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Sports: The Infectious Hazards

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  • Authors: Arezou Minooee1, Jeff Wang2, Geeta K. Gupta3
  • Editor: David Schlossberg4
  • VIEW AFFILIATIONS HIDE AFFILIATIONS
    Affiliations: 1: Department of Medicine, Infectious Diseases, University of California Irvine, CityTower, Orange, CA 92868; 2: Department of Medicine, Infectious Diseases, University of California Irvine, CityTower, Orange, CA 92868; 3: Department of Medicine, Infectious Diseases, University of California Irvine, CityTower, Orange, CA 92868; 4: Philadelphia Health Department, Philadelphia, PA
  • Source: microbiolspec October 2015 vol. 3 no. 5 doi:10.1128/microbiolspec.IOL5-0014-2015
  • Received 22 March 2015 Accepted 01 April 2015 Published 09 October 2015
  • Geeta K. Gupta, ggupta@uci.edu
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  • Abstract:

    Although the medical complications of sports are usually traumatic in nature, infectious hazards also arise. While blood-borne pathogens such as HIV, hepatitis B, and hepatitis C, cause significant illness, the risk of acquiring these agents during sporting activities is minimal. Skin infections are more commonplace, arising from a variety of microbial agents including bacterial, fungal, and viral pathogens. Sports involving water contact can lead to enteric infections, eye infections, or disseminated infections such as leptospirosis. Mumps, measles, and influenza are vaccine-preventable diseases that have been transmitted during sporting events, both in players and in spectators. Prevention is the key to many of these infections. Players should be vaccinated and should not participate in sports if their infection can be spread by contact, airborne, or droplet transmission.

  • Citation: Minooee A, Wang J, Gupta G. 2015. Sports: The Infectious Hazards. Microbiol Spectrum 3(5):IOL5-0014-2015. doi:10.1128/microbiolspec.IOL5-0014-2015.

Key Concept Ranking

Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever
0.43182814
Upper Respiratory Tract Infections
0.41966003
0.43182814

References

1. Adams BB. 2002. Dermatologic disorders of the athlete. Sports Med 32:309–321. [PubMed][CrossRef]
2. American Academy of Pediatrics Committee on Sports Medicine and Fitness. 1999. Human immunodeficiency virus and other blood-borne viral pathogens in the athletic setting. Pediatrics 104:1400–1403. [PubMed][CrossRef]
3. American Medical Society for Sports Medicine and American Academy of Sports Medicine. 1995. Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and other blood-borne pathogens in sports (joint position statement): the American Medical Society for Sports Medicine (AMSSM) and the American Academy of Sports Medicine (AASM). Am J Sports Med 23:510–514. [CrossRef]
4. Borchers JR, Best TM. 2007. Infectious disease and sports medicine. Clin Sports Med 26:449–471.
5. Cohen PR. 2008. The skin in the gym: a comprehensive review of the cutaneous manifestations of community-acquired methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus infection in athletes. Clin Dermatol 26:16–26. [PubMed][CrossRef]
6. Ehresmann K, Hedberg C, Grimm M. 1995. An outbreak of measles at an international sporting event with airborne transmission in a domed stadium. J Infect Dis 171:679–683. [PubMed][CrossRef]
7. Gartner BC, Meyer T. 2014. Vaccination in elite athletes. Sports Med 44:1361–1376. [PubMed][CrossRef]
8. Pleacher MD, Dexter WW. 2007. Cutaneous fungal and viral infections in athletes. Clin Sport Med 26:397–411. [PubMed][CrossRef]
9. Schaefer P, Baugh RF. 2012. Acute otitis externa: an update. Am Fam Physician 86:1055–1061. [PubMed]
10. Stern EJ, Galloway R, Shadomy SV, Wannemuehler K, Atrubin D, Blackmore C, Wofford T, Wilkins PP, Ari MD, Harris L, Clark TA. 2010. Outbreak of leptospirosis among Adventure Race participants in Florida, 2005. Clin Infect Dis 50:843–849. [PubMed][CrossRef]
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/content/journal/microbiolspec/10.1128/microbiolspec.IOL5-0014-2015
2015-10-09
2017-11-23

Abstract:

Although the medical complications of sports are usually traumatic in nature, infectious hazards also arise. While blood-borne pathogens such as HIV, hepatitis B, and hepatitis C, cause significant illness, the risk of acquiring these agents during sporting activities is minimal. Skin infections are more commonplace, arising from a variety of microbial agents including bacterial, fungal, and viral pathogens. Sports involving water contact can lead to enteric infections, eye infections, or disseminated infections such as leptospirosis. Mumps, measles, and influenza are vaccine-preventable diseases that have been transmitted during sporting events, both in players and in spectators. Prevention is the key to many of these infections. Players should be vaccinated and should not participate in sports if their infection can be spread by contact, airborne, or droplet transmission.

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Figures

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FIGURE 1

Photo courtesy of and reproduced with permission from Dr. Marian Wymore. doi:10.1128/microbiolspec.IOL5-0014-2015.f1

Source: microbiolspec October 2015 vol. 3 no. 5 doi:10.1128/microbiolspec.IOL5-0014-2015
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Image of FIGURE 2
FIGURE 2

Pitted keratolysis. Plantar hyperhidrosis with malodorous feet. Reproduced with permission from UpToDate. . doi:10.1128/microbiolspec.IOL5-0014-2015.f2

Source: microbiolspec October 2015 vol. 3 no. 5 doi:10.1128/microbiolspec.IOL5-0014-2015
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FIGURE 3

Tinea corporis. Reproduced with permission from www.dermaamin.com. doi:10.1128/microbiolspec.IOL5-0014-2015.f3

Source: microbiolspec October 2015 vol. 3 no. 5 doi:10.1128/microbiolspec.IOL5-0014-2015
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Tables

Generic image for table
TABLE 1

Common etiologies of sports-related infections

Source: microbiolspec October 2015 vol. 3 no. 5 doi:10.1128/microbiolspec.IOL5-0014-2015
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TABLE 2

Infectious diseases associated with water sports

Source: microbiolspec October 2015 vol. 3 no. 5 doi:10.1128/microbiolspec.IOL5-0014-2015

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