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Infections and Intoxications from the Ocean: Risks of the Shore

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  • Authors: Mark A. Clemence1, Richard L. Guerrant2
  • Editor: David Schlossberg3
  • VIEW AFFILIATIONS HIDE AFFILIATIONS
    Affiliations: 1: Department of Internal Medicine, Wheaton Franciscan Medical Group, Hales Corners, WI 53130; 2: Department of Internal Medicine, Infectious Diseases and International Health, University of Virginia School of Medicine, Charlottesville, VA 22908; 3: Philadelphia Health Department, Philadelphia, PA
  • Source: microbiolspec December 2015 vol. 3 no. 6 doi:10.1128/microbiolspec.IOL5-0008-2015
  • Received 03 March 2015 Accepted 28 September 2015 Published 18 December 2015
  • Mark A. Clemence, mclemence@wi.rr.com
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  • Abstract:

    Marine and coastal regions provide a diverse range of foods and serve as recreation and leisure areas for large numbers of people in many parts of the world. However, they also serve as environments associated with numerous hazards. The number of cases of fish- and shellfish-related food poisonings in the United States has increased in recent years, accounting for over 600,000 illnesses, with 3,000 hospitalizations and 94 deaths annually. Human diseases due to pathogenic species can result from both ingestion of contaminated shellfish and exposure of open wounds to contaminated seawater. A variety of infections may result from human interactions with marine life, including sharks, barracudas, and moray eels. This chapter covers some of the risks of the shore, including fish and shellfish intoxications, infections related to species, and infections resulting from marine trauma.

  • Citation: Clemence M, Guerrant R. 2015. Infections and Intoxications from the Ocean: Risks of the Shore. Microbiol Spectrum 3(6):IOL5-0008-2015. doi:10.1128/microbiolspec.IOL5-0008-2015.

Key Concept Ranking

Infectious Diseases
0.4738572
Ocular Infections
0.41658974
Chemicals
0.4136853
0.4738572

References

1. Auerbach PS. 1991. Marine envenomations. N Engl J Med 325:486–493. [PubMed][CrossRef]
2. Brown CK, Shepherd SM. 1992. Marine trauma, envenomations, and intoxications. Emerg Med Clin North Am 10:385–408. [PubMed]
3. Burgess G. 2015. ISAF 2014 Worldwide Shark Attack Summary. Florida Museum of Natural History, University of Florida.
4. Dechet AM, Yu PA, Koram N, Painter J. 2008. Nonfoodborne Vibrio infections: an important cause of morbidity and mortality in the United States, 1997-2006. Clin Infect Dis 46:970–976. [PubMed][CrossRef]
5. Guerrant RL, Walker DH, Weller PF. 2011. Tropical Infectious Diseases: Principles, Pathogens and Practice, 3rd ed. Saunders/Elsevier, Edinburgh.
6. Johnson CN, Bowers JC, Griffitt KJ, Molina V, Clostio RW, Pei S, Laws E, Paranjpye RN, Strom MS, Chen A, Hasan NA, Huq A, Noriea NF, 3rd, Grimes DJ, Colwell RR. 2012. Ecology of Vibrio parahaemolyticus and Vibrio vulnificus in the coastal and estuarine waters of Louisiana, Maryland, Mississippi, and Washington (United States). Appl Environ Microbiol 78:7249–7257. [PubMed][CrossRef]
7. Loharikar A, Newton AE, Stroika S, Freeman M, Greene KD, Parsons MB, Bopp C, Talkington D, Mintz ED, Mahon BE. 2015. Cholera in the United States, 2001-2011: a reflection of patterns of global epidemiology and travel. Epidemiol Infect 143:695–703. [PubMed][CrossRef]
8. Pennotti R, Scallan E, Backer L, Thomas J, Angulo FJ. 2013. Ciguatera and scombroid fish poisoning in the United States. Foodborne Pathog Dis 10:1059–1066. [PubMed][CrossRef]
9. Williamson JA, Fenner PJ, Burnett JW. 1996. Venomous and Poisonous Marine Animals: A Medical and Biological Handbook. University of New South Wales Press, Sydney, Australia.
10. Zuckerman JN, Brunette GW, Leggat PA. 2015. Essential Travel Medicine. John Wiley & Sons, Chichester, UK. [CrossRef]
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/content/journal/microbiolspec/10.1128/microbiolspec.IOL5-0008-2015
2015-12-18
2017-09-22

Abstract:

Marine and coastal regions provide a diverse range of foods and serve as recreation and leisure areas for large numbers of people in many parts of the world. However, they also serve as environments associated with numerous hazards. The number of cases of fish- and shellfish-related food poisonings in the United States has increased in recent years, accounting for over 600,000 illnesses, with 3,000 hospitalizations and 94 deaths annually. Human diseases due to pathogenic species can result from both ingestion of contaminated shellfish and exposure of open wounds to contaminated seawater. A variety of infections may result from human interactions with marine life, including sharks, barracudas, and moray eels. This chapter covers some of the risks of the shore, including fish and shellfish intoxications, infections related to species, and infections resulting from marine trauma.

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Figures

Image of FIGURE 1
FIGURE 1

The puffer fish is considered a delicacy in Japan and must be prepared by specially trained chefs to avoid poisoning. Photograph © Laszlo Ilyes 2006. Licensed under CC-BY-2.0 (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0/deed.en). doi:10.1128/microbiolspec.IOL5-0008-2015.f1

Source: microbiolspec December 2015 vol. 3 no. 6 doi:10.1128/microbiolspec.IOL5-0008-2015
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Image of FIGURE 2
FIGURE 2

There are over 200 serotypes of which share a common flagellar H antigen and are distinguished from each other by a somatic O antigen. Serotype O1 and O139 are the strains associated with cholera. Image courtesy of J.B. Goforth, G. Hou, and E. Karatan. ©2011, Appalachian State University. All rights reserved. doi:10.1128/microbiolspec.IOL5-0008-2015.f2

Source: microbiolspec December 2015 vol. 3 no. 6 doi:10.1128/microbiolspec.IOL5-0008-2015
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Image of FIGURE 3
FIGURE 3

Wound infections due to may occur as a result of primary inoculation or hematogenous spread in a bacteremic individual. Prompt debridement, appropriate antimicrobial agents, and occasionally amputation, are necessary to avoid severe tissue necrosis and fulminant sepsis. Image from R.A. Schwartz 2015 (Medscape). doi:10.1128/microbiolspec.IOL5-0008-2015.f3

Source: microbiolspec December 2015 vol. 3 no. 6 doi:10.1128/microbiolspec.IOL5-0008-2015
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Image of FIGURE 4
FIGURE 4

The great white shark is one of a number of shark species implicated in shark attacks in North America. Specialized sensory systems compensate for poor color vision by allowing the shark to detect motion as well as electrical fields of its prey. Photograph © Terry Goss 2006. Licensed under CC-BY-2.5 (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.5/). doi:10.1128/microbiolspec.IOL5-0008-2015.f4

Source: microbiolspec December 2015 vol. 3 no. 6 doi:10.1128/microbiolspec.IOL5-0008-2015
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Image of FIGURE 5
FIGURE 5

Moray eels usually flee when confronted. Fang-like teeth and a vice-like jaw allow it to inflict serious damage if confronted. Photograph © Sylke Rohrlach 2013. Licensed under CC-BY-SA 3.0 (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/deed.en). doi:10.1128/microbiolspec.IOL5-0008-2015.f5

Source: microbiolspec December 2015 vol. 3 no. 6 doi:10.1128/microbiolspec.IOL5-0008-2015
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Tables

Generic image for table
TABLE 1

Fish and shellfish poisoning

Source: microbiolspec December 2015 vol. 3 no. 6 doi:10.1128/microbiolspec.IOL5-0008-2015
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TABLE 2

Clinical presentations of pathogenic infections in humans

Source: microbiolspec December 2015 vol. 3 no. 6 doi:10.1128/microbiolspec.IOL5-0008-2015
Generic image for table
TABLE 3

Microorganisms associated with marine wound infections and recommended antimicrobial therapies

Source: microbiolspec December 2015 vol. 3 no. 6 doi:10.1128/microbiolspec.IOL5-0008-2015

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