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Emerging Foodborne and Agriculture-Related Viruses

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  • Author: David H. Kingsley1
  • Editors: Kalmia Kniel2, Siddhartha Thakur3
  • VIEW AFFILIATIONS HIDE AFFILIATIONS
    Affiliations: 1: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service, Food Safety and Interventions Research Unit, Delaware State University, Dover, DE 19901; 2: Department of Animal and Food Science, University of Delaware, Newark, DE; 3: North Carolina State University, College of Veterinary Medicine, Raleigh, NC
  • Source: microbiolspec August 2016 vol. 4 no. 4 doi:10.1128/microbiolspec.PFS-0007-2014
  • Received 03 November 2014 Accepted 04 December 2015 Published 19 August 2016
  • David H. Kingsley, David.Kingsley@ars.usda.gov
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  • Abstract:

    Viruses rapidly evolve and can emerge in unpredictable ways. Transmission pathways by which foodborne viruses may enter human populations and evolutionary mechanisms by which viruses can become virulent are discussed in this chapter. A majority of viruses emerge from zoonotic animal reservoirs, often by adapting and infecting intermediate hosts, such as domestic animals and livestock. Viruses that are known foodborne threats include hepatitis E virus, tick-borne encephalitis virus, enteroviruses, adenovirus, and astroviruses, among others. Viruses may potentially evolve and emerge as a result of modern agricultural practices which can concentrate livestock and bring them into contact with wild animals. Examples of viruses that have emerged in this manner are influenza, coronaviruses such as severe acute respiratory syndrome and Middle East respiratory syndrome, and the Nipah virus. The role of bats, bush meat, rodents, pigs, cattle, and poultry as reservoirs from which infectious pathogenic viruses emerge are discussed.

  • Citation: Kingsley D. 2016. Emerging Foodborne and Agriculture-Related Viruses. Microbiol Spectrum 4(4):PFS-0007-2014. doi:10.1128/microbiolspec.PFS-0007-2014.

Key Concept Ranking

Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus
0.49019137
Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome
0.4479933
Hemorrhagic Fever With Renal Syndrome
0.42731684
0.49019137

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/content/journal/microbiolspec/10.1128/microbiolspec.PFS-0007-2014
2016-08-19
2017-09-20

Abstract:

Viruses rapidly evolve and can emerge in unpredictable ways. Transmission pathways by which foodborne viruses may enter human populations and evolutionary mechanisms by which viruses can become virulent are discussed in this chapter. A majority of viruses emerge from zoonotic animal reservoirs, often by adapting and infecting intermediate hosts, such as domestic animals and livestock. Viruses that are known foodborne threats include hepatitis E virus, tick-borne encephalitis virus, enteroviruses, adenovirus, and astroviruses, among others. Viruses may potentially evolve and emerge as a result of modern agricultural practices which can concentrate livestock and bring them into contact with wild animals. Examples of viruses that have emerged in this manner are influenza, coronaviruses such as severe acute respiratory syndrome and Middle East respiratory syndrome, and the Nipah virus. The role of bats, bush meat, rodents, pigs, cattle, and poultry as reservoirs from which infectious pathogenic viruses emerge are discussed.

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FIGURE 1

Examples of viruses and animal hosts linked to emergence of pathogenic human viruses. Letters indicate different viruses believed to have been transmitted to other animals or humans. Hepatitis E virus, tick-borne encephalitis virus, influenza, poxvirus, Nipah virus, Hendra virus, Ebola, SARS, MERS, bovine leukemia virus, HIV-like and retroviruses, Hantaviruses, Arenaviruses. All photos taken from Wiki Commons.

Source: microbiolspec August 2016 vol. 4 no. 4 doi:10.1128/microbiolspec.PFS-0007-2014
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