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Origin, History, and Meanings of the Word

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  • Authors: Joaquín Villalba1, Fernando A. Navarro2, Francisco Cortés3
  • Editors: Fernando Baquero4, Emilio Bouza5, J.A. Gutiérrez-Fuentes6, Teresa M. Coque7
  • VIEW AFFILIATIONS HIDE AFFILIATIONS
    Affiliations: 1: Department of Sciences of Antiquity, University of Extremadura, Spain; 2: Cosnautas, Cabrerizos (Salamanca), Spain; 3: Department of Classical Philology and Indoeuropean Studies, University of Salamanca, Spain; 4: Hospital Ramón y Cajal (IRYCIS), Madrid, Spain; 5: Hospital Ramón y Cajal (IRYCIS), Madrid, Spain; 6: Complutensis University, Madrid, Spain; 7: Hospital Ramón y Cajal (IRYCIS), Madrid, Spain
  • Source: microbiolspec December 2017 vol. 5 no. 6 doi:10.1128/microbiolspec.MTBP-0004-2016
  • Received 02 July 2016 Accepted 10 March 2017 Published 07 December 2017
  • Joaquín Villalba, villalba@unex.es
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  • Abstract:

    The origin of the words and and their derivatives can be traced to the Latin , in turn formed by prefixing the preposition (“across or beyond”) to the verb (“to let go or to send”). From the times of Ancient Rome in the 3rd century , the Latin word has been “transmitted” (through Romance languages such as French, Italian, Spanish, and Portuguese) to all the major languages of culture, English among them. And through English, the international language of biomedical science in the 21st century, the term is increasingly present today in some of the most dynamic disciplines of modern natural science, including genomics, molecular microbiology, hospital epidemiology, molecular genetics, biotechnology, evolutionary biology, and systems biology.

  • Keywords: scientific language; Latin; etymology; English; transmission; history of microbiology

  • Citation: Villalba J, Navarro F, Cortés F. 2017. Origin, History, and Meanings of the Word . Microbiol Spectrum 5(6):MTBP-0004-2016. doi:10.1128/microbiolspec.MTBP-0004-2016.

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References

1. Oxford English Dictionary (OED) online. 2016. Oxford University Press. http://www.oed.com/. Accessed 28 November 2017.
2. Ernout A, Meillet A. 1967. Dictionnaire étymologique de la langue latine: histoire des mots, 4th ed. Klincksieck, Paris, France.
3. Blaise A. 1954. Dictionnaire latin-français des auteurs chrétiens. Brepols, Turnhout, Belgium.
4. Coseriu E. 1991. Principios de semántica estructural. Gredos, Madrid, Spain.
5. Pottier B. 1962. Systématique des éléments de relation. Étude de morphosyntaxe structurale romane. Klincksieck, Paris, France.
6. Gove PB (ed). 1981. Webster’s Third New International Dictionary of the English Language Unabridged. G. & C. Merriam Co, Springfield, MA.
7. Glare PG (ed). 1982. Oxford Latin Dictionary. Oxford University Press, New York, NY.
8. Fracastoro G. 1584. De contagionibus & contagiosis morbis. In Hieronymi Fracastorii Veronensis Opera Omnia, Venetiis, Apud Iuntas, p 89a.
9. Harvey W. 1928. Exercitatio anatomica de motu cordis et sanguinis in animalibus. Leake CD, trans, annot, p 12 and 17 of the facsímile and p 10 and 19 of the translation. Charles C Thomas, Springfield, IL.
10. Chesnau N. 1719. Observationum medicarum libri, p 88. Lugduni Batavorum, Leiden, The Netherlands.
11. Martínez M. 1725. Medicina sceptica, II, p 265. Madrid, Spain.
12. Moreali G. 1746. Delle febbri maligne e contagiose, p 145. Venice.
13. Buchan W. 1774. Domestic Medicine, or the Family Physician, p 6. Philadelphia, PA.
14. MacBride D. 1777. A Methodical Introduction to the Theory and Practice of the Art of Medicine, 2nd ed, p 19, 60. Dublin, Ireland.
15. Dictionnaires Le Robert. 2016. Le Grand Robert de la langue française. www.lerobert.com/le-grand-robert. Accessed 28 November 2017.
16. Real Academia Española. 2016. Corpus diacrónico del español (CORDE). http://corpus.rae.es/cordenet.html. Accessed 28 November 2017.
17. Instituto de Investigación Rafael Lapesa y Real Academia Española. 2013. Corpus del Nuevo diccionario histórico (CDH); version 3.1. http://web.frl.es/CNDHE/view/inicioExterno.view. Accessed 28 November 2017.
18. Thomas R. 1821. In The Modern Practice of Physic… Improved Method of Treating the Diseases of All Climates, 7th ed, p 279. Longman, London, United Kingdom.
19. Mendel G. 1866. Versuche über Pflanzen-Hybriden. Verh Naturforsch Ver Brunn 4:3–47.
20. De Vries H. 1900. Sur la loi de disjonction des hybrides. C R Acad Sci 130:845–847.
21. De Vries H. 1900. Das Spaltungsgesetz der Bastarde. Ber Dtsch Bot Ges 18:83–90.
22. Correns C. 1900. Mendel’s Regel über das Verhalten der Nachkommenschaft der Rassenbastarde. Ber Dtsch Bot Ges 18:158–167.
23. Tschermak E. 1900. Über künstliche Kreuzung von Pisum sativum. Zeitschr Landwirtsch Versuchsw Osterr 3:465–555.
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/content/journal/microbiolspec/10.1128/microbiolspec.MTBP-0004-2016
2017-12-07
2017-12-11

Abstract:

The origin of the words and and their derivatives can be traced to the Latin , in turn formed by prefixing the preposition (“across or beyond”) to the verb (“to let go or to send”). From the times of Ancient Rome in the 3rd century , the Latin word has been “transmitted” (through Romance languages such as French, Italian, Spanish, and Portuguese) to all the major languages of culture, English among them. And through English, the international language of biomedical science in the 21st century, the term is increasingly present today in some of the most dynamic disciplines of modern natural science, including genomics, molecular microbiology, hospital epidemiology, molecular genetics, biotechnology, evolutionary biology, and systems biology.

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