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Diseases Transmitted by Man’s Best Friend: The Dog

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  • Authors: Jerry Jacob1, Bennett Lorber2
  • Editor: David Schlossberg3
  • VIEW AFFILIATIONS HIDE AFFILIATIONS
    Affiliations: 1: Temple University Hospital, Section of Infectious Diseases, Philadelphia, PA 19140; 2: Temple University Hospital, Section of Infectious Diseases, Philadelphia, PA 19140; 3: Philadelphia Health Department, Philadelphia, PA
  • Source: microbiolspec July 2015 vol. 3 no. 4 doi:10.1128/microbiolspec.IOL5-0002-2015
  • Received 06 January 2015 Accepted 09 January 2015 Published 31 July 2015
  • Bennett Lorber, bennett.lorber@tuhs.temple.edu
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  • Abstract:

    The relationship between dogs and humans is ancient and mutually beneficial. Dogs have served people well as companions, workmates, guides, and protectors. However, on occasion, dogs may injure humans through biting or may transmit pathogens resulting in a large number of problems ranging from a trivial rash to life-threatening bacteremia. Given that there are more than 80 million pet dogs in the United States, it is worth knowing the potential problems that can result from canine exposure. Annually, almost 5 million people in the United States suffer a dog bite. Dog bite wounds become infected up to 15% of the time. In those who have had a splenectomy, a dog bite may transmit the bacterium , leading to life-threatening bacteremia. Other illnesses that humans can acquire from dog contact include ringworm, diarrheal disease (salmonellosis, campylobacteriosis, and intestinal parasites), leptospirosis, brucellosis, Q fever, visceral larva migrans, and echinococcosis. Evidence exists that the family dog may serve as a reservoir for uropathogenic that can lead to urinary tract infections among human household contacts. In this article we discuss dog-related infectious diseases as well as measures to minimize dog-associated illness (e.g., do not disturb sleeping dogs; HIV-infected persons who wish to acquire a puppy should have the dog’s stool checked for ).

  • Citation: Jacob J, Lorber B. 2015. Diseases Transmitted by Man’s Best Friend: The Dog. Microbiol Spectrum 3(4):IOL5-0002-2015. doi:10.1128/microbiolspec.IOL5-0002-2015.

Key Concept Ranking

Infectious Diseases
0.5168062
Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever
0.43418467
Skin Infections
0.41011506
0.5168062

References

1. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. 2003. Nonfatal dog bite-related injuries treated in hospital emergency departments—United States, 2001. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 52:605–610. [PubMed]
2. Esposito S, Picciolli I, Semino M, Principi N. 2013. Dog and cat bite-associated infections in children. Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis 32:971–976. [PubMed][CrossRef]
3. Hale CR, Scallan E, Cronquist AB, Dunn J, Smith K, Robinson T, Lathrop S, Tobin-D’Angelo M, Clogher P. 2012. Estimates of enteric illness attributable to contact with animals and their environments in the United States. Clin Infect Dis 54:S472–S479. [PubMed][CrossRef]
4. Medeiros I, Saconato H. 2001. Antibiotic prophylaxis for mammalian bites. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2:CD001738. [PubMed][CrossRef]
5. Oehler RL, Velez AP, Mizrachi M, Lamarche J, Gompf S. 2009. Bite-related and septic syndromes caused by cats and dogs. Lancet Infect Dis 9:439–447. [PubMed][CrossRef]
6. Rabinowitz PM, Gordon Z, Odofin L. 2007. Pet-related infections. Am Fam Physician 76:1314–1322. [PubMed]
7. Singer AJ, Dagum AB. 2008. Current management of acute cutaneous wounds. N Engl J Med 359:1037–1046. [PubMed][CrossRef]
8. Stevens DL, Bisno AL, Chambers HF, Dellinger EP, Goldstein EJC, Gorbach SL, Hirschmann JV, Kaplan SL, Montoya JG, Wade JC. 2014. Practice guidelines for the diagnosis and management of skin and soft tissue infections: 2014 update by the Infectious Diseases Society of America. Clin Infect Dis 59:e10–52. doi:10.1093/cid/ciu296. [PubMed][CrossRef]
9. Talan DA, Citron DM, Abrahamian FM, Moran GJ, Goldstein EJC, Emergency Medicine Animal Bite Study Group. 1999. Bacteriologic analysis of infected dog and cat bites. N Engl J Med 34:85–92. [PubMed][CrossRef]
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/content/journal/microbiolspec/10.1128/microbiolspec.IOL5-0002-2015
2015-07-31
2017-09-23

Abstract:

The relationship between dogs and humans is ancient and mutually beneficial. Dogs have served people well as companions, workmates, guides, and protectors. However, on occasion, dogs may injure humans through biting or may transmit pathogens resulting in a large number of problems ranging from a trivial rash to life-threatening bacteremia. Given that there are more than 80 million pet dogs in the United States, it is worth knowing the potential problems that can result from canine exposure. Annually, almost 5 million people in the United States suffer a dog bite. Dog bite wounds become infected up to 15% of the time. In those who have had a splenectomy, a dog bite may transmit the bacterium , leading to life-threatening bacteremia. Other illnesses that humans can acquire from dog contact include ringworm, diarrheal disease (salmonellosis, campylobacteriosis, and intestinal parasites), leptospirosis, brucellosis, Q fever, visceral larva migrans, and echinococcosis. Evidence exists that the family dog may serve as a reservoir for uropathogenic that can lead to urinary tract infections among human household contacts. In this article we discuss dog-related infectious diseases as well as measures to minimize dog-associated illness (e.g., do not disturb sleeping dogs; HIV-infected persons who wish to acquire a puppy should have the dog’s stool checked for ).

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Figures

Image of FIGURE 1
FIGURE 1

Foot of a patient with a hookworm-related cutaneous larva migrans, showing an elevated serpiginous lesion on the sole of the foot (A, B) and ulcerative lesions at the origin of the lesions on the lateral side of the foot (C). Reprinted from Tamminga N, Bierman WFW, de Vries PJ. 2009. Cutaneous larva migrans acquired in Brittany, France. Emerg Infect Dis 1856–1858. doi:10.1128/microbiolspec.IOL5-0002-2015.f1

Source: microbiolspec July 2015 vol. 3 no. 4 doi:10.1128/microbiolspec.IOL5-0002-2015
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Tables

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TABLE 1

Etiologies to consider in patients with canine exposure

Source: microbiolspec July 2015 vol. 3 no. 4 doi:10.1128/microbiolspec.IOL5-0002-2015

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