oswald E, Beutin L, Karch H, Morabito S, Caprioli A, Suerbaum S, Schmidt H. 2002. Genetic diversity of intimin genes of attaching and effacing Escherichia coli strains. J Clin Microbiol 40:44864492. [PubMed][CrossRef]
261. Jores J, Zehmke K, Eichberg J, Rumer L, Wieler LH. 2003. Description of a novel intimin variant (type zeta) in the bovine O84:NM verotoxin-producing Escherichia coli strain 537/89 and the diagnostic value of intimin typing. Exp Biol Med (Maywood) 228:370376. [PubMed]
262. Creuzburg K, Middendorf B, Mellmann A, Martaler T, Holz C, Fruth A, Karch H, Schmidt H. 2011. Evolutionary analysis and distribution of type III effector genes in pathogenic Escherichia coli from human, animal and food sources. Environ Microbiol 13:439452. [PubMed][CrossRef]
263. Levine MM. 1987. Escherichia coli that cause diarrhea: enterotoxigenic, enteropathogenic, enteroinvasive, enterohemorrhagic, and enteroadherent. J Infect Dis 155:377389. [PubMed][CrossRef]
264. Boerlin P, McEwen SA, Boerlin-Petzold F, Wilson JB, Johnson RP, Gyles CL. 1999. Associations between virulence factors of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli and disease in humans. J Clin Microbiol 37:497503. [PubMed]
265. Ethelberg S, Olsen KE, Scheutz F, Jensen C, Schiellerup P, Enberg J, Petersen AM, Olesen B, Gerner-Smidt P, Molbak K. 2004. Virulence factors for hemolytic uremic syndrome, Denmark. Emerg Infect Dis 10:842847. [PubMed][CrossRef]
266. Farfan MJ, Torres AG. 2012. Molecular mechanisms that mediate colonization of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli strains. Infect Immun 80:903913. [PubMed][CrossRef]
267. Perna NT, Plunkett G, III, Burland V, Mau B, Glasner JD, Rose DJ, Mayhew GF, Evans PS, Gregor J, Kirkpatrick HA, Posfai G, Hackett J, Klink S, Boutin A, Shao Y, Miller L, Grotbeck EJ, Davis NW, Lim A, Dimalanta ET, Potamousis KD, Apodaca J, Anantharaman TS, Lin J, Yen G, Schwartz DC, Welch RA, Blattner FR. 2001. Genome sequence of enterohaemorrhagic Escherichia coli O157:H7. Nature 409:529533. [PubMed][CrossRef]
268. Ogura Y, Ooka T, Iguchi A, Toh H, Asadulghani M, Oshima K, Kodama T, Abe H, Nakayama K, Kurokawa K, Tobe T, Hattori M, Hayashi T. 2009. Comparative genomics reveal the mechanism of the parallel evolution of O157 and non-O157 enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli. Proc Natl Acad. Sci USA 106:1793917944. [PubMed][CrossRef]
269. Ogura Y, Ooka T, Asadulghani, Terajima J, Nougayrede JP, Kurokawa K, Tashiro K, Tobe T, Nakayama K, Kuhara S, Oswald E, Watanabe H, Hayashi T. 2007. Extensive genomic diversity and selective conservation of virulence-determinants in enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli strains of O157 and non-O157 serotypes. Genome Biol 8:R138. [PubMed][CrossRef]
270. Wickham ME, Lupp C, Mascarenhas M, Vazquez A, Coombes BK, Brown NF, Coburn BA, Deng W, Puente JL, Karmali MA, Finlay BB. 2006. Bacterial genetic determinants of non-O157 STEC outbreaks and hemolytic-uremic syndrome after infection. J Infect Dis 194:819827. [PubMed][CrossRef]
271. Bugarel M, Martin A, Fach P, Beutin L. 2011. Virulence gene profiling of enterohemorrhagic (EHEC) and enteropathogenic (EPEC) Escherichia coli strains: a basis for molecular risk assessment of typical and atypical EPEC strains. BMC Microbiol 11:142. [PubMed][CrossRef]
272. Schimmer B, Nygard K, Eriksen HM, Lassen J, Lindstedt BA, Brandal LT, Kapperud G, Aavitsland P. 2008. Outbreak of haemolytic uraemic syndrome in Norway caused by stx2-positive Escherichia coli O103:H25 traced to cured mutton sausages. BMC Infect Dis 8:41. [PubMed][CrossRef]
273. Imamovic L, Tozzoli R, Michelacci V, Minelli F, Marziano ML, Caprioli A, Morabito S. 2010. OI-57, a genomic island of Escherichia coli O157, is present in other seropathotypes of Shiga toxin-producing E. coli associated with severe human disease. Infect Immun 78:46974704. [PubMed][CrossRef]
microbiolspec.EHEC-0001-2013.citations
cm/2/3
content/journal/microbiolspec/10.1128/microbiolspec.EHEC-0001-2013
Loading

Citations loading...

Loading

Article metrics loading...

/content/journal/microbiolspec/10.1128/microbiolspec.EHEC-0001-2013
2014-06-13
2017-09-20

Abstract:

Shiga toxin-producing (STEC) strains are commonly found in the intestine of ruminant species of wild and domestic animals. Excretion of STEC with animal feces results in a broad contamination of food and the environment. Humans get infected with STEC through ingestion of contaminated food, by contact with the environment, and from STEC-excreting animals and humans. STEC strains can behave as human pathogens, and some of them, called enterohemorrhagic (EHEC), may cause hemorrhagic colitis (HC) and hemolytic-uremic syndrome (HUS). Because of the diversity of STEC types, detection strategies for STEC and EHEC are based on the identification of Shiga toxins or the underlying genes. Cultural enrichment of STEC from test samples is needed for identification, and different protocols were developed for this purpose. Multiplex real-time PCR protocols (ISO/CEN TS13136 and USDA/FSIS MLG5B.01) have been developed to specifically identify EHEC by targeting the LEE (locus of enterocyte effacement)-encoded gene and genes for EHEC-associated O groups. The employment of more genetic markers ( and CRISPR) is a future challenge for better identification of EHEC from any kinds of samples. The isolation of STEC or EHEC from a sample is required for confirmation, and different cultivation protocols and media for this purpose have been developed. Most STEC strains present in food, animals, and the environment are negative, but some of these strains can cause HC and HUS in humans as well. Phenotypic assays and molecular tools for typing EHEC and STEC strains are used to detect and characterize human pathogenic strains among members of the STEC group.

Highlighted Text: Show | Hide
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

/deliver/fulltext/microbiolspec/2/3/EHEC-0001-2013.html?itemId=/content/journal/microbiolspec/10.1128/microbiolspec.EHEC-0001-2013&mimeType=html&fmt=ahah

Figures

Image of FIGURE 1

Click to view

FIGURE 1

Identification and isolation of STEC from mixed samples of bacteria with the Stx colony immunoblot. Mauve-stained Stx2-positive STEC colonies are detected from a sample containing STEC mixed with Stx-negative bacteria. doi:10.1128/microbiolspec.EHEC-0001-2013.f1

Source: microbiolspec June 2014 vol. 2 no. 3 doi:10.1128/microbiolspec.EHEC-0001-2013
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint
Image of FIGURE 2

Click to view

FIGURE 2

Suitability of conventional PCRs for detection of stx genes in enriched samples from minced meat. The same panel of enrichment cultures (#84–92) was tested with two PCR systems using the MK1/MK2 primer system (A) and the Lin-up/Lin-down primer system (B) (90). Primers MK1/MK2 generate 230-bp-long PCR products (arrow), and a ladder of nonspecific bands of different sizes is visible in almost all meat samples. (B) Lin-up/Lin-down generates 900-bp size PCR products (arrow), and only two STEC-positive meat samples (#88+92) give corresponding PCR products. M, molecular weight standard, K, positive STEC control; arrow, position of the specific PCR product. doi:10.1128/microbiolspec.EHEC-0001-2013.f2

Source: microbiolspec June 2014 vol. 2 no. 3 doi:10.1128/microbiolspec.EHEC-0001-2013
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint
Image of FIGURE 3

Click to view

FIGURE 3

Importance of cultural enrichment for the detection of viable STEC in meat samples by conventional and real-time PCR. Agarose gel showing Stx2-specific PCR products in enrichment cultures. The PCR was performed with common stx2 PCR primers LP43/LP44 as described in reference 86. The corresponding CT values from real-time PCR are indicated below. (A) Lanes: m, molecular weight standard; –c, Stx-negative E. coli control strain; +c, Stx2-positive E. coli control strain. (B) Sample containing nonamplifiable stx genes. PCR and real-time PCR are performed after 6, 8, and 18 h of enrichment. Stx gene-specific signals are decreasing following prolonged enrichment with both conventional and real-time PCR. (C) Sample containing amplifiable stx genes. PCR and real-time PCR are performed after 6, 8, and 18 h of enrichment. Stx gene-specific signals are increasing following prolonged enrichment with both conventional and real-time PCR. doi:10.1128/microbiolspec.EHEC-0001-2013.f3

Source: microbiolspec June 2014 vol. 2 no. 3 doi:10.1128/microbiolspec.EHEC-0001-2013
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint
Image of FIGURE 4

Click to view

FIGURE 4

Stool sample of a human patient with HUS infected with EHEC O157:H7 grown on enterohemolysin agar (57). Morphological differences between the hemolysis zones on enterohemolysin agar facilitate the detection of enterohemolytic, ehlyA-positive STEC strains. Plating of 10-fold dilutions from stool enrichment cultures grown in tryptic soy broth for detection of enterohemolytic, presumptive STEC colonies. Four morphologically different types of bacteria designated from A to D were detected: A, alpha-hemolysin producing, Stx-negative E. coli; B, hemolysin-negative Enterobacteriaceae; C, enterohemolytic (ehlyA)-positive STEC O157:H7; D, Pseudomonas aeruginosa. doi:10.1128/microbiolspec.EHEC-0001-2013.f4

Source: microbiolspec June 2014 vol. 2 no. 3 doi:10.1128/microbiolspec.EHEC-0001-2013
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint
Image of FIGURE 5

Click to view

FIGURE 5

Enhancement of selectivity for isolation of STEC from bovine fecal samples on enterohemolysin agar supplemented with vancomycin. (A) Growth of enterohemolytic STEC colonies from a sample of bovine feces on enterohemolysin agar supplemented with 8 mg/liter of vancomycin. The gram-positive flora is suppressed. (B) Growth of enterohemolytic STEC colonies from the same sample of bovine feces on nonselective enterohemolysin agar. The abundant gram-positive flora overgrows STEC present in the sample. doi:10.1128/microbiolspec.EHEC-0001-2013.f5

Source: microbiolspec June 2014 vol. 2 no. 3 doi:10.1128/microbiolspec.EHEC-0001-2013
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint

Tables

Generic image for table

Click to view

TABLE 1

Different types of enrichment media for STEC a

Source: microbiolspec June 2014 vol. 2 no. 3 doi:10.1128/microbiolspec.EHEC-0001-2013
Generic image for table

Click to view

TABLE 2

Serotypes of STEC isolated from human patients a

Source: microbiolspec June 2014 vol. 2 no. 3 doi:10.1128/microbiolspec.EHEC-0001-2013

Supplemental Material

No supplementary material available for this content.

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Please check the format of the address you have entered.
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error