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Dendritic Cells in the Immune System—History, Lineages, Tissues, Tolerance, and Immunity

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  • Author: Jonathan M. Austyn1
  • Editor: Siamon Gordon2
  • VIEW AFFILIATIONS HIDE AFFILIATIONS
    Affiliations: 1: Nuffield Department of Surgical Sciences, University of Oxford, John Radcliffe Hospital, Oxford OX3 9DU, United Kingdom; 2: Oxford University, Oxford, United Kingdom
  • Source: microbiolspec December 2016 vol. 4 no. 6 doi:10.1128/microbiolspec.MCHD-0046-2016
  • Received 01 August 2016 Accepted 22 September 2016 Published 02 December 2016
  • Jonathan M. Austyn, jon.austyn@nds.ox.ac.uk
image of Dendritic Cells in the Immune System—History, Lineages, Tissues, Tolerance, and Immunity
  • Abstract:

    The aim of this review is to provide a coherent framework for understanding dendritic cells (DCs). It has seven sections. The introduction provides an overview of the immune system and essential concepts, particularly for the nonspecialist reader. Next, the “History” section outlines the early evolution of ideas about DCs and highlights some sources of confusion that still exist today. The “Lineages” section then focuses on five different populations of DCs: two subsets of “classical” DCs, plasmacytoid DCs, monocyte-derived DCs, and Langerhans cells. It highlights some cellular and molecular specializations of each, and also notes other DC subsets that have been proposed. The following “Tissues” section discusses the distribution and behavior of different DC subsets within nonlymphoid and secondary lymphoid tissues that are connected by DC migration pathways between them. In the “Tolerance” section, the role of DCs in central and peripheral tolerance is considered, including their ability to drive the differentiation of different populations of regulatory T cells. In contrast, the “Immunity” section considers the roles of DCs in sensing of infection and tissue damage, the initiation of primary responses, the T-cell effector phase, and the induction of immunological memory. The concluding section provides some speculative ideas about the evolution of DCs. It also revisits earlier concepts of generation of diversity and clonal selection in terms of DCs driving the evolution of T-cell responses. Throughout, this review highlights certain areas of uncertainty and suggests some avenues for future investigation.

  • Citation: Austyn J. 2016. Dendritic Cells in the Immune System—History, Lineages, Tissues, Tolerance, and Immunity. Microbiol Spectrum 4(6):MCHD-0046-2016. doi:10.1128/microbiolspec.MCHD-0046-2016.

Key Concept Ranking

Adaptive Immune System
0.8541004
Innate Immune System
0.83345234
Complement System
0.78173226
Infection and Immunity
0.6685628
Immune Systems
0.66052437
Major Histocompatibility Complex
0.5694128
0.8541004
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/content/journal/microbiolspec/10.1128/microbiolspec.MCHD-0046-2016
2016-12-02
2018-07-16

Abstract:

The aim of this review is to provide a coherent framework for understanding dendritic cells (DCs). It has seven sections. The introduction provides an overview of the immune system and essential concepts, particularly for the nonspecialist reader. Next, the “History” section outlines the early evolution of ideas about DCs and highlights some sources of confusion that still exist today. The “Lineages” section then focuses on five different populations of DCs: two subsets of “classical” DCs, plasmacytoid DCs, monocyte-derived DCs, and Langerhans cells. It highlights some cellular and molecular specializations of each, and also notes other DC subsets that have been proposed. The following “Tissues” section discusses the distribution and behavior of different DC subsets within nonlymphoid and secondary lymphoid tissues that are connected by DC migration pathways between them. In the “Tolerance” section, the role of DCs in central and peripheral tolerance is considered, including their ability to drive the differentiation of different populations of regulatory T cells. In contrast, the “Immunity” section considers the roles of DCs in sensing of infection and tissue damage, the initiation of primary responses, the T-cell effector phase, and the induction of immunological memory. The concluding section provides some speculative ideas about the evolution of DCs. It also revisits earlier concepts of generation of diversity and clonal selection in terms of DCs driving the evolution of T-cell responses. Throughout, this review highlights certain areas of uncertainty and suggests some avenues for future investigation.

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