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  • Authors: Delma J. Nieves1, Ulrich Heininger2
  • Editors: W. Michael Scheld3, James M. Hughes4, Richard J. Whitley5
  • VIEW AFFILIATIONS HIDE AFFILIATIONS
    Affiliations: 1: Pediatric Infectious Diseases, CHOC Children’s, Orange, CA 92868; 2: Universitäts-Kinderspital beider Basel (UKBB), CH-4031 Basel, Switzerland; 3: Department of Infectious Diseases, University of Virginia Health System, Charlottesville, VA; 4: Division of Infectious Diseases, Department of Medicine, Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, GA; 5: Department of Pediatrics, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL
  • Source: microbiolspec June 2016 vol. 4 no. 3 doi:10.1128/microbiolspec.EI10-0008-2015
  • Received 19 November 2015 Accepted 23 November 2015 Published 03 June 2016
  • Delma J. Nieves, dnieves@CHOC.ORG
image of <span class="jp-italic">Bordetella pertussis</span>
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  • Abstract:

    Pertussis is a highly infectious vaccine-preventable cough illness that continues to be a significant source of morbidity and mortality around the world. The majority of human illness is caused by , and some is caused by . is a Gram-negative, pleomorphic, aerobic coccobacillus. In the past several years, even countries with high immunization rates in early childhood have experienced rises in pertussis cases. Reasons for the resurgence of reported pertussis may include molecular changes in the organism and increased awareness and diagnostic capabilities, as well as lessened vaccine efficacy and waning immunity. The most morbidity and mortality with pertussis infection is seen in infants too young to benefit from immunization. Severe infection requiring hospitalization, including in an intensive care setting, is mostly seen in those under 3 months of age. As a result, research and public health actions have been aimed at better understanding and reducing the spread of . Studies comparing the cost benefit of cocooning strategies versus immunization of pregnant women have been favorable towards immunizing pregnant women. This strategy is expected to prevent a larger number of pertussis cases, hospitalizations, and deaths in infants <1 year old while also being cost-effective. Studies have demonstrated that the source of infection in infants usually is a family member. Efforts to immunize children and adults, in particular pregnant women, need to remain strong.

  • Citation: Nieves D, Heininger U. 2016. . Microbiol Spectrum 4(3):EI10-0008-2015. doi:10.1128/microbiolspec.EI10-0008-2015.

Key Concept Ranking

Type III Secretion System
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/content/journal/microbiolspec/10.1128/microbiolspec.EI10-0008-2015
2016-06-03
2017-09-24

Abstract:

Pertussis is a highly infectious vaccine-preventable cough illness that continues to be a significant source of morbidity and mortality around the world. The majority of human illness is caused by , and some is caused by . is a Gram-negative, pleomorphic, aerobic coccobacillus. In the past several years, even countries with high immunization rates in early childhood have experienced rises in pertussis cases. Reasons for the resurgence of reported pertussis may include molecular changes in the organism and increased awareness and diagnostic capabilities, as well as lessened vaccine efficacy and waning immunity. The most morbidity and mortality with pertussis infection is seen in infants too young to benefit from immunization. Severe infection requiring hospitalization, including in an intensive care setting, is mostly seen in those under 3 months of age. As a result, research and public health actions have been aimed at better understanding and reducing the spread of . Studies comparing the cost benefit of cocooning strategies versus immunization of pregnant women have been favorable towards immunizing pregnant women. This strategy is expected to prevent a larger number of pertussis cases, hospitalizations, and deaths in infants <1 year old while also being cost-effective. Studies have demonstrated that the source of infection in infants usually is a family member. Efforts to immunize children and adults, in particular pregnant women, need to remain strong.

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FIGURE 1

Reported pertussis cases from the National Notifiable Disease Surveillance System, United States, 1922 to 2014. The inset show cases from 1990 to 2014. Data for 1950 to 2013 were obtained from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention National Notifiable Diseases Surveillance System. Data for 1922 to 1949 were obtained from passive reports to the U.S. Public Health Service. DTP, diphtheria and tetanus toxoids combined with whole-cell pertussis vaccine; DTaP, diphtheria and tetanus toxoids and acellular pertussis vaccine; Tdap, reduced-dose acellular pertussis vaccine combined with tetanus and diphtheria toxoids. Figure adapted with permission from reference 272 .

Source: microbiolspec June 2016 vol. 4 no. 3 doi:10.1128/microbiolspec.EI10-0008-2015
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TABLE 1

Recommended antimicrobial treatment and postexposure prophylaxis for pertussis, by age group

Source: microbiolspec June 2016 vol. 4 no. 3 doi:10.1128/microbiolspec.EI10-0008-2015

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