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Regulatory Issues Associated with Preharvest Food Safety: European Union Perspective

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  • Author: Lis Alban1
  • Editors: Kalmia Kniel2, Siddhartha Thakur3
  • VIEW AFFILIATIONS HIDE AFFILIATIONS
    Affiliations: 1: Danish Agriculture and Food Council, DK-1609 Copenhagen V, Denmark; 2: Department of Animal and Food Science, University of Delaware, Newark, DE; 3: North Carolina State University, College of Veterinary Medicine, Raleigh, NC
  • Source: microbiolspec September 2016 vol. 4 no. 5 doi:10.1128/microbiolspec.PFS-0003-2014
  • Received 12 August 2014 Accepted 04 August 2015 Published 09 September 2016
  • Lis Alban, lia@lf.dk
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  • Abstract:

    Free movement of safe and wholesome food is an essential aspect of any society. This article contains an updated description of the regulatory issues associated with preharvest food safety within the European Union. , , , antimicrobial resistance, and bovine spongiform encephalopathy are dealt with in detail. Moreover, /, , , verotoxigenic/shigatoxigenic , , and foodborne viruses are briefly covered. The article describes how the focus in the European Union is changing to involve a supply chain view with a focus on cost-effectiveness. The precautionary principle—as well as the use of private standards as an instrument to ensure compliance—is dealt with. In addition, actions in the pipeline are presented and discussed.

  • Citation: Alban L. 2016. Regulatory Issues Associated with Preharvest Food Safety: European Union Perspective. Microbiol Spectrum 4(5):PFS-0003-2014. doi:10.1128/microbiolspec.PFS-0003-2014.

Key Concept Ranking

Meat and Meat Products
0.53366375
Food Safety
0.53278625
Hepatitis E virus
0.49424767
West nile virus
0.49424767
Hepatitis E virus
0.49424767
West nile virus
0.49424767
Hepatitis E virus
0.49424767
0.53366375

References

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2. EFSA. 2012. The European Union Summary Report on Trends and Sources of Zoonoses, Zoonotic Agents and Foodborne Outbreaks in 2010. EFSA J 10:2597. doi:10.2903/j.efsa.2012.2597. [PubMed][CrossRef]
3. EFSA. 2014. The European Union Summary Report on Trends and Sources of Zoonoses, Zoonotic Agents and Foodborne Outbreaks in 2012. http://www.efsa.europa.eu/en/efsajournal/pub/3547.htm. [PubMed]
4. EFSA. 2011. Scientific opinion on Campylobacter in broiler meat production: control options and performance objectives and/or targets at different stages of the food chain. EFSA J 9:2105. http://www.efsa.europa.eu/en/efsajournal/doc/2105.pdf.
5. Anonymous. 2011. Communication from the Commission to the European Parliament and the Council. Action plan against the rising threats from antimicrobial resistance. http://ec.europa.eu/dgs/health_consumer/docs/communication_amr_2011_748_en.pdf.
6. Alban L, Nielsen EO, Dahl J. 2008. A human health risk assessment for macrolide-resistant Campylobacter associated with the use of macrolides in Danish pig production. Prev Vet Med 83:115–129. [PubMed][CrossRef]
7. Anonymous. 2003. Directive 2003/99/EC on the monitoring of zoonoses and zoonotic agents. http://eur-lex.europa.eu/LexUriServ/LexUriServ.do?uri=OJ:L:2003:325:0031:0040:EN:PDF.
8. Anonymous. 2003. Regulation (EC) No 2160/2003 on the control of Salmonella and other specified foodborne zoonotic agents. http://eur-lex.europa.eu/LexUriServ/LexUriServ.do?uri=OJ:L:2003:325:0001:0015:EN:PDF.
9. Baptista FM. 2011. Salmonella in pigs and pork in Denmark and Portugal: use of risk-based principles to achieve cost-effective surveillance strategies. Ph.D. thesis. Faculty of Life Sciences, University of Copenhagen. 177 pp.
10. Alban L, Baptista FM, Møgelmose V, Sørensen LL, Christensen H, Aabo S, Dahl J. 2011. Salmonella surveillance and control for finisher pigs and pork in Denmark: a case study. Food Res Int 45:656–665. [CrossRef]
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16. Anonymous. 2012. Danish order no. 143 about Salmonella in cattle and others. (In Danish.) https://www.retsinformation.dk/Forms/R0710.aspx?id=140575.
17. Anonymous. 2006. Regulation 1168/2006 implementing Regulation 2160/2003 as regards a community target for the reduction of the prevalence of certain Salmonella serotypes in laying hens of Gallus gallus and amending Regulation 1003/2005. http://eur-lex.europa.eu/legal-content/EN/TXT/PDF/?uri=CELEX:32006R1168&rid=2.
18. Anonymous. 2007. Regulation 646/2007 implementing Regulation 2160/2003 as regards a community target for the reduction of the prevalence of Salmonella Enteritidis and Salmonella Typhimurium in broilers and repealing Regulation 1091/2005. http://eur-lex.europa.eu/LexUriServ/LexUriServ.do?uri=CONSLEG:2007R0646:20080701:EN:PDF.
19. Anonymous. 2010. Regulation 200/2010 implementing regulation 2160/2003 as regards a union target for the reduction of the prevalence of Salmonella serotypes in adult breeding flocks of Gallus gallus. http://eur-lex.europa.eu/legal-content/EN/TXT/PDF/?uri=CELEX:32010R0200&rid=2.
20. Sandøe G. 2014. International topics, p 32. In Sørensen AIV, Helwigh B, Müller L (ed), Annual Report on Zoonoses in Denmark 2013. National Food Institute, Technical University of Denmark. http://www.food.dtu.dk.
21. Anonymous. 2004. Regulation (EC) No 853/2004 laying down specific hygiene rules for food of animal origin. http://eur-lex.europa.eu/LexUriServ/LexUriServ.do?uri=OJ:L:2004:226:0022:0082:EN:PDF.
22. Anonymous. 2012. Commission implementing regulation (EU) no. 427/2012 on the special guarantees concerning Salmonella laid down in Regulation (EC) No 853/2004 to eggs intended for Denmark. http://eur-lex.europa.eu/legal-content/EN/TXT/PDF/?uri=CELEX:32012R0427&from=EN.
23. Van Wagenberg CPA. 2010. Incentive mechanisms for food safety control in pork supply chains: a study on the relationship between finishing pig producers and slaughterhouses in the Netherlands. Ph.D. thesis. Wageningen University, The Netherlands. 148 pp.
24. Anonymous. 2004. Regulation (EC) No 854/2004 laying down specific rules for the organisation of official controls on products of animal origin intended for human consumption. http://eurlex.europa.eu/LexUriServ/LexUriServ.do?uri=OJ:L:2004:226:0083:0127:EN:PDF.
25. Anonymous. 2004. Regulation (EC) No 852/2004 on the hygiene of foodstuffs. http://eur-lex.europa.eu/LexUriServ/LexUriServ.do?uri=OJ:L:2004:226:0003:0021:EN:PDF.
26. Mellor D. 2011. The trouble with epidemiology: the tyranny of numbers. Honorary presentation at the annual meeting of the Society of Veterinary Epidemiology and Preventive Medicine (SVEPM). Leipzig, Germany. 22-25 March, 2011.
27. Anonymous. 2009. Commission Regulation (EC) No 1161/2009 amending Annex II to Regulation (EC) no 853/2004 as regards food chain information to be provided to food business operators operating slaughterhouses. http://eur-lex.europa.eu/LexUriServ/LexUriServ.do?uri=OJ:L:2009:314:0008:0009:EN:PDF.
28. Anonymous. 2005. Commission Regulation (EC) No 2073/2005 on microbiological criteria for foodstuffs. http://eur-lex.europa.eu/LexUriServ/LexUriServ.do?uri=OJ:L:2005:338:0001:0026:EN:PDF.
29. Anonymous. 2014. Commission Regulation (EC) No 217/2014 amending Regulation (EC) No 2073/2005 as regards Salmonella on pig carcases. http://eur-lex.europa.eu/legal-content/EN/TXT/PDF/?uri=CELEX:32014R0217&rid=1.
30. Anonymous. 2005. Commission Regulation (EC) No 2075/2005 laying down specific rules on official controls for Trichinella in meat. http://eur-lex.europa.eu/legal-content/EN/TXT/PDF/?uri=CELEX:32005R2075&from=EN.
31. Alban L, Boes J, Kreiner H, Petersen JV, Willeberg P. 2008. Towards a risk-based surveillance for Trichinella spp. in Danish pig production. Prev Vet Med 87:340–357. [PubMed][CrossRef]
32. Anonymous. 2015. Commission Implementing Regulation (EC) No 2015/1375 laying down specific rules on official controls for Trichinella in meat. http://eur-lex.europa.eu/legal-content/EN/TXT/PDF/?uri=CELEX:32015R1375&rid=1.
33. Alban L, Pozio E, Boes J, Boireau P, Boué F, Claes M, Cook AJC, Dorny P, Enemark H, van der Giessen J, Hunt KR, Howell M, Kirjusina M, Nöckler K, Rossi P, Smith GC, Snow L, Taylor MA, Theodoropoulos G, Vallée I, Viera-Pinto MM, Zimmer IA. 2011. Towards a standardised surveillance for Trichinella in the European Union. Prev Vet Med 99:148–160. [PubMed][CrossRef]
34. CDC. 2014. Trichinellosis: epidemiology and risk factors. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA. http://www.cdc.gov/parasites/trichinellosis/epi.html.
35. OIE. 2015. List of bovine spongiform encephalopathy risk status of member countries. According to Resolution No. 21 (83rd general session May 2015). http://www.oie.int/animal-health-in-the-world/official-disease-status/bse/list-of-bse-risk-status/.
36. Anonymous. 2001. Regulation (EC) 999/2001 laying down rules for the prevention, control and eradication of certain transmissible spongiform encephalopathies. http://eur-lex.europa.eu/legal-content/EN/TXT/PDF/?uri=CELEX:02001R0999-20010701&rid=38.
37. Anonymous. 2001. Regulation (EC) 999/2001 laying down rules for the prevention, control and eradication of certain transmissible spongiform encephalopathies. Consolidated version. http://eur-lex.europa.eu/LexUriServ/LexUriServ.do?uri=CONSLEG:2001R0999:20110318:EN:PDF.
39. Alban L, Thune-Stephensen F. 2013. Successfully controlling BSE. Fleischwirtschaft Int 3:16–22.
40. Anonymous. 2003. Regulation 1831/2003 on additives for use in animal nutrition prohibiting the use of antibiotic growth promoters. http://eur-lex.europa.eu/LexUriServ/LexUriServ.do?uri=CONSLEG:2003R1831:20100901:EN:PDF.
41. ECDC/EFSA/EMA. 2015. ECDC/EFSA/EMA first joint report on the integrated analysis of the consumption of antimicrobial agents and occurrence of antimicrobial resistance in bacteria from humans and food-producing animals. EFSA J 13:4006. doi:10.2903/j.efsa.2015.4006. [CrossRef]
42. EFSA. 2008. Report of the Task Force on Zoonoses Data Collection on the analysis of the baseline survey on the prevalence of Salmonella in slaughter pigs. Part A: Salmonella prevalence estimates (1–111). http://www.efsa.europa.eu/en/efsajournal/pub/135r.htm.
43. FCC. 2010. Analysis of the costs and benefits of setting a target for the reduction of Salmonella in slaughter pigs. Report by FFC Consortium for the European Commission Directorate-General Health and Consumers SANCO/2008/E2/036. http://ec.europa.eu/food/food/biosafety/salmonella/docs/fattening_pigs_analysis_costs.pdf.
44. FCC. 2011. Analysis of the costs and benefits of setting a target for the reduction of Salmonella in breeding pigs: report by FFC Consortium for the European Commission Directorate-General Health and Consumers.
45. FCC. 2014. Analysis of the costs and benefits of setting a target for the reduction of Salmonella in pigs at slaughterhouse level. Report by FFC Consortium for the European Commission Directorate-General for Health and Consumers SANCO/E2/2009/SI2.534057. http://ec.europa.eu/food/food/biosafety/salmonella/docs/br_pigs_repfor_submission_16032011_en.pdf.
46. Hald B, Sommer HM, Skovgård H. 2007. Use of fly screens to reduce Campylobacter spp. introduction in broiler houses. Emerg Infect Dis 13:1951–1953. [PubMed][CrossRef]
47. Elliott J, Lee D, Erbilgic A, Jarvis A. 2012. Analysis of the costs and benefits of setting certain control measures for reduction of Campylobacter in broiler meat at different stages of the food chain. Project report by ICF GHK and ADAS for DG SANCO of the European Commission. http://ec.europa.eu/food/food/biosafety/salmonella/docs/campylobacter_cost_benefit_analysis_en.pdf.
48. Helwigh B, Müller L (ed). 2012. Annual Report on Zoonoses in Denmark 2011. National Food Institute, Technical University of Denmark. http://www.food.dtu.
49. Boysen L, Hald L. 2012. Trends and sources in human campylobacteriosis, p 10. In Helwigh B, Müller L (ed), Annual Report on Zoonoses in Denmark 2011. National Food Institute, Technical University of Denmark. http://www.food.dtu.
50. Schuppers ME, Pyburn DG, Alban L. 2011. Alternative monitoring and surveillance scenarios for Trichinella spp. and their impact on public health. Epidémiol Santé Animal 59–60:120–122.
51. Calvo-Artavia FF, Nielsen LR, Alban L. 2013. Epidemiologic and economic evaluation of risk-based meat inspection for bovine cysticercosis in Danish cattle. Prev Vet Med 108:253–261. [PubMed][CrossRef]
52. Boes J, Alban L, Sørensen LL, Nersting L. 2007. Risk assessment for Toxoplasma gondii in the Danish pig industry. 7th International Symposium on the Epidemiology and Control of Foodborne Pathogens in Pork. 7-9 May 2007. Verona, Italy. P 195–198. http://lib.dr.iastate.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1086&context=safepork.
53. EFSA. 2009. Technical specifications for harmonised national surveys on Yersinia enterocolitica in slaughter pigs. EFSA J 7:1374. [CrossRef]
54. EFSA. 2014. Shiga toxin-producing E. coli outbreak(s). http://www.efsa.europa.eu/en/topics/topic/ecolioutbreak2011.htm.
55. Pearce LE, Smythe BW, Crawford RA, Oakley E, Hathaway SC, Shepherd JM. 2012. Pasteurization of milk: the heat inactivation kinetics of milk-borne dairy pathogens under commercial-type conditions of turbulent flow. J Dairy Sci 95:20–35. [PubMed][CrossRef]
56. Anonymous. 2004. Decline of VTEC during cooling with and without blast chilling. –(In Danish.) The Danish Veterinary and Food Administration. http://www.foedevarestyrelsen.dk/SiteCollectionDocuments/25_PDF_word_filer%20til%20download/04kontor/henfald%20vtec%20slutrapport.pdf.
57. EFSA. 2013. Scientific opinion on VTEC-seropathotype and scientific criteria regarding pathogenicity assessment. EFSA J 11:3138. [CrossRef]
58. Anonymous. 2013. Commission Regulation (EU) No 101/2013 concerning the use of lactic acid to reduce microbiological surface contamination on bovine carcasses. http://eur-lex.europa.eu/LexUriServ/LexUriServ.do?uri=OJ:L:2013:034:0001:0003:EN:PDF.
59. EFSA. 2011. Scientific opinion on an update on the present knowledge on the occurrence and control of foodborne viruses. EFSA J 9:2190. [CrossRef]
60. Anonymous. 2012. Council conclusions on the impact of antimicrobial resistance in the human health sector and in the veterinary sector: a “One Health” perspective. http://www.consilium.europa.eu/uedocs/cms_data/docs/pressdata/en/lsa/131126.pdf.
61. Alban L, Dahl J, Andreasen M, Petersen JV, Sandberg M. 2013. Possible impact of the “yellow card” antimicrobial scheme on meat inspection lesions in Danish finisher pigs. Prev Vet Med 108:334–341. [PubMed][CrossRef]
62. DANMAP. 2010. Use of antimicrobial agents and occurrence of antimicrobial resistance in bacteria from food animals, food and humans in Denmark. 160 pp. http://www.danmap.org/Downloads/∼/media/Projekt%20sites/Danmap/DANMAP%20reports/Danmap_2010.pdf.
63. EFSA. 2011. Scientific opinion on the public health hazards to be covered by inspection of meat (swine). EFSA J 9:2351. doi:10.2903/j.efsa.2011.2351.
64. EFSA. 2011. Technical specifications on harmonised epidemiological indicators for public health hazards to be covered by meat inspection of swine. EFSA J 9:2371. doi:10.2903/j.efsa.2011.2371. [CrossRef]
65. Calvo-Artavia FF, Alban L, Nielsen LR. 2013. Evaluation of surveillance for documentation of freedom from bovine tuberculosis. Agriculture 3:310–326. [CrossRef]
66. Foddai A, Nielsen LR, Willeberg P, Alban L. 2015. Comparison of output-based approaches used to substantiate bovine tuberculosis free status in Danish cattle herds. Prev Vet Med 121:21–29. [PubMed][CrossRef]
67. Anonymous. 2014. Commission Regulation (EC) No 218/2014 amending annexes to Regulation (EC) No 853/2004, (EC), No 854/2004 and (EC) Regulation 2074/2005. http://www.fsai.ie/uploaded/Files/Reg218_2014.pdf.
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/content/journal/microbiolspec/10.1128/microbiolspec.PFS-0003-2014
2016-09-09
2017-11-22

Abstract:

Free movement of safe and wholesome food is an essential aspect of any society. This article contains an updated description of the regulatory issues associated with preharvest food safety within the European Union. , , , antimicrobial resistance, and bovine spongiform encephalopathy are dealt with in detail. Moreover, /, , , verotoxigenic/shigatoxigenic , , and foodborne viruses are briefly covered. The article describes how the focus in the European Union is changing to involve a supply chain view with a focus on cost-effectiveness. The precautionary principle—as well as the use of private standards as an instrument to ensure compliance—is dealt with. In addition, actions in the pipeline are presented and discussed.

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Figures

Image of FIGURE 1
FIGURE 1

Reported number of confirmed human cases of zoonoses in the European Union in 2010 and 2012. Modified from references 2 and 3 . *Tuberculosis caused by . **No data available for 2012.

Source: microbiolspec September 2016 vol. 4 no. 5 doi:10.1128/microbiolspec.PFS-0003-2014
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Image of FIGURE 2
FIGURE 2

Graphical description of the European Union regulatory framework for food safety: the Food Law, the Zoonosis Directive, the Regulation, and the Hygiene Package (Regulations 852, 853, 854, and 882); other relevant legislation (Regulations 2073, 2074, and 2075 from 2005); and the new regulations 216, 217 and 218 from 2014, which have updated the older parts of the legislation.

Source: microbiolspec September 2016 vol. 4 no. 5 doi:10.1128/microbiolspec.PFS-0003-2014
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Image of FIGURE 3
FIGURE 3

Population-corrected sales of antimicrobials for food-producing animals, including horses, for 25 European Union/European Economic Area countries in 2012 ( 41 ).

Source: microbiolspec September 2016 vol. 4 no. 5 doi:10.1128/microbiolspec.PFS-0003-2014
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Image of FIGURE 4
FIGURE 4

Graphical display of how private standards relate to national and international legislation.

Source: microbiolspec September 2016 vol. 4 no. 5 doi:10.1128/microbiolspec.PFS-0003-2014
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Tables

Generic image for table
TABLE 1

Relations between various elements of hazard analysis of critical control points (HACCP) and risk analysis – according to Mellor ( 26 )

Source: microbiolspec September 2016 vol. 4 no. 5 doi:10.1128/microbiolspec.PFS-0003-2014
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TABLE 2

List of requirements that food business operators must meet to obtain official recognition of holdings as applying controlled housing conditions – modified from Annex IV, Chapter 1 in Regulation (EC) 2015/1375

Source: microbiolspec September 2016 vol. 4 no. 5 doi:10.1128/microbiolspec.PFS-0003-2014

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