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Sexually Transmitted Diseases and Travel: From Boudoir to Bordello

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  • Authors: Ann K. Avery1, Jonathan M. Zenilman2
  • VIEW AFFILIATIONS HIDE AFFILIATIONS
    Affiliations: 1: Case Western Reserve University, Division of Infectious Diseases, MetroHealth Medical Center, Cleveland, OH 44109; 2: Johns Hopkins Bayview Medical Center, Division of Infectious Diseases, MFL Center Tower, Baltimore, MD 21224; 3: Philadelphia Health Department, Philadelphia, PA
  • Source: microbiolspec September 2015 vol. 3 no. 5 doi:10.1128/microbiolspec.IOL5-0011-2015
  • Received 18 March 2015 Accepted 15 April 2015 Published 04 September 2015
  • Ann K. Avery, aavery@metrohealth.org
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  • Abstract:

    Travel has historically been an important risk factor for acquisition of sexually transmitted infections (STIs). Travel is often associated with a sense of adventure, periods of loneliness, and exploration away from one’s home environment—which often form a milieu in which sexual activity can occur with new partners. Survey data clearly demonstrate that out-of-country travel is associated with recruitment of new sex partners and increased STI risk. Pretravel counseling to prevent STI risk is variable, and there is little evidence that it modifies risk behavior. Some travel occurs specifically for sexual purposes, such as the sexual tourism junkets to Southeast Asian destinations which became popular during the 1980s or the more recent rise in the popularity of circuit parties for men who have sex with men. Some travel situations pose particularly high risks. For example, military deployments and assignments to work camps such as those for oil extraction occur in the context of large groups of individuals of reproductive age, often predominantly males, exposed to high levels of stress in unfamiliar environments. Additionally, over the past decade, the Internet has dramatically changed the ability to identify sexual partners while traveling..

  • Citation: Avery A, Zenilman J. 2015. Sexually Transmitted Diseases and Travel: From Boudoir to Bordello. Microbiol Spectrum 3(5):IOL5-0011-2015. doi:10.1128/microbiolspec.IOL5-0011-2015.

Key Concept Ranking

Pelvic Inflammatory Disease
0.73222524
Genital Infections
0.49608138
Bacterial Vaginosis
0.49105582
Chlamydia Infection
0.48524448
Cervical Cancer
0.48524448
Chlamydia Infection
0.48524448
Cervical Cancer
0.48524448
0.73222524

References

1. Alcedo S, Kossuth-Cabrejos S, Piscoya A, Mayta-Tristán P. 2014. Factors associated with non-use of condoms in an online community of frequent travellers. Travel Med Infect Dis 14:750–756. doi:10.1016/j.tmaid.2014.10.003. [CrossRef]
2. Benotsch EG, Mikytuck JJ, Ragsdale K, Pinkerton SD. 2006. Sexual risk and HIV acquisition among men who have sex with men travelers to Key West, Florida: a mathematical modeling analysis. AIDS Patient Care STDS 20:549–556. doi:10.1089/apc.2006.20.549. [PubMed][CrossRef]
3. Cabada MM, Maldonado F, Bauer I, Verdonck K, Seas C, Gotuzzo E. 2007. Sexual behavior, knowledge of STI prevention, and prevalence of serum markers for STI among tour guides in Cuzco/Peru. J Travel Med 14:151–157. [PubMed][CrossRef]
4. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). 2012. Interim guidance for clinicians considering the use of preexposure prophylaxis for the prevention of HIV infection in heterosexually active adults. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 61:586–589. [PubMed]
5. Cheung DH, Lim SH, Guadamuz TE, Koe S, Wei C. 2015. The potential role of circuit parties in the spread of HIV among men who have sex with men in Asia: a call for targeted prevention. Arch Sex Behav 44:389–397. [PubMed][CrossRef]
6. Goldenberg S, Shoveller J, Ostry A, Koehoorn M. 2008. Youth sexual behaviour in a boomtown: implications for the control of sexually transmitted infections. Sex Transm Infect 84:220–223. [PubMed][CrossRef]
7. Croughs M, Remmen R, Van den Ende J. 2014. The effect of pre-travel advice on sexual risk behavior abroad: a systematic review. J Travel Med 21:45–51. doi:10.1111/jtm.12084. [PubMed][CrossRef]
8. Johnson WD, Diaz RM, Flanders WD, Goodman M, Hill AN, Holtgrave D, Malow R, McClellan WM. 2008. Behavioral interventions to reduce risk for sexual transmission of HIV among men who have sex with men. Cochrane Database Syst Rev July 16(3):CD001230.
9. Lau JT, Tang AS, Tsui HY. 2003. The relationship between condom use, sexually transmitted diseases, and location of commercial sex transaction among male Hong Kong clients. AIDS 17:105–112. [PubMed][CrossRef]
10. Matteelli A, Schlagenhauf P, Carvalho AC, Weld L, Davis XM, Wilder-Smith A, Barnett ED, Parola P, Pandey P, Han P, Castelli F, GeoSentinel Surveillance Network. 2013. Travel-associated sexually transmitted infections: an observational cross-sectional study of the GeoSentinel surveillance database. Lancet Infect Dis 13:205–213. doi:10.1016/S1473-3099(12)70291-8. [CrossRef]
11. Senn N, de Valliere S, Berdoz D, Genton B. 2011. Motivational brief intervention for the prevention of sexually transmitted infections in travelers: a randomized controlled trial. BMC Infect Dis 11:300. [PubMed][CrossRef]
12. Vivancos R, Abubakar I, Hunter PR. 2010. Foreign travel, casual sex, and sexually transmitted infections: systematic review and meta-analysis. Int J Infect Dis 14:e842–851. [PubMed][CrossRef]
13. Wong ML, Chan RK, Koh D, Barrett ME, Chew SK, Wee SS. 2005. A comparative study of condom use and self-reported sexually transmitted infections between foreign Asian and local clients of sex workers in Singapore. Sex Transm Dis 32:439–445. [PubMed][CrossRef]
14. Workowski KA, Berman S, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). 2010. Sexually transmitted diseases treatment guidelines, 2010. MMWR Recomm Rep 59(RR-12):1–110. [Erratum: MMWR Recomm Rep 2011 60:18. Dosage error in article text.] [PubMed]
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/content/journal/microbiolspec/10.1128/microbiolspec.IOL5-0011-2015
2015-09-04
2017-11-21

Abstract:

Travel has historically been an important risk factor for acquisition of sexually transmitted infections (STIs). Travel is often associated with a sense of adventure, periods of loneliness, and exploration away from one’s home environment—which often form a milieu in which sexual activity can occur with new partners. Survey data clearly demonstrate that out-of-country travel is associated with recruitment of new sex partners and increased STI risk. Pretravel counseling to prevent STI risk is variable, and there is little evidence that it modifies risk behavior. Some travel occurs specifically for sexual purposes, such as the sexual tourism junkets to Southeast Asian destinations which became popular during the 1980s or the more recent rise in the popularity of circuit parties for men who have sex with men. Some travel situations pose particularly high risks. For example, military deployments and assignments to work camps such as those for oil extraction occur in the context of large groups of individuals of reproductive age, often predominantly males, exposed to high levels of stress in unfamiliar environments. Additionally, over the past decade, the Internet has dramatically changed the ability to identify sexual partners while traveling..

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Figures

Image of FIGURE 1
FIGURE 1

A photomicrograph of a wet-mounted vaginal discharge specimen reveals numbers of protozoan parasites. This image was taken from the CDC-Phil image ID# 14500. doi:10.1128/microbiolspec.IOL5-0011-2015.f1

Source: microbiolspec September 2015 vol. 3 no. 5 doi:10.1128/microbiolspec.IOL5-0011-2015
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Image of FIGURE 2
FIGURE 2

Bacterial vaginosis. Clue cells with a ground-glass appearance are shown. This image was taken from the CDC-Phil image ID# 3719. doi:10.1128/microbiolspec.IOL5-0011-2015.f2

Source: microbiolspec September 2015 vol. 3 no. 5 doi:10.1128/microbiolspec.IOL5-0011-2015
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Image of FIGURE 3
FIGURE 3

Chancre: primary syphilis. Penile chancre due to primary syphilitic infection caused by . This image was taken from the CDC-Phil image ID# 5799. doi:10.1128/microbiolspec.IOL5-0011-2015.f3

Source: microbiolspec September 2015 vol. 3 no. 5 doi:10.1128/microbiolspec.IOL5-0011-2015
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Tables

Generic image for table
TABLE 1

Major STI syndromes and their common causative agents

Source: microbiolspec September 2015 vol. 3 no. 5 doi:10.1128/microbiolspec.IOL5-0011-2015
Generic image for table
TABLE 2

STI prevention strategy

Source: microbiolspec September 2015 vol. 3 no. 5 doi:10.1128/microbiolspec.IOL5-0011-2015

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