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The Regulatory Function of Eosinophils

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  • Authors: Ting Wen1, Marc E. Rothenberg2
  • Editor: Siamon Gordon3
  • VIEW AFFILIATIONS HIDE AFFILIATIONS
    Affiliations: 1: Division of Allergy and Immunology, Cincinnati Children’s Hospital Medical Center, University of Cincinnati College of Medicine, Cincinnati, OH 45229; 2: Division of Allergy and Immunology, Cincinnati Children’s Hospital Medical Center, University of Cincinnati College of Medicine, Cincinnati, OH 45229; 3: Oxford University, Oxford, United Kingdom
  • Source: microbiolspec September 2016 vol. 4 no. 5 doi:10.1128/microbiolspec.MCHD-0020-2015
  • Received 14 August 2015 Accepted 06 June 2016 Published 16 September 2016
  • Marc E. Rothenberg, Rothenberg@cchmc.org
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  • Abstract:

    Eosinophils are a minority circulating granulocyte classically viewed as being involved in host defense against parasites and promoting allergic reactions. However, a series of new regulatory functions for these cells have been identified in the past decade. During homeostasis, eosinophils develop in the bone marrow and migrate from the blood into target tissues following an eotaxin gradient, with interleukin-5 being a key cytokine for eosinophil proliferation, survival, and priming. In multiple target tissues, eosinophils actively regulate a variety of immune functions through their vast arsenal of granule products and cytokines, as well as direct cellular interaction with cells in proximity. The immunologic regulation of eosinophils extends from innate immunity to adaptive immunity and also involves non-immune cells. Herein, we summarize recent findings regarding novel roles of murine and human eosinophils, focusing on interactions with other hematopoietic cells. We also review new experimental tools available and remaining questions to uncover a greater understanding of this enigmatic cell.

  • Citation: Wen T, Rothenberg M. 2016. The Regulatory Function of Eosinophils. Microbiol Spectrum 4(5):MCHD-0020-2015. doi:10.1128/microbiolspec.MCHD-0020-2015.

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/content/journal/microbiolspec/10.1128/microbiolspec.MCHD-0020-2015
2016-09-16
2017-09-25

Abstract:

Eosinophils are a minority circulating granulocyte classically viewed as being involved in host defense against parasites and promoting allergic reactions. However, a series of new regulatory functions for these cells have been identified in the past decade. During homeostasis, eosinophils develop in the bone marrow and migrate from the blood into target tissues following an eotaxin gradient, with interleukin-5 being a key cytokine for eosinophil proliferation, survival, and priming. In multiple target tissues, eosinophils actively regulate a variety of immune functions through their vast arsenal of granule products and cytokines, as well as direct cellular interaction with cells in proximity. The immunologic regulation of eosinophils extends from innate immunity to adaptive immunity and also involves non-immune cells. Herein, we summarize recent findings regarding novel roles of murine and human eosinophils, focusing on interactions with other hematopoietic cells. We also review new experimental tools available and remaining questions to uncover a greater understanding of this enigmatic cell.

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Figures

Image of FIGURE 1
FIGURE 1

Schematic summary of eosinophil-tropic signaling and eosinophil cellular and humoral regulatory functions. EOS, eosinophils; Mast, mast cells; Epi, epithelium; ADCC, antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity; Ag, antigen; PMN, polymorphonuclear leukocyte (neutrophil).

Source: microbiolspec September 2016 vol. 4 no. 5 doi:10.1128/microbiolspec.MCHD-0020-2015
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Image of FIGURE 2
FIGURE 2

Research tool summary and questions to be answered. Although recent advances provide tremendous insight into the regulatory functions of eosinophils, important questions remain. With the increasing number of tools available (upper panel), progress in the listed areas (lower panel, blue boxes), in the context of key eosinophil regulation elements (ovals), will be interesting and crucial to understanding the still enigmatic function of eosinophils. EOS, eosinophils; EPO-DT, EPO-driven diphtheria toxin expression mice; EMT, epithelial-mesenchymal transition; miR, microRNA; GOI, gene of interest; Tg, transgenic; (D)KO, (double) knockout; APCs, antigen-presenting cells. Gene EPX encodes the protein product of eosinophil peroxidase (EPO).

Source: microbiolspec September 2016 vol. 4 no. 5 doi:10.1128/microbiolspec.MCHD-0020-2015
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