1887
No metrics data to plot.
The attempt to load metrics for this article has failed.
The attempt to plot a graph for these metrics has failed.

Preharvest Food Safety Challenges in Beef and Dairy Production

MyBook is a cheap paperback edition of the original book and will be sold at uniform, low price.
Buy this Microbiology Spectrum Article
Price Non-Member $15.00
  • Author: David R. Smith1
  • Editors: Kalmia Kniel2, Siddhartha Thakur3
  • VIEW AFFILIATIONS HIDE AFFILIATIONS
    Affiliations: 1: Mississippi State University, College of Veterinary Medicine, Mississippi State, MS 39762; 2: Department of Animal and Food Science, University of Delaware, Newark, DE; 3: North Carolina State University, College of Veterinary Medicine, Raleigh, NC
  • Source: microbiolspec August 2016 vol. 4 no. 4 doi:10.1128/microbiolspec.PFS-0008-2015
  • Received 11 January 2015 Accepted 04 August 2015 Published 19 August 2016
  • David R. Smith, david.smith@msstate.edu
image of Preharvest Food Safety Challenges in Beef and Dairy Production
    Preview this microbiology spectrum article:
    Zoom in
    Zoomout

    Preharvest Food Safety Challenges in Beef and Dairy Production, Page 1 of 2

    | /docserver/preview/fulltext/microbiolspec/4/4/PFS-0008-2015-1.gif /docserver/preview/fulltext/microbiolspec/4/4/PFS-0008-2015-2.gif
  • Abstract:

    Foods of animal origin, including beef and dairy products, are nutritious and important to global food security. However, there are important risks to human health from hazards that are introduced to beef and dairy products on the farm. Food safety hazards may be chemical, biological, or physical in nature. Considerations about protecting the safety of beef and dairy products must begin prior to harvest because some potential food safety hazards introduced at the farm (e.g., chemical residues) cannot be mitigated by subsequent postharvest food processing steps. Also, some people have preferences for consuming food that has not been through postharvest processing even though those foods may be unsafe because of microbiological hazards originating from the farm. Because of human fallibility and complex microbial ecologies, many of the preharvest hazards associated with beef and dairy products cannot entirely be eliminated, but the risk for most can be reduced through systematic interventions taken on the farm. Beef and dairy farms differ widely in production practices because of differences in natural, human, and capital resources. Therefore, the actions necessary to minimize on-farm food safety hazards must be farm-specific and they must address scientific, political, economic, and practical aspects. Notable successes in controlling and preventing on-farm hazards to food safety have occurred through a combination of voluntary and regulatory efforts.

  • Citation: Smith D. 2016. Preharvest Food Safety Challenges in Beef and Dairy Production. Microbiol Spectrum 4(4):PFS-0008-2015. doi:10.1128/microbiolspec.PFS-0008-2015.

Key Concept Ranking

Meat and Meat Products
0.5603469
Microbial Ecology
0.5453246
Milk and Milk Products
0.544286
Food Safety
0.44340336
0.5603469

References

1. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. 2014. Food Security Statistics. http://www.fao.org/economic/ess/ess-fs/en/. [PubMed]
2. Moore PG. 1977. The manager’s struggles with uncertainty. J R Statist Soc A 140:129–165. [CrossRef]
3. Kay S. 2003. $2.7 billion: the cost of E. coli O157:H7. Meat Poultry 49:26–34.
4. Blancou J. 2003. Tuberculosis, p 223–241, In Blancou J (ed), History of the Surveillance and Control of Transmissible Animal Diseases. The International Animal Health Office (OIE), Paris, France.
5. Koch R. 1884. Die aetiologie der tuberkulose. Mitt Kaiserl Gesundheitsamt 2:1–88.
6. Wilson J. 1902. Report of the Secretary, p 9–116, Yearbook of Agriculture, 1901. United States Department of Agriculture, Washington DC.
7. Kiernan J. 1919. The accredited-herd plan in tuberculosis eradication, p 215–220. In Yearbook of Agriculture, 1918. United States Department of Agriculture, Washington DC.
8. Welch R. 2010. The Cedar county cow war of 1931. Iowa State University Center for Agricultural History and Rural Studies.
9. CDC. 1990. Epidemiologic notes and reports bovine tuberculosis: Pennsylvania. Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 39:201–203. [PubMed]
10. Wight A, Lash E, O’Rear H, Crawford A. 1942. Part 2: important general diseases common to several species; tuberculosis and its eradication, p 237–249. Yearbook in Agriculture, 1942.
11. Anonymous. 2005. Meat and Poultry Products Hazards and Control Guide. U.S. Dept. of Agriculture FSIS.
12. Fajt V, Griffin D. 2014. Residue avoidance in beef cattle production systems. In Baynes RE, Riviere JE (ed), Strategies for Reducing Drug and Chemical Residues in Food Animals: International Approaches to Residue Avoidance, Management, and Testing. John Wiley and Sons, Hoboken, NJ. [CrossRef]
13. Environmental Protection Agency. 2014. Lead. http://www2.epa.gov/lead. [PubMed]
14. O’keefe M, Muñiz Ortiz JG. 2014. United States National Residue Program for Meat, Poultry, and Egg Products 2014 Residue Sampling Plans. U.S. Department of Agriculture FSIS, Office of Public Health Service, Washington, DC.
15. Anonymous. 2013. United States National Residue Program for Meat, Poultry, and Egg Products. 2011 Residue Sample Results. U.S. Dept. of Agriculture FSIS, Washington, DC.
16. Park YW, Albenzio M, Sevi A, Haenlein GFW. 2013. Milk and dairy products in human nutrition: production, composition, and health, p 261–287. In Park YW, Haenlein GFW (ed), Milk and Dairy Products in Human Nutrition: Production, Composition, and Health, 1st ed. John Wiley and Sons, Ames, IA. [CrossRef]
17. Mostrom MS, Jacobsen BJ. 2011. Ruminant mycotoxicosis. Vet Clin North Am Food Anim Pract 27:315–344, viii. [PubMed][CrossRef]
18. Anonymous. 2014. National milk drug residue data base fiscal year 2013 annual report: October 1, 2012 - September 30, 2013. GLH, Inc., Lighthouse Point, FL.
19. Heaton K, Bagley CP. 2002. Foriegn Object Contamination in Beef Cattle. Utah State University Extension.
20. National Cattlemens Beef Association. 2014. Beef Quality Assurance National Manual. http://www.bqa.org/Media/BQA/Docs/nationalmanual.pdf. Accessed June 15, 2016
21. Griffin D. 2008. Cow-calf operation beef quality assurance, p 587-594. In Anderson DE, Rings M (ed), Current Veterinary Therapy: Food Animal Practice, 5th ed. Saunders Elsevier, St. Louis, MO.
22. Scallan E, Hoekstra RM, Angulo FJ, Tauxe RV, Widdowson MA, Roy SL, Jones JL, Griffin PM. 2011. Foodborne illness acquired in the United States: major pathogens. Emerg Infect Dis 17:7–15. [PubMed][CrossRef]
23. Williams MS, Withee JL, Ebel ED, Bauer NE, Scholosser WD, Disney WT, Smith DR, Moxley RA. 2010. Determining relationships between the seasonal occurrence of Escherichia coli O157:H7 in live cattle, ground beef, and humans. Foodborne Path Dis 7:1–8. [PubMed][CrossRef]
24. Lal A, Hales S, French N, Baker MG. 2012. Seasonality in human zoonotic enteric diseases: a systematic review. PLoS One 7:e31883. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0031883. [PubMed][CrossRef]
25. Sargeant JM, Smith DR. 2003. The epidemiology of Escherichia coli O157:H7, p 131–141. In Torrence ME, Isaacson RE (ed), Microbial Food Safety in Animal Agriculture: Current Topics. Iowa State University Press, Ames, Iowa. [CrossRef]
26. Almanza AV. 2011. Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli. Fed Reg 76:9.
27. CDC. 2010. Surveillance for foodborne disease outbreaks: United States, 2007. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 59:973–979. [PubMed]
28. Kalchayanand Na TM, Bosilevac JM, Wheeler TL. 2011. Non-O157 Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli: prevalence associated with meat animals and controlling interventions. Abstr., American Meat Science Association 64th Reciprocal Meat Conference, Manhattan, KS, June 19–22.
29. Mead PS, Slutsker L, Dietz V, McCaig LF, Bresee JS, Shapiro C, Griffin PM, Tauxe RV. 1999. Food-related illness and death in the United States. Emerg Infect Dis 5:607–625. [PubMed][CrossRef]
30. Brooks JT, Sowers EG, Wells JG, Greene KD, Griffin PM, Hoekstra RM, Strockbine NA. 2005. Non-O157 Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli infections in the United States, 1983-2002. J Infect Dis 192:1422–1429. [PubMed][CrossRef]
31. Anonymous. 2013. Incidence and trends of infection with pathogens transmitted commonly through food: Foodborne Diseases Active Surveillance Network, 10 U.S. sites, 1996–2012. Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 62:5. [PubMed]
32. Feng P. 1995. Escherichia coli serotype O157:H7: novel vehicles of infection and emergence of phenotypic variants. Emerg Infect Dis 1. [PubMed][CrossRef]
33. Rangel JM, Sparling PH, Crowe C, Griffin PM, Swerdlow DL. 2005. Epidemiology of Escherichia coli O157:H7 outbreaks, United States, 1982–2002. Emerg Infect Dis 11:603–609. [PubMed][CrossRef]
34. Sparling PH. 1998. Escherichia coli O157:H7 outbreaks in the United States, 1982–1996. J Am Vet Med Assoc 213:1733–1733. [PubMed]
35. Swerdlow DL, Woodruff BA, Brady RC, Griffin PM, Tippen S, Donnell HD, Jr, Geldreich E, Payne BJ, Meyer A, Jr, Wells JG. 1992. A waterborne outbreak in Missouri of Escherichia coli O157:H7 associated with bloody diarrhea and death. Ann Intern Med 117:812–819. [PubMed][CrossRef]
36. Kondro W. 2000. E. coli outbreak deaths spark judicial inquiry in Canada. Lancet 355:2058. [PubMed][CrossRef]
37. Kondro W. 2000. Canada reacts to water contamination. Lancet 355:2228. [PubMed][CrossRef]
38. Anonymous. 1999. Outbreak of Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Campylobacter among attendees of the Washington County Fair: New York, 1999. Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 48:803. [PubMed]
39. Kassenborg HD, Hedberg CW, Hoekstra M, Evans MC, Chin AE, Marcus R, Vugia DJ, Smith K, Ahuja SD, Slutsker L, Griffin PM. 2004. Farm visits and undercooked hamburgers as major risk factors for sporadic Escherichia coli O157:H7 infection: data from a case-control study in 5 FoodNet sites. Clin Infect Dis 38(Suppl 3):S271–S278. [PubMed][CrossRef]
40. Ryan CA, Tauxe RV, Hosek GW, Wells JG, Stoesz PA, McFadden HW, Jr, Smith PW, Wright GF, Blake PA. 1986. Escherichia coli O157:H7 diarrhea in a nursing home: clinical, epidemiological, and pathological findings. J Infect Dis 154:631–638. [PubMed][CrossRef]
41. Riley LW, Remis RS, Helgerson SD, McGee HB, Wells JG, Davis BR, Hebert RJ, Olcott ES, Johnson LM, Hargrett NT, Blake PA, Cohen ML. 1983. Hemorrhagic colitis associated with a rare Escherichia coli serotype. N Engl J Med 308:681–685. [PubMed][CrossRef]
42. Slutsker L, Ries AA, Maloney K, Wells JG, Greene KD, Griffin PM. 1998. A nationwide case-control study of Escherichia coli O157:H7 infection in the United States. J Infect Dis 177:962–966. [PubMed][CrossRef]
43. Withee J, Williams M, Schlosser W, Bauer N, Ebel E. 2009. Streamlined analysis for evaluating the use of preharvest interventions intended to prevent Escherichia coli O157:H7 illness in humans. Foodborne Path Dis 6:817–825. [PubMed][CrossRef]
44. Valcour JE, Michel P, McEwen SA, Wilson JB. 2002. Associations between indicators of livestock farming intensity and incidence of human Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli infection. Emerg Infect Dis 8:252–257. [PubMed][CrossRef]
45. Trevena WB, Willshaw GA, Cheasty T, Wray C, Gallagher J. 1996. Vero cytotoxin-producing E coli O157 infection associated with farms. Lancet 347:60–61. [PubMed][CrossRef]
46. Reymond D, Johnson RP, Karmali MA, Petric M, Winkler M, Johnson S, Rahn K, Renwick S, Wilson J, Clarke RC. 1996. Neutralizing antibodies to Escherichia coli Vero cytotoxin 1 and antibodies to O157 lipopolysaccharide in healthy farm family members and urban residents. J Clin Microbiol 34:2053–2057. [PubMed]
47. Rahn K, Renwick SA, Johnson RP, Wilson JB, Clarke RC, Alves D, McEwen SA, Lior H, Spika J. 1998. Follow-up study of verocytoxigenic Escherichia coli infection in dairy farm families. J Infect Dis 177:1138–1139. [PubMed][CrossRef]
48. Wilson J, Spika J, Clarke R, McEwen S, Johnson R, Rahn K, Renwick S, Karmali M, Lior H, Alves D, Gyles C, Sandhu K. 1998. Verocytotoxigenic Escherichia coli infection in dairy farm families. Can Commun Dis Rep 24:17–20. [PubMed]
49. Varma JK, Greene KD, Reller ME, DeLong SM, Trottier J, Nowicki SF, DiOrio M, Koch EM, Bannerman TL, York ST, Lambert-Fair MA, Wells JG, Mead PS. 2003. An outbreak of Escherichia coli O157 infection following exposure to a contaminated building. JAMA 290:2709–2712. [PubMed][CrossRef]
50. Alam MJ, Zurek L. 2004. Association of Escherichia coli O157:H7 with houseflies on a cattle farm. Appl Environ Microbiol 70:7578–7580. [PubMed][CrossRef]
51. Hancock DD, Besser TE, Rice DH, Ebel ED, Herriott DE, Carpenter LV. 1998. Multiple sources of Escherichia coli O157 in feedlots and dairy farms in the northwestern USA. Prev Vet Med 35:11–19. [PubMed][CrossRef]
52. Janisiewicz WJ, Conway WS, Brown MW, Sapers GM, Fratamico P, Buchanan RL. 1999. Fate of Escherichia coli O157:H7 on fresh-cut apple tissue and its potential for transmission by fruit flies. Appl Environ Microbiol 65:1–5. [PubMed]
53. Kobayashi M, Sasaki T, Saito N. 1999. Houseflies: not simple mechanical vectors of enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli O157:H7. Am J Trop Med Hyg 61:625–629. [PubMed]
54. Moriya K, Fujibayashi T, Yoshihara T, Matsuda A, Sumi N, Umezaki N, Kurahashi H, Agui N, Wada A, Watanabe H. 1999. Verotoxin-producing Escherichia coli O157:H7 carried by the housefly in Japan. Med Vet Entomol 13:214–216. [PubMed][CrossRef]
55. Beutin L, Geier D, Steinruck H, Zimmermann S, Scheutz F. 1993. Prevalence and some properties of verotoxin (Shiga-like toxin)-producing Escherichia coli in seven different species of healthy domestic animals. J Clin Microbiol 31:2483–2488. [PubMed]
56. Karmali MA, Gannon V, Sargeant JM. 2010. Verocytotoxin-producing Escherichia coli (VTEC). Vet Microbiol 140:360–370. [PubMed][CrossRef]
57. Ferens WA, Hovde CJ. 2011. Escherichia coli O157:H7: animal reservoir and sources of human infection. Foodborne Pathog Dis 8:465–487. [PubMed][CrossRef]
58. Jay MT, Cooley M, Carychao D, Wiscomb GW, Sweitzer RA, Crawford-Miksza L, Farrar JA, Lau DK, O’Connell J, Millington A, Asmundson RV, Atwill ER, Mandrell RE. 2007. Escherichia coli O157:H7 in feral swine near spinach fields and cattle, central California coast. Emerg Infect Dis 13:1908–1911. [PubMed][CrossRef]
59. Anonymous. 2012. Strawberries, Deer and Other Investigations. Oregon Health Authority, Portland, Oregon.
60. Kim J, Nietfeldt J, Benson A. 1999. Octamer based genome scanning distinguishes a subpopulation of Escherichia coli O157:H7 strains in cattle. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 96:13288–13293. [PubMed][CrossRef]
61. Elder RO, Keen JE, Siragusa GR, Barkocy-Gallagher GA, Koohmaraie M, Laegreid WW. 2000. Correlation of enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli O157 prevalence in feces, hides, and carcasses of beef cattle during processing. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 97:2999–3003. [PubMed][CrossRef]
62. Arthur TM, Bosilevac JM, Nou X, Shackelford SD, Wheeler TL, Kent MP, Jaroni D, Pauling B, Allen DM, Koohmaraie M. 2004. Escherichia coli O157 prevalence and enumeration of aerobic bacteria, Enterobacteriaceae, and Escherichia coli O157 at various steps in commercial beef processing plants. J Food Prot 67:658–665. [PubMed]
63. Smith DR. 2014. Cattle production systems: ecology of existing and emerging Escherichia coli types related to foodborne illness. Annu Rev Anim Biosci 2:23. [PubMed][CrossRef]
64. Savageau MA. 1983. Escherichia coli habitats, cell types, and molecular mechanisms of gene control. Am Naturalist 122:732–744. [CrossRef]
65. Peterson RE, Klopfenstein TJ, Erickson GE, Folmer J, Hinkley S, Moxley RA, Smith DR. 2007. Effect of Lactobacillus acidophilus strain NP51 on Escherichia coli O157:H7 fecal shedding and finishing performance in beef feedlot cattle. J Food Prot 70:287–291. [PubMed]
66. Potter AA, Klashinsky S, Li Y, Frey E, Townsend H, Rogan D, Erickson G, Hinkley S, Klopfenstein T, Moxley RA, Smith DR, Finlay BB. 2004. Decreased shedding of Escherichia coli O157:H7 by cattle following vaccination with type III secreted proteins. Vaccine 22:362–369. [PubMed][CrossRef]
67. Khaitsa ML, Smith DR, Stoner JA, Parkhurst AM, Hinkley S, Klopfenstein TJ, Moxley RA. 2003. Incidence, duration, and prevalence of Escherichia coli O157:H7 fecal shedding by feedlot cattle during the finishing period. J Food Prot 66:1972–1977. [PubMed]
68. Smith DR, Moxley RA, Clowser SL, Folmer JD, Hinkley S, Erickson GE, Klopfenstein TJ. 2005. Use of rope devices to describe and explain the feedlot ecology of Escherichia coli O157:H7 by time and place. Foodborne Pathog Dis 2:50–60. [PubMed][CrossRef]
69. Smith DR, Blackford MP, Younts SM, Moxley RA, Gray JT, Hungerford LL, Milton CT, Klopfenstein TJ. 2001. Ecological relationships between the prevalence of cattle shedding Escherichia coli O157:H7 and characteristics of the cattle or conditions of the feedlot pen. J Food Prot 64:1899–1903. [PubMed]
70. Naylor SW, Low JC, Besser TE, Mahajan A, Gunn GJ, Pearce MC, McKendrick IJ, Smith DG, Gally DL. 2003. Lymphoid follicle-dense mucosa at the terminal rectum is the principal site of colonization of enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli O157:H7 in the bovine host. Infect Immun 71:1505–1512. [PubMed][CrossRef]
71. Grauke LJ, Kudva IT, Yoon JW, Hunt CW, Williams CJ, Hovde CJ. 2002. Gastrointestinal tract location of Escherichia coli O157:H7 in ruminants. Appl Environ Microbiol 68:2269–2277. [PubMed][CrossRef]
72. Baehler AA, Moxley RA. 2000. Escherichia coli O157:H7 induces attaching-effacing lesions in large intestinal mucosal explants from adult cattle. FEMS Micribiol Lett 185:239–242. [PubMed][CrossRef]
73. Moxley RA. 2004. Escherichia coli O157:H7: an update on intestinal colonization and virulence mechanisms. Anim Health Res Rev 5:15–33. [PubMed][CrossRef]
74. Besser TE, Hancock DD, Pritchett LC, McRae EM, Rice DH, Tarr PI. 1997. Duration of detection of fecal excretion of Escherichia coli O157:H7 in cattle. J Infect Dis 175:729. [PubMed][CrossRef]
75. Sanderson MW, Besser TE, Gay JM, Gay CC, Hancock DD. 1999. Fecal Escherichia coli O157:H7 shedding patterns of orally inoculated calves. Vet Microbiol 69:199–205. [PubMed][CrossRef]
76. Rice DH, Sheng HQ, Wynia SA, Hovde CJ. 2003. Rectoanal mucosal swab culture is more sensitive than fecal culture and distinguishes Escherichia coli O157:H7-colonized cattle and those transiently shedding the same organism. J Clin Microbiol 41:4924–4929. [PubMed][CrossRef]
77. Dargatz DA, Bai J, Lubbers BV, Kopral CA, An B, Anderson GA. 2013. Prevalence of Escherichia coli O-types and Shiga-toxin genes in fecal samples from feedlot cattle. Foodborne Pathog Dis 10:392–296. [PubMed][CrossRef]
78. Renter DG, Morris JG, Jr, Sargeant JM, Hungerford LL, Berezowski J, Ngo T, Williams K, Acheson DW. 2005. Prevalence, risk factors, O serogroups, and virulence profiles of Shiga toxin-producing bacteria from cattle production environments. J Food Prot 68:1556–1565. [PubMed]
79. Wells JG, Shipman LD, Greene KD, Sowers EG, Green JH, Cameron DN, Downes FP, Martin ML, Griffin PM, Ostroff SM. 1991. Isolation of Escherichia coli serotype O157:H7 and other Shiga-like-toxin-producing E. coli from dairy cattle. J Clin Microbiol 29:985–989. [PubMed]
80. Hussein HS, Sakuma T. 2005. Prevalence of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli in dairy cattle and their products. J Dairy Sci 88:450–465. [PubMed][CrossRef]
81. Arthur TM, Barkocy-Gallagher GA, Rivera-Betancourt M, Koohmaraie M. 2002. Prevalence and characterization of non-O157 Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli on carcasses in commercial beef cattle processing plants. Appl Environ Microbiol 68:4847–4852. [PubMed][CrossRef]
82. Barkocy-Gallagher GA, Arthur TM, Rivera-Betancourt M, Nou X, Shackelford SD, Wheeler TL, Koohmaraie M. 2003. Seasonal prevalence of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli, including O157:H7 and non-O157 serotypes, and Salmonella in commercial beef processing plants. J Food Prot 66:1978–1986. [PubMed]
83. Hancock DD, Rice DH, Thomas L, Dargatz DA, Besser TE. 1997. Epidemiology of Escherichia coli O157 in feedlot cattle. J Food Prot 60:462–465.
84. Hancock D, Besser TE, Rice DH, Herriot DE, Tarr PI. 1997. A longitudinal study of Escherichia coli O157:H7 in fourteen cattle herds. Epidemiol Infect 118:193–195. [PubMed][CrossRef]
85. Stanford K, Croy D, Bach SJ, Wallins GL, Zahiroddini H, McAllister TA. 2005. Ecology of Escherichia coli O157:H7 in commercial dairies in southern Alberta. J Dairy Sci 88:4441–4451. [PubMed][CrossRef]
86. Herriott DE, Hancock DD, Ebel ED, Carpenter LV, Rice DH, Besser TE. 1998. Association of herd management factors with colonization of dairy cattle by Shiga toxin-positive Escherichia coli O157. J Food Prot 61:802–807. [PubMed]
87. Laegreid WW, Elder RO, Keen JE. 1999. Prevalence of Escherichia coli O157:H7 in range beef calves at weaning. Epidemiol Infect 123:291–298. [PubMed][CrossRef]
88. Dunn JR, Keen JE, Del VR, Wittum TE, Thompson RA. 2004. Escherichia coli O157:H7 in a cohort of weaned, preconditioned range beef calves. J Food Prot 67:2391–2396. [PubMed]
89. Renter DG, Sargeant JM, Hungerford LL. 2004. Distribution of Escherichia coli O157:H7 within and among cattle operations in pasture-based agricultural areas. Am J Vet Res 65:1367–1376. [PubMed][CrossRef]
90. Smith DR, Gray JT, Moxley RA, Younts-Dahl SM, Blackford MP, Hinkley S, Hungerford LL, Milton CT, Klopfenstein TJ. 2004. A diagnostic strategy to determine the Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli O157 status of pens of feedlot cattle. Epidemiol Infect 132:297–302. [PubMed][CrossRef]
91. Stanford K, Bach SJ, Marx TH, Jones S, Hansen JR, Wallins GL, Zahiroddini H, McAllister TA. 2005. Monitoring Escherichia coli O157:H7 in inoculated and naturally colonized feedlot cattle and their environment. J Food Prot 68:26–33. [PubMed]
92. Van Donkersgoed J, Berg J, Potter A, Hancock D, Besser T, Rice D, Lejeune J, Klashinsky S. 2001. Environmental sources and transmission of Escherichia coli O157 in feedlot cattle. Can Vet J 42:714–720. [PubMed]
93. Renter DG, Smith DR, King R, Stilborn R, Berg J, Berezowski J, McFall M. 2008. Detection and determinants of Escherichia coli O157:H7 in Alberta feedlot pens immediately prior to slaughter. Can J Vet Res 72:217–227. [PubMed]
94. Edrington TS, Callaway TR, Hallford DM, Chen L, Anderson RC, Nisbet DJ. 2008. Effects of exogenous melatonin and tryptophan on fecal shedding of E. coli O157:H7 in cattle. Microb Ecol 55:553–560. [PubMed][CrossRef]
95. Edrington TS, Callaway TR, Ives SE, Engler MJ, Looper ML, Anderson RC, Nisbet DJ. 2006. Seasonal shedding of Escherichia coli O157:H7 in ruminants: a new hypothesis. Foodborne Pathog Dis 3:413–421. [PubMed][CrossRef]
96. Edrington TS, Farrow RL, MacKinnon KM, Callaway TR, Anderson RC, Nisbet DJ. 2012. Influence of vitamin D on fecal shedding of Escherichia coli O157:H7 in naturally colonized cattle. J Food Prot 75:314–319. [PubMed][CrossRef]
97. Moxley RA, Smith DR, Luebbe M, Erickson GE, Klopfenstein TJ, Rogan D. 2009. Escherichia coli O157:H7 vaccine dose-effect in feedlot cattle. Foodborne Pathog Dis 6:879–884. [PubMed][CrossRef]
98. Smith DR, Moxley RA, Clowser SL, Folmer JD, Hinkley S, Erickson GE, Klopfenstein TJ. 2005. Use of rope devices to describe and explain the feedlot ecology of Salmonella by time and place. Foodborne Pathog Dis 2:61–69. [PubMed][CrossRef]
99. Smith DR, Moxley RA, Peterson RE, Klopfenstein T, Erickson GE, Clowser SL. 2008. A two-dose regimen of a vaccine against Escherichia coli O157:H7 type III secreted proteins reduced environmental transmission of the agent in a large-scale commercial beef feedlot clinical trial. Foodborne Pathog Dis 5:589–598. [PubMed][CrossRef]
100. Garber L, Wells S, Schroeder-Tucker L, Ferris K. 1999. Factors associated with fecal shedding of verotoxin-producing Escherichia coli O157 on dairy farms. J Food Prot 62:307–312. [PubMed]
101. Younts-Dahl SM, Galyean ML, Loneragan GH, Elam NA, Brashears MM. 2004. Dietary supplementation with Lactobacillus- and Propionibacterium-based direct-fed microbials and prevalence of Escherichia coli O157 in beef feedlot cattle and on hides at harvest. J Food Prot 67:889–893. [PubMed]
102. Younts-Dahl SM, Osborn GD, Galyean ML, Rivera JD, Loneragan GH, Brashears MM. 2005. Reduction of Escherichia coli O157 in finishing beef cattle by various doses of Lactobacillus acidophilus in direct-fed microbials. J Food Prot 68:6–10. [PubMed]
103. Cull CA, Paddock ZD, Nagaraja TG, Bello NM, Babcock AH, Renter DG. 2012. Efficacy of a vaccine and a direct-fed microbial against fecal shedding of Escherichia coli O157:H7 in a randomized pen-level field trial of commercial feedlot cattle. Vaccine 30:6210–6215. [PubMed][CrossRef]
104. Bach SJ, Johnson RP, Stanford K, McAllister TA. 2009. Bacteriophages reduce Escherichia coli O157:H7 levels in experimentally inoculated sheep. Can J Anim Sci 89:285–293. [CrossRef]
105. Callaway TR, Edrington TS, Brabban AD, Anderson RC, Rossman ML, Engler MJ, Carr MA, Genovese KJ, Keen JE, Looper ML, Kutter EM, Nisbet DJ. 2008. Bacteriophage isolated from feedlot cattle can reduce Escherichia coli O157:H7 populations in ruminant gastrointestinal tracts. Foodborne Pathog Dis 5:183–191. [PubMed][CrossRef]
106. Stanford K, McAllister TA, Niu YD, Stephens TP, Mazzocco A, Waddell TE, Johnson RP. 2010. Oral delivery systems for encapsulated bacteriophages targeted at Escherichia coli O157:H7 in feedlot cattle. J Food Prot 73:1304–1312. [PubMed]
107. Callaway TR, Anderson RC, Genovese KJ, Poole TL, Anderson TJ, Byrd JA, Kubena LF, Nisbet DJ. 2002. Sodium chlorate supplementation reduces E. coli O157:H7 populations in cattle. J Anim Sci 80:1683–1689. [PubMed][CrossRef]
108. Callaway TR, Edrington TS, Anderson RC, Genovese KJ, Poole TL, Elder RO, Byrd JA, Bischoff KM, Nisbet DJ. 2003. Escherichia coli O157:H7 populations in sheep can be reduced by chlorate supplementation. J Food Prot 66:194–199. [PubMed]
109. Edrington TS, Callaway TR, Andersen RC, Genovese KJ, Jung YS, McReynolds JL, Bischoff KM, Nisbet DJ. 2003. Reduction of E. coli O517:H7 populations in sheep by supplementation of an experimental sodium chlorate product. Small Ruminant Res 49:173–181. [CrossRef]
110. Loneragan GH, Brashears MM. 2005. Pre-harvest interventions to reduce carriage of E. coli O157 by harvest-ready feedlot cattle. Meat Sci 71:72–78. [PubMed][CrossRef]
111. Wells JE, Shackelford SD, Berry ED, Kalchayanand N, Guerini MN, Varel VH, Arthur TM, Bosilevac JM, Freetly HC, Wheeler TL, Ferrell CL, Koohmaraie M. 2009. Prevalence and level of Escherichia coli O157:H7 in feces and on hides of feedlot steers fed diets with or without wet distillers grains with solubles. J Food Prot 72:1624–1633. [PubMed]
112. Jacob ME, Paddock ZD, Renter DG, Lechtenberg KF, Nagaraja TG. 2010. Inclusion of dried or wet distillers’ grains at different levels in diets of feedlot cattle affects fecal shedding of Escherichia coli O157:H7. Appl Environ Microbiol 76:7238–7242. [PubMed][CrossRef]
113. Smith DR, Vogstad AR. 2012. Vaccination as a method of E. coli O157:H7 reduction in feedlot cattle. In Callaway TR, Edrington TS (ed), On Farm Strategies to Control Foodborne Pathogens. Nova Science Publishers, Hauppauge, NY.
114. Snedeker KG, Campbell M, Sargeant JM. 2012. A systematic review of vaccinations to reduce the shedding of Escherichia coli O157 in the faeces of domestic ruminants. Zoonoses Public Health 59:126–138. [PubMed][CrossRef]
115. Varela NP, Dick P, Wilson J. 2012. Assessing the existing information on the efficacy of bovine vaccination against Escherichia coli O157:H7: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Zoonoses Public Health 60:253–268. [PubMed][CrossRef]
116. Fox JT, Thomson DU, Drouillard JS, Thornton AB, Burkhardt DT, Emery DA, Nagaraja TG. 2009. Efficacy of Escherichia coli O157:H7 siderophore receptor/porin proteins-based vaccine in feedlot cattle naturally shedding E. coli O157. Foodborne Pathog Dis 6:893–899. [PubMed][CrossRef]
117. Peterson RE, Klopfenstein TJ, Moxley RA, Erickson GE, Hinkley S, Bretschneider G, Berberov EM, Rogan D, Smith DR. 2007. Effect of a vaccine product containing type III secreted proteins on the probability of Escherichia coli O157:H7 fecal shedding and mucosal colonization in feedlot cattle. J Food Prot 70:2568–2577. [PubMed]
118. Smith DR, Moxley RA, Peterson RE, Klopfenstein TJ, Erickson GE, Bretschneider G, Berberov EM, Clowser S. 2009. A two-dose regimen of a vaccine against type III secreted proteins reduced Escherichia coli O157:H7 colonization of the terminal rectum in beef cattle in commercial feedlots. Foodborne Pathog Dis 6:155–161. [PubMed][CrossRef]
119. Thomson DU, Loneragan GH, Thornton AB, Lechtenberg KF, Emery DA, Burkhardt DT, Nagaraja TG. 2009. Use of a siderophore receptor and porin proteins-based vaccine to control the burden of Escherichia coli O157:H7 in feedlot cattle. Foodborne Pathog Dis 6:871–877. [PubMed][CrossRef]
120. Vogstad AR. 2012. Modeling the efficacy and effectiveness of Escherichia coli O157:H7 pre-harvest interventions. Masters thesis, University of Nebraska-Lincoln, Lincoln, NE.
121. Smith DR, Moxley RA, Klopfenstein TJ, Erickson GE. 2009. A randomized longitudinal trial to test the effect of regional vaccination within a cattle feedyard on Escherichia coli O157:H7 rectal colonization, fecal shedding, and hide contamination. Foodborne Pathog Dis 6:885–892. [PubMed][CrossRef]
122. Miller MF, Loneragan GH, Harris DD, Adams KD, Brooks JC, Brashears MM. 2008. Environmental dust exposure as a factor contributing to an increase in Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Salmonella populations on cattle hides in feedyards. J Food Prot 71:2078–2081. [PubMed]
123. Reicks AL, Brashears MM, Adams KD, Brooks JC, Blanton JR, Miller MF. 2007. Impact of transportation of feedlot cattle to the harvest facility on the prevalence of Escherichia coli O157:H7, Salmonella, and total aerobic microorganisms on hides. J Food Prot 70:17–21. [PubMed]
124. Asper DJ, Sekirov I, Finlay BB, Rogan D, Potter AA. 2007. Cross reactivity of enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli O157:H7-specific sera with non-O157 serotypes. Vaccine 25:8262–8269. [PubMed][CrossRef]
125. CDC. 2014. Salmonella. http://www.cdc.gov/salmonella/.
126. Gould LH, Walsh KA, Vieira AR, Herman K, Williams IT, Hall AJ, Cole D, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. 2013. Surveillance for foodborne disease outbreaks: United States, 1998-2008. MMWR Surveill Summ 62:1-34. http://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/preview/mmwrhtml/ss6202a1.htm. [PubMed]
127. Mohler VL, House J. 2009. Salmonellosis in ruminants, p 106-111. In Anderson DE, Rings DM (ed), Current Veterinary Therapy: Food Animal Practice, 5th ed. Saunders, Elsevier, St. Louis, MO. [CrossRef]
128. Gragg SE, Loneragan GH, Brashears MM, Arthur TM, Bosilevac JM, Kalchayanand N, Wang R, Schmidt JW, Brooks JC, Shackelford SD, Wheeler TL, Brown TR, Edrington TS, Brichta-Harhay DM. 2013. Cross-sectional study examining Salmonella enterica carriage in subiliac lymph nodes of cull and feedlot cattle at harvest. Foodborne Pathog Dis 10:368–374. [PubMed][CrossRef]
129. Gragg SE, Loneragan GH, Nightingale KK, Brichta-Harhay DM, Ruiz H, Elder JR, Garcia LG, Miller MF, Echeverry A, Ramirez Porras RG, Brashears MM. 2013. Substantial within-animal diversity of Salmonella isolates from lymph nodes, feces, and hides of cattle at slaughter. Appl Environ Microbiol 79:4744–4750. [PubMed][CrossRef]
130. Anonymous. 2014. Salmonella in U.S. Cattle Feedlots. USDA, APHIS, Veterinary Services, Center for Epidemiology and Animal Health, Fort Collins, CO.
131. Anonymous. 2009. Salmonella and Campylobacter on U.S. Dairy Operations, 1996–2007. USDA, APHIS, Veterinary Services, Center for Epidemiology and Animal Health, Fort Collins, CO.
132. Anonymous. 2009. Prevalence of Salmonella and Listeria in Bulk Tank Milk and Inline Filters on U.S. Dairies, 2007. USDA, APHIS, Veterinary Services, Center for Epidemiology and Animal Health, Fort Collins, CO.
134. CDC. July 29, 2014 2014. Listeria (Listeriosis). http://www.cdc.gov/listeria/.
135. Francoz D. 2009. Cranial nerve abnormalities, p 299-306. In Anderson DE, Rings DM (ed), Current Veterinary Therapy: Food Animal Practice, 5th ed. Saunders, Elsevier, St. Louis, MO. [CrossRef]
136. Koohmaraie M, Arthur TM, Bosilevac JM, Guerini M, Shackelford SD, Wheeler TL. 2005. Post-harvest interventions to reduce/eliminate pathogens in beef. Meat Sci 71:79–91. [PubMed][CrossRef]
137. Maurin M, Raoult D. 1999. Q fever. Clin Microbiol Rev 12:518–553. [PubMed]
138. CDC. 2014. Q Fever. http://www.cdc.gov/qfever/.
139. Barlow J, Rauch B, Welcome F, Kim SG, Dubovi E, Schukken Y. 2008. Association between Coxiella burnetii shedding in milk and subclinical mastitis in dairy cattle. Vet Res 39:23. [PubMed][CrossRef]
140. Kim SG, Kim EH, Lafferty CJ, Dubovi E. 2005. Coxiella burnetii in bulk tank milk samples, United States. Emerg Infect Dis 11:619–621. [PubMed][CrossRef]
141. Anonymous. 2009. Grade “A” pasteurized milk ordinance, 2007 revision. US Food and Drug Administration.
142. Anonymous. 2013. Milk and dairy beef drug residue prevention, p 1–64. National Milk Producers Federation, Arlington, VA.
microbiolspec.PFS-0008-2015.citations
cm/4/4
content/journal/microbiolspec/10.1128/microbiolspec.PFS-0008-2015
Loading

Citations loading...

Loading

Article metrics loading...

/content/journal/microbiolspec/10.1128/microbiolspec.PFS-0008-2015
2016-08-19
2017-04-24

Abstract:

Foods of animal origin, including beef and dairy products, are nutritious and important to global food security. However, there are important risks to human health from hazards that are introduced to beef and dairy products on the farm. Food safety hazards may be chemical, biological, or physical in nature. Considerations about protecting the safety of beef and dairy products must begin prior to harvest because some potential food safety hazards introduced at the farm (e.g., chemical residues) cannot be mitigated by subsequent postharvest food processing steps. Also, some people have preferences for consuming food that has not been through postharvest processing even though those foods may be unsafe because of microbiological hazards originating from the farm. Because of human fallibility and complex microbial ecologies, many of the preharvest hazards associated with beef and dairy products cannot entirely be eliminated, but the risk for most can be reduced through systematic interventions taken on the farm. Beef and dairy farms differ widely in production practices because of differences in natural, human, and capital resources. Therefore, the actions necessary to minimize on-farm food safety hazards must be farm-specific and they must address scientific, political, economic, and practical aspects. Notable successes in controlling and preventing on-farm hazards to food safety have occurred through a combination of voluntary and regulatory efforts.

Highlighted Text: Show | Hide
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

Figures

Image of FIGURE 1
FIGURE 1

Numbers of accidental deaths in the United States in 1998, by cause. From the National Safety Council, http://www.nsc.org.

Source: microbiolspec August 2016 vol. 4 no. 4 doi:10.1128/microbiolspec.PFS-0008-2015
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint
Image of FIGURE 2
FIGURE 2

Percentage of sampled beef carcasses with violative drug residues based on USDA FSIS statistical sampling in 2012, by class of cattle ( 15 ). Error bars represent Clopper-Pearson exact 95% confidence intervals calculated by the author.

Source: microbiolspec August 2016 vol. 4 no. 4 doi:10.1128/microbiolspec.PFS-0008-2015
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint
Image of FIGURE 3
FIGURE 3

Percentage of beef carcasses that had violative drug residues discovered by USDA FSIS targeted inspector-generated sampling (NRP, Tier II) in 2012, by class of cattle ( 15 ). Error bars represent Clopper-Pearson exact 95% confidence intervals calculated by the author. *The proportion of non-formula-fed veal samples with violative samples was 0.43% (95% confidence interval = 0.33% to 0.55%).

Source: microbiolspec August 2016 vol. 4 no. 4 doi:10.1128/microbiolspec.PFS-0008-2015
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint
Image of FIGURE 4
FIGURE 4

Number of violative drug residues detected in U.S. milk samples, by source. Data are from NCIMS, 1 October 2012 to 30 September 2013 ( 18 ). Error bars represent Clopper-Pearson exact 95% confidence intervals calculated by the author.

Source: microbiolspec August 2016 vol. 4 no. 4 doi:10.1128/microbiolspec.PFS-0008-2015
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint
Image of FIGURE 5
FIGURE 5

Mean annual number of outbreak-associated foodborne illnesses in the United States, by pathogen 2002 to 2006 ( 27 ).

Source: microbiolspec August 2016 vol. 4 no. 4 doi:10.1128/microbiolspec.PFS-0008-2015
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint

Supplemental Material

No supplementary material available for this content.

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Please check the format of the address you have entered.
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error