1887
No metrics data to plot.
The attempt to load metrics for this article has failed.
The attempt to plot a graph for these metrics has failed.

Diseases Transmitted by Domestic Livestock: Perils of the Petting Zoo

MyBook is a cheap paperback edition of the original book and will be sold at uniform, low price.
Buy this Microbiology Spectrum Article
Price Non-Member $15.00
  • Authors: John R. Dunn1, Casey Barton Behravesh2, Frederick J. Angulo3
  • Editor: David Schlossberg4
  • VIEW AFFILIATIONS HIDE AFFILIATIONS
    Affiliations: 1: Communicable and Environmental Diseases and Emergency Preparedness, Tennessee Department of Health; 2: Rickettsial Zoonoses Branch, Division of Vector-Borne Diseases, National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA 30333; 3: Division of Global Health Protection, Center of Global Health, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA 30333; 4: Philadelphia Health Department, Philadelphia, PA
  • Source: microbiolspec December 2015 vol. 3 no. 6 doi:10.1128/microbiolspec.IOL5-0017-2015
  • Received 29 April 2015 Accepted 29 July 2015 Published 18 December 2015
  • J.R. Dunn, john.dunn@tn.us
image of Diseases Transmitted by Domestic Livestock: Perils of the Petting Zoo
    Preview this microbiology spectrum article:
    Zoom in
    Zoomout

    Diseases Transmitted by Domestic Livestock: Perils of the Petting Zoo, Page 1 of 2

    | /docserver/preview/fulltext/microbiolspec/3/6/IOL5-0017-2015-1.gif /docserver/preview/fulltext/microbiolspec/3/6/IOL5-0017-2015-2.gif
  • Abstract:

    Petting zoo venues encourage or permit public contact with animals which provide opportunities for education and entertainment. These venues vary but are common at county or state fairs, zoos, and aquariums. In addition to these common petting zoo settings, animals are present in many other venues where the public is permitted to contact them and their environment. Thus, humans may have contact with animals in a wide range of settings, and transmission of infectious diseases from animals to humans may occur at any of these venues, creating perils associated with petting zoos.

    There are many considerations when evaluating perils associated with the wide range of venues where animal contact can occur. First, many venues or events draw large numbers of people; some operate during a short time frame, while others, such as zoos and aquariums, operate year round. Second, petting zoos and other animal contact venues are particularly popular with children, who compared with adults, commonly have less stringent hygienic practices and are more susceptible to severe disease outcomes. Finally, there is remarkable variability in the physical layout of venues that permit animal contact and in the types of animals that may be contacted. Animal contact areas range from well-designed permanent exhibits targeting risk reduction to various temporary or seasonal exhibits established without detailed planning. Many petting zoos house only small ruminant species such as sheep and goats, but other venues house a wide variety of mammalian species, exotic animals, poultry and other avian species, reptiles and amphibians, and aquatic animals.

  • Citation: Dunn J, Behravesh C, Angulo F. 2015. Diseases Transmitted by Domestic Livestock: Perils of the Petting Zoo. Microbiol Spectrum 3(6):IOL5-0017-2015. doi:10.1128/microbiolspec.IOL5-0017-2015.

References

1. Barton Behravesh C, Brinson D, Hopkins BA, Gomez T. 2014. Backyard poultry flocks and salmonellosis: a recurring, yet preventable public health challenge. Clin Infect Dis 58:1432–1438. [PubMed][CrossRef]
2. Bowman AS, Nelson SW, Page SL, Nolting JM, Killian ML, Sreevatsan S, Slemons RD. 2014. Swine-to-human transmission of influenza A(H3N2) virus at agricultural fairs, Ohio, USA, 2012. Emerg Infect Dis 20:1472–1480. [PubMed][CrossRef]
3. CDC. 2001. Outbreaks of Escherichia coli O157:H7 infections among children associated with farm visits: Pennsylvania and Washington, 2000. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 50:293–297. [PubMed]
4. CDC. 2008. Human rabies prevention: United States, 2008. Recommendations of the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 57:1–26, 28. [PubMed]
5. CDC. 2011. Update: influenza A (H3N2)v transmission and guidelines: five states, 2011. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 60:1741–1744. [PubMed]
6. Crump JA, Sulka AC, Langer AJ, Schaben C, Crielly AS, Gage R, Baysinger M, Moll M, Withers G, Toney DM, Hunter SB, Hoekstra RM, Wong SK, Griffin PM, Van Gilder TJ. 2002. An outbreak of Escherichia coli O157:H7 infections among visitors to a dairy farm. N Engl J Med 347:555–560. [PubMed][CrossRef]
7. Goode B, O’Reilly C, Dunn J, Fullerton K, Smith S, Ghneim G, Keen J, Durso L, Davies M, Montgomery S. 2004. Outbreak of Escherichia coli O157:H7 infections after petting zoo visits, North Carolina State Fair, October–November 2004. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med 163:42–48. [PubMed][CrossRef]
8. Hale CR, Scallan E, Cronquist AB, Dunn J, Smith K, Robinson T, Lathrop S, Tobin-D’Angelo M, Clogher P. 2012. Estimates of enteric illness attributable to contact with animals and their environments in the United States. Clin Infect Dis 54:S472–S479. [PubMed][CrossRef]
9. National Association of State Public Health Veterinarians Animal Contact Compendium Committee 2013. 2013. Compendium of measures to prevent disease associated with animals in public settings, 2013. J Am Vet Med Assoc 243:1270–1288. [PubMed][CrossRef]
10. Steinmuller N, Demma L, Bender J, Eidson M, Angulo FJ. 2006. Outbreaks of enteric disease associated with animal contact: not just a foodborne problem anymore. Clin Infect Dis 43:1596–1602. [PubMed][CrossRef]
microbiolspec.IOL5-0017-2015.citations
cm/3/6
content/journal/microbiolspec/10.1128/microbiolspec.IOL5-0017-2015
Loading

Citations loading...

Loading

Article metrics loading...

/content/journal/microbiolspec/10.1128/microbiolspec.IOL5-0017-2015
2015-12-18
2017-09-25

Abstract:

Petting zoo venues encourage or permit public contact with animals which provide opportunities for education and entertainment. These venues vary but are common at county or state fairs, zoos, and aquariums. In addition to these common petting zoo settings, animals are present in many other venues where the public is permitted to contact them and their environment. Thus, humans may have contact with animals in a wide range of settings, and transmission of infectious diseases from animals to humans may occur at any of these venues, creating perils associated with petting zoos.

There are many considerations when evaluating perils associated with the wide range of venues where animal contact can occur. First, many venues or events draw large numbers of people; some operate during a short time frame, while others, such as zoos and aquariums, operate year round. Second, petting zoos and other animal contact venues are particularly popular with children, who compared with adults, commonly have less stringent hygienic practices and are more susceptible to severe disease outcomes. Finally, there is remarkable variability in the physical layout of venues that permit animal contact and in the types of animals that may be contacted. Animal contact areas range from well-designed permanent exhibits targeting risk reduction to various temporary or seasonal exhibits established without detailed planning. Many petting zoos house only small ruminant species such as sheep and goats, but other venues house a wide variety of mammalian species, exotic animals, poultry and other avian species, reptiles and amphibians, and aquatic animals.

Highlighted Text: Show | Hide
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

Figures

Image of FIGURE 1
FIGURE 1

Close contact with animals, animal feces, and animal bedding led to a large O157:H7 outbreak at the 2004 North Carolina State Fair. (Photos reproduced with permission of the North Carolina Division of Public Health.) doi:10.1128/microbiolspec.IOL5-0017-2015.f1

Source: microbiolspec December 2015 vol. 3 no. 6 doi:10.1128/microbiolspec.IOL5-0017-2015
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint

Supplemental Material

No supplementary material available for this content.

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Please check the format of the address you have entered.
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error