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and Transposons

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  • Author: Damon Lisch1
  • Editors: Mick Chandler2, Nancy Craig3
  • VIEW AFFILIATIONS HIDE AFFILIATIONS
    Affiliations: 1: Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN; 2: Université Paul Sabatier, Toulouse, France; 3: Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD
  • Source: microbiolspec March 2015 vol. 3 no. 2 doi:10.1128/microbiolspec.MDNA3-0032-2014
  • Received 10 June 2014 Accepted 22 October 2014 Published 05 March 2015
  • Damon Lisch, dlisch@purdue.edu
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  • Abstract:

    The system of transposable elements (TEs) is a highly mutagenic family of transposons in maize. Because they transpose at high rates and target genic regions, these transposons can rapidly generate large numbers of new mutants, which has made the system a favored tool for both forward and reverse mutagenesis in maize. Low copy number versions of this system have also proved to be excellent models for understanding the regulation and behavior of Class II transposons in plants. Notably, the availability of a naturally occurring locus that can heritably silence autonomous elements has provided insights into the means by which otherwise active transposons are recognized and silenced. This chapter will provide a review of the biology, regulation, evolution and uses of this remarkable transposon system, with an emphasis on recent developments in our understanding of the ways in which this TE system is recognized and epigenetically silenced as well as recent evidence that -like elements (s) have had a significant impact on the evolution of plant genomes.

  • Citation: Lisch D. 2015. and Transposons. Microbiol Spectrum 3(2):MDNA3-0032-2014. doi:10.1128/microbiolspec.MDNA3-0032-2014.

Key Concept Ranking

Gene Expression and Regulation
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Cauliflower mosaic virus
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/content/journal/microbiolspec/10.1128/microbiolspec.MDNA3-0032-2014
2015-03-05
2017-11-18

Abstract:

The system of transposable elements (TEs) is a highly mutagenic family of transposons in maize. Because they transpose at high rates and target genic regions, these transposons can rapidly generate large numbers of new mutants, which has made the system a favored tool for both forward and reverse mutagenesis in maize. Low copy number versions of this system have also proved to be excellent models for understanding the regulation and behavior of Class II transposons in plants. Notably, the availability of a naturally occurring locus that can heritably silence autonomous elements has provided insights into the means by which otherwise active transposons are recognized and silenced. This chapter will provide a review of the biology, regulation, evolution and uses of this remarkable transposon system, with an emphasis on recent developments in our understanding of the ways in which this TE system is recognized and epigenetically silenced as well as recent evidence that -like elements (s) have had a significant impact on the evolution of plant genomes.

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FIGURE 1

The transposon. (A) The structure of . Terminal inverted repeats (TIRs) at either end of the element are designated TIRA and TIRB. The two transcripts are indicated above and below. Exons are depicted as boxes. Introns are depicted as thin black lines. The third intron of is only infrequently spliced out. Domains identified within the MURA protein are as indicated. (B) The sequence of TIRA (top) and TIRB (bottom). The TIR sequences shows where the transposase binds and where and transcription are initiated are as shown. Note that TIRA and TIRB are identical for the first 158 nucleotides of each TIR. Differences between TIRA and TIRB are indicated by boxed residues. doi:10.1128/microbiolspec.MDNA3-0032-2014.f1

Source: microbiolspec March 2015 vol. 3 no. 2 doi:10.1128/microbiolspec.MDNA3-0032-2014
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FIGURE 2

Structural features of nonautonomous elements in maize. Black triangles represent terminal inverted repeat (TIR) sequences. Shaded boxes represent captured host sequences, with each independent sequence indicated by a number. The cognate host genes are indicated here, along with the percent identity between the captured sequence and the host gene. and : (1) GRMZM2G117007, 94% identical (unknown function). : (2) GRMZM2G015352 (unknown function), 97% identical. (3) GRMZM2G542994 (putative mago nashi, protein), 94% identical. : (4) GRMZM2G177883 (putative receptor-like protein kinase 5 precursor), 97% identical. (5) GRMZM2G037164 (unknown function), 96% identical. : (6) GRMZM2G022945 (BRCA1 C Terminus domain containing protein), 98% identical. : (7) GRMZM2G315375 (P-glycoprotein 1), 99% identical. : (8) GRMZM2G317614 (putative nucleotide binding protein), 96% identical. : (9) GRMZM2G010000 (putative heat shock protein binding protein), 90% identical. (10) GRMZM2G120085 (subtilisin-like protease precursor), 94% identical. : (11) GRMZM2G181219 (unknown function), 96% identical. (12) AC196090.3 (putative xylem serine proteinase 1 precursor), 95% identical. (13) AC234154.1 (putative phospholipase A1), 95% identical. : (14) GRMZM2G001934 (putative receptor protein kinase TMK1 precursor), 95% identical. : (15) GRMZM2G029979 (TGACG-sequence-specific DNA-binding protein TGA-2), 97% identical (16) GRMZM2G331374 (unknown function), 100% identical (17) GRMZM2G148831 (unknown function), 97% identical. (18) GRMZM2G055809 (unknown function), 95% identical. (19) GRMZM2G126413 (VQ motif family protein), 87% identical. (20) GRMZM2G081406 (putative auxin response factor), 96% identical. (21) GRMZM2G152432 (putative calmodulin), 97% identical. (22) GRMZM2G106401 (putative xylem serine proteinase 1 precursor ), 96% identical. (23) GRMZM2G116908 (unknown fuction), 96% identical. doi:10.1128/microbiolspec.MDNA3-0032-2014.f2

Source: microbiolspec March 2015 vol. 3 no. 2 doi:10.1128/microbiolspec.MDNA3-0032-2014
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FIGURE 3

Examples of somatic excision of from in the seed (A), the sheath (B) and the anthers (C). Note that in each case, reversion events are uniformly late. doi:10.1128/microbiolspec.MDNA3-0032-2014.f3

Source: microbiolspec March 2015 vol. 3 no. 2 doi:10.1128/microbiolspec.MDNA3-0032-2014
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FIGURE 4

A model explaining the differences between late somatic and germinal element transposition. (A) In all tissues, element excision produces a double-stranded gap. What is hypothesized to vary is how that gap is repaired. (B) In germinal (and early somatic) lineages the gap is repaired using the sister chromatid, which requires that excision occurs primarily after DNA synthesis. Occasional strand slippage, mediated by short stretches of sequence homology, can result in deletions within the element. (C) In contrast, during the last few rounds of cell division in somatic tissue, the double-stranded gap is repaired using nonhomologous end joining, resulting in a characteristic set of “footprints.” In each case, the excised element can insert at a new location, but in the germinal lineage, sister-chromatid-mediated repair restores an element at the original position. doi:10.1128/microbiolspec.MDNA3-0032-2014.f4

Source: microbiolspec March 2015 vol. 3 no. 2 doi:10.1128/microbiolspec.MDNA3-0032-2014
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FIGURE 5

A striking example of a position effect on the capacity for a element to cause somatic excision of a reporter element. (A) Somatic excisions caused by (left) and (right). (B) An example of likely transposition of during somatic development, resulting in a kernel sector with an increased level of somatic excision. (C) A rare ear sector in which has undergone a duplication during development, resulting in an ear sector in which and transposed copies of segregate. (D) Southern blot analysis of more typical, single kernel duplication events. Weakly spotted, pale and heavily spotted kernels were picked from a single ear and their DNA was examined for evidence of transposition. Analysis of the weakly spotted and pale kernels show that segregation of correlates with the weak spotting phenotype. Analysis of the heavily spotted kernels shows that in each case, a new fragment, consistent with a transposition event, appeared. Note that in some cases both and a transposed copy were present, while in others, only the transposed copy is available, suggesting that these transposition events occurred prior to meiosis. doi:10.1128/microbiolspec.MDNA3-0032-2014.f5

Source: microbiolspec March 2015 vol. 3 no. 2 doi:10.1128/microbiolspec.MDNA3-0032-2014
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FIGURE 6

. (A) The () locus. is a rearranged element, derived from the single present in the minimal line []. The rearrangement that gave rise to also caused the complet deletion of one gene and the deletion of portions of two other genes, as well as a duplication and inversion of a portion of the 5′ end of the element. Triangles represent the TIR. Boxes represent coding sequences. Transcriptional start sites for genes are as indicated. (B) The structure of the hairpin transcript derived from relative to a element. (C) The effect of on in the first generation after a plant carrying is crossed to a plant carrying . Heavily spotted kernels are those that inherit only . Weakly spotted kernels are those that carry both and . Pale kernels lack . doi:10.1128/microbiolspec.MDNA3-0032-2014.f6

Source: microbiolspec March 2015 vol. 3 no. 2 doi:10.1128/microbiolspec.MDNA3-0032-2014
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FIGURE 7

Maize development. (A) An illustration of the major components of an adult maize plant. Leaves are produced sequentially as the maize plant develops, with juvenile and adult leaves being distinguished by presence of epicuticular wax (a juvenile trait) and epidermal hairs (an adult trait). Transition leaves have patches of tissue with either adult or juvenile traits. Ears and tassels are only produced once adult leaves are produced. Each maize plant can be crossed as a male, or a female, or to itself. (B) A cartoon of a maize seed, showing the location of the embryo, endosperm (a terminally differentiated nutritive tissue), and the aleurone, which is the outer cell layer of the endosperm that is competent to express color. (C) A cartoon of a mature pollen grain, which contains three nuclei. The vegetative nucleus is responsible for the development of the pollen tube, and will not contribute to the next generation. Of the two sperm cells, one will fertilize the two polar nuclei to give rise to the triploid endosperm, and one of which will fertilize the egg cell to give rise to the embryo. In each part of the plant illustrated here, tissues and cells in which a relaxation of TE silencing has been observed are indicated by red asterisks. doi:10.1128/microbiolspec.MDNA3-0032-2014.f7

Source: microbiolspec March 2015 vol. 3 no. 2 doi:10.1128/microbiolspec.MDNA3-0032-2014
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FIGURE 8

An illustration of the diversity of in a wide variety of species. In each case, triangles represent TIRs of various lengths. Boxes represent putative coding sequences. Black boxes represent putative transposases. All models are to scale. Names marked with one asterisks indicate elements that have been shown to be mobile. Those with two asterisks have been demonstrated to be autonomous. doi:10.1128/microbiolspec.MDNA3-0032-2014.f8

Source: microbiolspec March 2015 vol. 3 no. 2 doi:10.1128/microbiolspec.MDNA3-0032-2014
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