1887
No metrics data to plot.
The attempt to load metrics for this article has failed.
The attempt to plot a graph for these metrics has failed.

Importance of Soil Amendments: Survival of Bacterial Pathogens in Manure and Compost Used as Organic Fertilizers

MyBook is a cheap paperback edition of the original book and will be sold at uniform, low price.
Buy this Microbiology Spectrum Article
Price Non-Member $15.00
  • Authors: Manan Sharma1, Russell Reynnells2
  • Editors: Kalmia Kniel3, Siddhartha Thakur4
  • VIEW AFFILIATIONS HIDE AFFILIATIONS
    Affiliations: 1: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service, Beltsville Area Research Center, Environmental Microbial and Food Safety Laboratory, Beltsville, MD 20705; 2: University of Maryland Eastern Shore, Department of Agriculture, Food, and Resource Science, Princess Anne, MD 21853; 3: Department of Animal and Food Science, University of Delaware, Newark, DE; 4: North Carolina State University, College of Veterinary Medicine, Raleigh, NC
  • Source: microbiolspec August 2016 vol. 4 no. 4 doi:10.1128/microbiolspec.PFS-0010-2015
  • Received 09 April 2015 Accepted 04 September 2015 Published 05 August 2016
  • Manan Sharma, manan.sharma@ars.usda.gov
image of Importance of Soil Amendments: Survival of Bacterial Pathogens in Manure and Compost Used as Organic Fertilizers
    Preview this microbiology spectrum article:
    Zoom in
    Zoomout

    Importance of Soil Amendments: Survival of Bacterial Pathogens in Manure and Compost Used as Organic Fertilizers, Page 1 of 2

    | /docserver/preview/fulltext/microbiolspec/4/4/PFS-0010-2015-1.gif /docserver/preview/fulltext/microbiolspec/4/4/PFS-0010-2015-2.gif
  • Abstract:

    Biological soil amendments (BSAs) such as manure and compost are frequently used as organic fertilizers to improve the physical and chemical properties of soils. However, BSAs have been known to be a reservoir for enteric bacterial pathogens such as enterohemorrhagic (EHEC), spp., and spp. There are numerous mechanisms by which manure may transfer pathogens to growing fruits and vegetables, and several outbreaks of infections have been linked to manure-related contamination of leafy greens. In the United States several commodity-specific guidelines and current and proposed federal rules exist to provide guidance on the application of BSAs as fertilizers to soils, some of which require an interval between the application of manure to soils and the harvest of fruits and vegetables. This review examines the survival, persistence, and regrowth/resuscitation of bacterial pathogens in manure, biosolids, and composts. Moisture, along with climate and the physicochemical properties of soil, manure, or compost, plays a significant role in the ability of pathogens to persist and resuscitate in amended soils. Adaptation of enteric bacterial pathogens to the nonhost environment of soils may also extend their persistence in manure- or compost-amended soils. The presence of antibiotic-resistance genes in soils may also be increased by manure application. Overall, BSAs applied as fertilizers to soils can support the survival and regrowth of pathogens. BSAs should be handled and applied in a manner that reduces the prevalence of pathogens in soils and the likelihood of transfer of food-borne pathogens to fruits and vegetables. This review will focus on two BSAs—raw manure and composted manure (and other feedstocks)—and predominantly on the survival of enteric bacterial pathogens in BSAs as applied to soils as organic fertilizers.

  • Citation: Sharma M, Reynnells R. 2016. Importance of Soil Amendments: Survival of Bacterial Pathogens in Manure and Compost Used as Organic Fertilizers. Microbiol Spectrum 4(4):PFS-0010-2015. doi:10.1128/microbiolspec.PFS-0010-2015.

Key Concept Ranking

Multiplex Real-Time PCR
0.44435835
0.44435835

References

1. Food and Drug Administration. 2014. Standards for growing, harvesting, packing, and holding of produce for human consumption. FSMA Proposed Rule for Produce Safety. http://www.fda.gov/Food/GuidanceRegulation/FSMA/ucm334114.htm. [CrossRef]
2. Mikha M, Benjamin JG. 2014. Remediation/restoration of degraded soil. II. Impact on crop production and nitrogen dynamics. Agron J 106:261–272.
3. Rees HW, Chow L, Zebarth B, Xing Z, Toner P, Lavoie J, Daigle J-L. 2014. Impact of supplemental poultry manure application on potato yield and soil properties on a loam soil in north-western New Brunswick. Can J Soil Sci 94:49–65. [CrossRef]
4. Donovan NJ, Saleh F, Chan KY, Eldridge SM, Fahey D, Muirhead L, Meszaros I, Barhcia I. 2014. Use of garden organic compost in a long-term vegetable field trial: biological soil health. Acta Hortic 1018:47–55. [CrossRef]
5. CalFERT (California Food Emergency Response Team). 2008. Investigation of the Taco John’s Escherichia coli O157:H7 outbreak associated with iceberg lettuce. California Department of Public Health, Sacramento, CA.
6. Söderström A, Osterberg P, Lindqvist A, Jönsson B, Lindberg A, Blide Ulander S, Welinder-Olsson C, Löfdahl S, Kaijser B, De Jong B, Kühlmann-Berenzon S, Boqvist S, Eriksson E, Szanto E, Andersson S, Allestam G, Hedenström I, Ledet Muller L, Andersson Y. 2008. A large Escherichia coli O157 outbreak in Sweden associated with locally produced lettuce. Foodborne Pathog Dis 5:339–349. [PubMed][CrossRef]
7. Hutchison ML, Walters LD, Avery SM, Munro F, Moore A. 2005. Analyses of livestock production, waste storage, and pathogen levels and prevalences in farm manures. Appl Environ Microbiol 71:1231–1236. [PubMed][CrossRef]
8. California Food Emergency Response Team. 2007. Investigation of an Escherichia coli O157:H7 outbreak associated with Dole pre-packaged spinach. https://www.cdph.ca.gov/pubsforms/Documents/fdb%20eru%20Spnch%20EC%20Dole032007wph.PDF.
9. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. 2008. Multistate outbreak of Salmonella Saintpaul infections linked to raw produce (final update). http://www.cdc.gov/salmonella/2008/raw-produce-8-28-2008.html.
10. Food and Drug Administration. 2013. Environmental assessment: factors potentially contributing to the contamination of fresh whole cantaloupe implicated in a multi-state outbreak of salmonellosis. http://www.fda.gov/Food/RecallsOutbreaksEmergencies/Outbreaks/ucm341476.htm.
11. Food and Drug Administration. 2011. Environmental assessment: factors potentially contributing to the contamination of fresh whole cantaloupe implicated in a multi-state outbreak of listeriosis. http://www.fda.gov/food/recallsoutbreaksemergencies/outbreaks/ucm276247.htm.
12. Angelo KM, Chu A, Anand M, Nguyen TA, Bottichio L, Wise M, Williams I, Seelman S, Bell R, Fatica M, Lance S, Baldwin D, Shannon K, Lee H, Trees E, Strain E, Gieraltowski L, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). 2015. Outbreak of Salmonella Newport infections linked to cucumbers: United States, 2014. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 64:144–147. [PubMed]
13. Painter JA, Hoekstra RM, Ayers T, Tauxe RV, Braden CR, Angulo FJ, Griffin PM. 2013. Attribution of foodborne illnesses, hospitalizations, and deaths to food commodities by using outbreak data, United States, 1998–2008. Emerg Infect Dis 19:407–415. [PubMed][CrossRef]
14. California Leafy Greens Handler Marketing Agreement. 2013. Commodity specific food safety guidelines for the production and harvest of lettuce and leafy greens. http://www.lgma.ca.gov/wp-content/uploads/2014/09/California-LGMA-metrics-08-26-13-Final.pdf.
15. National Organic Program. Soil fertility and crop nutrient management practice standard. 7 C.F.R. 205.203.
16. Tomato Best Practices Manual. 2007. A guide to tomato good agricultural practices (T-GAP) and tomato best management practices (T-BMP) 2007. http://fvreports.freshfromflorida.com/5G_TomBPM.pdf.
17. Avery LM, Hill P, Killham K, Jones DL. 2004. Escherichia coli O157 survival following the surface and sub-surface application of human pathogen contaminated organic waste to soil. Soil Biol Biochem 36:2101–2103. [CrossRef]
18. Franz E, Semenov AV, Termorshuizen AJ, de Vos OJ, Bokhorst JG, van Bruggen AHC. 2008. Manure-amended soil characteristics affecting the survival of E. coli O157:H7 in 36 Dutch soils. Environ Microbiol 10:313–327. [PubMed][CrossRef]
19. Harris LJ, Berry ED, Blessington T, Erickson M, Jay-Russell M, Jiang X, Killinger K, Michel FC, Millner P, Schneider K, Sharma M, Suslow TV, Wang L, Worobo RW. 2013. A framework for developing research protocols for evaluation of microbial hazards and controls during production that pertain to the application of untreated soil amendments of animal origin on land used to grow produce that may be consumed raw. J Food Prot 76:1062–1084. [PubMed][CrossRef]
20. Hutchison ML, Walters LD, Avery SM, Synge BA, Moore A. 2004. Levels of zoonotic agents in British livestock manures. Lett Appl Microbiol 39:207–214. [PubMed][CrossRef]
21. Nyberg KA, Ottoson JR, Vinnerås B, Albihn A. 2014. Fate and survival of Salmonella Typhimurium and Escherichia coli O157:H7 in repacked soil lysimeters after application of cattle slurry and human urine. J Sci Food Agric 94:2541–2546. [PubMed][CrossRef]
22. Gessel PD, Hansen NC, Goyal SM, Johnston LJ, Webb J. 2004. Persistence of zoonotic pathogens in surface soil treated with different rates of liquid pig manure. Appl Soil Ecol 25:237–243. [CrossRef]
23. Bezanson G, Delaquis P, Bach S, McKellar R, Topp E, Gill A, Blais B, Gilmour M. 2012. Comparative examination of Escherichia coli O157:H7 survival on romaine lettuce and in soil at two independent experimental sites. J Food Prot 75:480–487. [PubMed][CrossRef]
24. Gutiérrez-Rodríguez E, Gundersen A, Sbodio AO, Suslow TV. 2012. Variable agronomic practices, cultivar, strain source and initial contamination dose differentially affect survival of Escherichia coli on spinach. J Appl Microbiol 112:109–118. [PubMed][CrossRef]
25. Whyte C, Cotton CP, Hashem F, Sharma M, Millner P. 2014. Irrigation, manure, and soil type influences on survival and persistence of non-pathogenic E. coli and E. coli O157:H7 in a greenhouse environment. Poster P1-129, International Association for Food Protection Annual Meeting, Indianapolis, IN, 3–6 August.
26. Brennan FP, Abram F, Chinalia FA, Richards KG, O’Flaherty V. 2010. Characterization of environmentally persistent Escherichia coli isolates leached from an Irish soil. Appl Environ Microbiol 76:2175–2180. [PubMed][CrossRef]
27. van Hoek AH, Aarts HJM, Bouw E, van Overbeek WM, Franz E. 2013. The role of rpoS in Escherichia coli O157 manure-amended soil survival and distribution of allelic variations among bovine, food and clinical isolates. FEMS Microbiol Lett 338:18–23. [PubMed][CrossRef]
28. Franz E, van Hoek AHAM, Bouw E, Aarts HJM. 2011. Variability of Escherichia coli O157 strain survival in manure-amended soil in relation to strain origin, virulence profile, and carbon nutrition profile. Appl Environ Microbiol 77:8088–8096. [PubMed][CrossRef]
29. Bhagwat AA, Tan J, Sharma M, Kothary M, Low S, Tall BD, Bhagwat M. 2006. Functional heterogeneity of RpoS in stress tolerance of enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli strains. Appl Environ Microbiol 72:4978–4986. [PubMed][CrossRef]
30. Duffitt AD, Reber RT, Whipple A, Chauret C. 2011. Gene expression during survival of Escherichia coli O157:H7 in soil and water. Int J Microbiol 2011:1–12. [PubMed][CrossRef]
31. Kandror O, DeLeon A, Goldberg AL. 2002. Trehalose synthesis is induced upon exposure of Escherichia coli to cold and is essential for viability at low temperatures. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 99:9727–9732. [PubMed][CrossRef]
32. Zhang Q, Yan T. 2012. Correlation of intracellular trehalose concentration with desiccation resistance of soil Escherichia coli populations. Appl Environ Microbiol 78:7407–7413. [PubMed][CrossRef]
33. Graham L, Wright D, Hashem F, Cotton C, Collins A, White K, Stonebraker R, Sharma M, Millner P. 2014. The effect of manure application method on the persistence of Escherichia coli in manure-amended soils in southeastern Pennsylvania. Poster P1-131, International Association for Food Protection Annual Meeting, Indianapolis, IN, 3–6 August.
34. Schwarz KR, Sidhu JPS, Pritchard DL, Li Y, Toze S. 2014. Decay of enteric microorganisms in biosolids-amended soil under wheat (Triticum aestivum) cultivation. Water Res 59:185–197. [PubMed][CrossRef]
35. Lang NL, Bellett-Travers MD, Smith SR. 2007. Field investigations on the survival of Escherichia coli and presence of other enteric micro-organisms in biosolids-amended agricultural soil. J Appl Microbiol 103:1868–1882. [PubMed][CrossRef]
36. Gibbs RA, Hu CJ, Ho GE, Unkovich I. 1997. Regrowth of faecal coliforms and salmonellae in stored biosolids and soil amended with biosolids. Water Sci Technol 35:269–275. [CrossRef]
37. Berry ED, Wells JE, Bono JL, Woodbury BL, Kalchayanand N, Norman KN, Suslow TV, López-Velasco G, Millner PD. 2015. Effect of proximity to a cattle feedlot on Escherichia coli O157:H7 contamination of leafy greens and evaluation of the potential for airborne transmission. Appl Environ Microbiol 81:1101–1110. [PubMed][CrossRef]
38. Oni RA, Sharma M, Buchanan RL. 2015. Survival of Salmonella spp. in dried turkey manure and persistence on spinach leaves. J Food Prot 78:1791–1799. [PubMed][CrossRef]
39. Wichmann F, Udikovic-Kolic N, Andrew S, Handelsman J. 2014. Diverse antibiotic resistance genes in dairy cow manure. MBio 5:e01017-13. doi:10.1128/mBio.01017-13. [PubMed][CrossRef]
40. Marti R, Scott A, Tien Y-C, Murray R, Sabourin L, Zhang Y, Topp E. 2013. Impact of manure fertilization on the abundance of antibiotic-resistant bacteria and frequency of detection of antibiotic resistance genes in soil and on vegetables at harvest. Appl Environ Microbiol 79:5701–5709. [PubMed][CrossRef]
41. Udikovic-Kolic N, Wichmann F, Broderick NA, Handelsman J. 2014. Bloom of resident antibiotic-resistant bacteria in soil following manure fertilization. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 111:15202–15207. [PubMed][CrossRef]
42. Cernicchiaro N, Cull CA, Paddock ZD, Shi X, Bai J, Nagaraja TG, Renter DG. 2013. Prevalence of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli and associated virulence genes in feces of commercial feedlot cattle. Foodborne Pathog Dis 10:835–841. [PubMed][CrossRef]
43. Cernicchiaro N, Renter DG, Cull CA, Paddock ZD, Shi X, Nagaraja TG. 2014. Fecal shedding of non-O157 serogroups of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli in feedlot cattle vaccinated with an Escherichia coli O157:H7 SRP vaccine or fed a Lactobacillus-based direct-fed microbial. J Food Prot 77:732–737. [PubMed][CrossRef]
44. Luedtke BE, Bono JL, Bosilevac M. 2014. Evaluation of a real time PCR assay for the detection and enumeration of enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli directly from cattle feces. J Microbiol Methods 105:72–79. [PubMed][CrossRef]
45. Millner PD. 2009. Manure management, p 79–104. In Sapers GM, Solomon EB, Matthews KR (ed), The Produce Contamination Problem. Academic Press, New York. [CrossRef]
46. Millner PD. 2014. Pathogen disinfection technologies, metrics, and regulations for recycled organics used in horticulture. Acta Hortic 1018:621–630. [CrossRef]
47. Mylavarapu RS, Zinati GM. 2009. Improvement of soil properties using compost for optimum parsley production in sandy soils. Sci Hortic (Amsterdam) 120:426–430. [CrossRef]
48. Gandolfi I, Sicolo M, Franzetti A, Fontanarosa E, Santagostino A, Bestetti G. 2010. Influence of compost amendment on microbial community and ecotoxicity of hydrocarbon-contaminated soils. Bioresour Technol 101:568–575. [PubMed][CrossRef]
49. Farrell M, Griffith GW, Hobbs PJ, Perkins WT, Jones DL. 2009. Microbial diversity and activity are increased by compost amendment of metal-contaminated soils. FEMS Microbiol Lett 71:94–105. [PubMed][CrossRef]
50. Reynnells RE. 2013. Comparison of pathogen detection methods in compost and compost characteristics as potential predictors of pathogen regrowth. Master’s thesis, University of Maryland, College Park, MD. http://drum.lib.umd.edu/handle/1903/14819.
51. Berry ED, Millner PD, Wells JE, Kalchayanand N, Guerni MN. 2013. Fate of naturally occurring Escherichia coli O157:H7 and other zoonotic pathogens during minimally managed bovine feedlot manure composting processes. J Food Prot 76:1308–1321. [PubMed][CrossRef]
52. Ingram DT. 2009. Assessment of foodborne pathogen survival during production and pre-harvest application of compost and compost tea. Ph.D. dissertation, University of Maryland, College Park, MD. http://drum.lib.umd.edu/bitstream/1903/9137/1/Ingram_umd_0117E_10231.pdf.
53. Brinton WF, Jr, Storms P, Blewett TC. 2009. Occurrence and levels of fecal indicators and pathogenic bacteria in market-ready recycled organic matter composts. J Food Prot 72:332–339. [PubMed]
54. Wichuk KM, McCartney D. 2007. A review of the effectiveness of current time-temperature regulations on pathogen inactivation during composting. J Environ Eng Sci 6:572–586. [CrossRef]
55. Shepherd MW, Jr, Liang P, Jiang X, Doyle MP, Erickson MC. 2010. Microbiological analysis of composts produced on South Carolina poultry farms. J Appl Microbiol 108:2067–2076. [PubMed]
56. Patel JR, Yossa I, Macarisin D, Millner P. 2015. Physical covering for control of Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Salmonella spp. in static and windrow composting processes. Appl Environ Microbiol 81:2063–2074. [PubMed][CrossRef]
57. Erickson MC, Liao J, Jiang X, Doyle MP. 2014. Inactivation of pathogens during aerobic composting of fresh and aged dairy manure and different carbon amendments. J Food Prot 77:1911–1918. [PubMed][CrossRef]
58. Reynnells R, Ingram DT, Roberts C, Stonebraker R, Handy ET, Felton G, Vinyard BT, Millner PD, Sharma M. 2014. Comparison of U.S. Environmental Protection Agency and U.S. Composting Council microbial detection methods in finished compost and regrowth potential of Salmonella spp. and Escherichia coli O157:H7 in finished compost. Foodborne Pathog Dis 11:555–567. [PubMed][CrossRef]
59. Paniel N, Rousseaux S, Gourland P, Poitrenaud M, Guzzo J. 2010. Assessment of survival of Listeria monocytogenes, Salmonella Infantis and Enterococcus faecalis artificially inoculated into experimental waste or compost. J Appl Microbiol 108:1797–1809. [PubMed][CrossRef]
60. Pietronave S, Fracchia L, Rinaldi M, Martinotti MG. 2004. Influence of biotic and abiotic factors on human pathogens in a finished compost. Water Res 38:1963–1970. [PubMed][CrossRef]
61. Soares HM, Cardenas B, Weir D, Switzenbaum MS. 1995. Evaluating pathogen regrowth in biosolids compost. Biocycle 36:70–76.
62. Kim J, Shepherd MW, Jr, Jiang X. 2009. Evaluating the effect of environmental factors on pathogen regrowth in compost extract. Microb Ecol 58:498–508. [PubMed][CrossRef]
63. Ingram DT, Millner PD. 2007. Factors affecting compost tea as a potential source of Escherichia coli and Salmonella on fresh produce. J Food Prot 70:828–834. [PubMed]
64. Kannangara T, Forge T, Dang B. 2006. Effects of aeration molasses, kelp, compost type, and carrot juice on the growth of Escherichia coli in compost teas. Compost Sci Util 14:40–47. [CrossRef]
65. Sidhu J, Gibbs RA, Ho GE, Unkovich I. 2001. The role of indigenous microorganisms in suppression of Salmonella regrowth in composted biosolids. Water Res 35:913–920. [PubMed][CrossRef]
66. Millner PD, Powers KE, Enkiri NK, Burge WD. 1987. Microbially mediated growth suppression and death of Salmonella in composted sewage sludge. Microb Ecol 14:255–265. [PubMed][CrossRef]
67. Islam M, Doyle MP, Phatak SC, Millner P, Jiang X. 2005. Survival of Escherichia coli O157: H7 in soil and on carrots and onions grown in fields treated with contaminated manure composts or irrigation water. Food Microbiol 22:63–70. [PubMed][CrossRef]
68. Islam M, Morgan J, Doyle MP, Phatak SC, Millner P, Jiang X. 2004. Fate of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium on carrots and radishes grown in fields treated with contaminated manure composts or irrigation water. Appl Environ Microbiol 70:2497–2502. [PubMed][CrossRef]
microbiolspec.PFS-0010-2015.citations
cm/4/4
content/journal/microbiolspec/10.1128/microbiolspec.PFS-0010-2015
Loading

Citations loading...

Loading

Article metrics loading...

/content/journal/microbiolspec/10.1128/microbiolspec.PFS-0010-2015
2016-08-05
2017-12-12

Abstract:

Biological soil amendments (BSAs) such as manure and compost are frequently used as organic fertilizers to improve the physical and chemical properties of soils. However, BSAs have been known to be a reservoir for enteric bacterial pathogens such as enterohemorrhagic (EHEC), spp., and spp. There are numerous mechanisms by which manure may transfer pathogens to growing fruits and vegetables, and several outbreaks of infections have been linked to manure-related contamination of leafy greens. In the United States several commodity-specific guidelines and current and proposed federal rules exist to provide guidance on the application of BSAs as fertilizers to soils, some of which require an interval between the application of manure to soils and the harvest of fruits and vegetables. This review examines the survival, persistence, and regrowth/resuscitation of bacterial pathogens in manure, biosolids, and composts. Moisture, along with climate and the physicochemical properties of soil, manure, or compost, plays a significant role in the ability of pathogens to persist and resuscitate in amended soils. Adaptation of enteric bacterial pathogens to the nonhost environment of soils may also extend their persistence in manure- or compost-amended soils. The presence of antibiotic-resistance genes in soils may also be increased by manure application. Overall, BSAs applied as fertilizers to soils can support the survival and regrowth of pathogens. BSAs should be handled and applied in a manner that reduces the prevalence of pathogens in soils and the likelihood of transfer of food-borne pathogens to fruits and vegetables. This review will focus on two BSAs—raw manure and composted manure (and other feedstocks)—and predominantly on the survival of enteric bacterial pathogens in BSAs as applied to soils as organic fertilizers.

Highlighted Text: Show | Hide
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

Figures

Image of FIGURE 1
FIGURE 1

The survival of a three-strain (TVS 353, 354, and 355), nonpathogenic (generic) inoculum in either poultry litter–amended (gEC PL), horse manure–amended (gEC HM), or unamended (gEC uA) soils over 98 days in southern Pennsylvania (Southeastern Agricultural Research and Extension Center, Pennsylvania State University, Landisville, PA). Amendments were surface applied (no till). The moisture content of PL-amended soils [PL Hi(s)], HM-amended soils [HM Hi(c)], and uA soils [uA Hi(s)]. The air temperature throughout the study. Values below the x-axis indicate the number of days of the study. Dashed lines indicate days when changes in populations occurred, potentially attributed to changes in either soil moisture content or temperature. The first dashed line indicates that an increase in air temperature (graph C) from days 0 to 5 corresponded to an increase in all populations in graph A; the second dashed line indicates that an increase in soil moisture content (graph B) from day 7 to day 14 corresponded to an increase in all populations; the third dashed line indicates that a decline in soil moisture content of PL Hi(s) from day 14 to day 28 resulted in a decline of populations in gEc PL. These graphs show that air temperature and soil moisture content can affect populations in soils amended with surface-applied manures more than populations in tilled in soils ( Fig. 2 ).

Source: microbiolspec August 2016 vol. 4 no. 4 doi:10.1128/microbiolspec.PFS-0010-2015
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint
Image of FIGURE 2
FIGURE 2

The survival of a three-strain (TVS 353, 354, and 355), nonpathogenic (generic) inoculum in either poultry litter–amended (gEC PL), horse manure–amended (gEC HM), or unamended (gEC uA) over 98 days in soils at the Southeastern Agricultural Research and Extension Center. Amendments were tilled into soils. The moisture content of tilled PL-amended [PL Hi(c)], HM-amended [HM Hi(c)], and uA soils ]uA Hi(c)]. The air temperature throughout the study. Values below the x-axis indicate the number of days of the study. Dashed lines indicate days where changes in populations occurred, potentially attributed to changes in either soil moisture content or temperature. The first dashed line indicates that all populations (graph A) increased on day 5 with an increase in all soil moisture contents (graph B) from day 3 to day 5. On day 7 (no dashed line), the decline in populations between days 5 and 7 was associated with a fall in the soil moisture content of all soils. The second dashed line indicates an increase in gEC HM and gEC uA populations from day 14 to day 28, which corresponds to an increase in HM Hi(c), and uA Hi(c) soil moisture contents (no increase in gEC PL was observed). The figure illustrates that populations in tilled soils amended with manure may be less responsive to changes in air temperature and more responsive to changes in soil moisture content than in surface manure-amended soils ( Fig. 1 ).

Source: microbiolspec August 2016 vol. 4 no. 4 doi:10.1128/microbiolspec.PFS-0010-2015
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint

Tables

Generic image for table
TABLE 1

Guidance and proposed rules by organizations and federal agencies in the United States on the application of biological soil amendments to agricultural fields intended to grow selected fruit and vegetable crops

Source: microbiolspec August 2016 vol. 4 no. 4 doi:10.1128/microbiolspec.PFS-0010-2015
Generic image for table
TABLE 2

Change in inoculated populations in manure-amended soils in large pots in a greenhouse environment after weekly irrigation events

Source: microbiolspec August 2016 vol. 4 no. 4 doi:10.1128/microbiolspec.PFS-0010-2015

Supplemental Material

No supplementary material available for this content.

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Please check the format of the address you have entered.
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error