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as a Parasite in Food: Analysis and Control

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  • Authors: Dolores E. Hill1, Jitender P. Dubey2
  • Editors: Kalmia Kniel3, Siddhartha Thakur4
  • VIEW AFFILIATIONS HIDE AFFILIATIONS
    Affiliations: 1: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service, Northeast Area, Animal Parasitic Diseases Laboratory, Beltsville Agricultural Research Center-East, Beltsville, MD 20705; 2: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service, Northeast Area, Animal Parasitic Diseases Laboratory, Beltsville Agricultural Research Center-East, Beltsville, MD 20705; 3: Department of Animal and Food Science, University of Delaware, Newark, DE; 4: North Carolina State University, College of Veterinary Medicine, Raleigh, NC
  • Source: microbiolspec August 2016 vol. 4 no. 4 doi:10.1128/microbiolspec.PFS-0011-2015
  • Received 14 December 2015 Accepted 31 March 2016 Published 26 August 2016
  • Dolores E. Hill, dolores.hill@ars.usda.gov
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  • Abstract:

    Foodborne infections are a significant cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide, and foodborne parasitic diseases, though not as widespread as bacterial and viral infections, are common on all continents and in most ecosystems, including arctic, temperate, and tropical regions. Outbreaks of disease resulting from foodstuffs contaminated by parasitic protozoa have become increasingly recognized as a problem in the United States and globally. Increased international trade in food products has made movement of these organisms across national boundaries more frequent, and the risks associated with infections have become apparent in nations with well-developed food safety apparatus in place.

  • Citation: Hill D, Dubey J. 2016. as a Parasite in Food: Analysis and Control. Microbiol Spectrum 4(4):PFS-0011-2015. doi:10.1128/microbiolspec.PFS-0011-2015.

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/content/journal/microbiolspec/10.1128/microbiolspec.PFS-0011-2015
2016-08-26
2017-11-18

Abstract:

Foodborne infections are a significant cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide, and foodborne parasitic diseases, though not as widespread as bacterial and viral infections, are common on all continents and in most ecosystems, including arctic, temperate, and tropical regions. Outbreaks of disease resulting from foodstuffs contaminated by parasitic protozoa have become increasingly recognized as a problem in the United States and globally. Increased international trade in food products has made movement of these organisms across national boundaries more frequent, and the risks associated with infections have become apparent in nations with well-developed food safety apparatus in place.

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Figures

Image of FIGURE 1
FIGURE 1

Life cycle of .

Source: microbiolspec August 2016 vol. 4 no. 4 doi:10.1128/microbiolspec.PFS-0011-2015
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Image of FIGURE 2
FIGURE 2

Tachyzoites of . Bars = 10 µm. Individual (small arrows), binucleate (large arrow), and divided (arrowhead) tachyzoites. Impression smear of lung. Compare size with red blood cells and leukocytes. Giemsa stain. Tachyzoites in a group (large arrow) and in pairs (small arrows) in section of a mesenteric lymph node. Note that organisms are located in parasitophorous vacuoles and some are dividing (arrowhead). Hematoxylin and eosin stain.

Source: microbiolspec August 2016 vol. 4 no. 4 doi:10.1128/microbiolspec.PFS-0011-2015
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Image of FIGURE 3
FIGURE 3

Stages of . Bars in A–D = 20 µm, in E–G = 10 µm. Tachyzoites in impression smear of lung. Note crescent-shaped individual tachyzoites (arrows) and dividing tachyzoites (arrowheads) compared with size of host red blood cells and leukocytes. Giemsa stain. Tissue cysts in section of muscle. The tissue cyst wall is very thin (arrow) and encloses many tiny bradyzoites (arrowheads). Hematoxylin and eosin stain. Tissue cyst separated from host tissue by homogenization of infected brain. Note tissue cyst wall (arrow) and hundreds of bradyzoites (arrowheads). Unstained. Schizont (arrow) with several merozoites (arrowheads) separating from the main mass. Impression smear of infected cat intestine. Giemsa stain. A male gamete with two flagella (arrows). Impression smear of infected cat intestine. Giemsa stain. Unsporulated oocyst in fecal float of cat feces. Unstained. Note double-layered oocyst wall (arrow) enclosing a central undivided mass. Sporulated oocyst with a thin oocyst wall (large arrow) and two sporocysts (arrowheads). Each sporocyst has four sporozoites (small arrow), which are not in complete focus. Unstained.

Source: microbiolspec August 2016 vol. 4 no. 4 doi:10.1128/microbiolspec.PFS-0011-2015
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Image of FIGURE 4
FIGURE 4

Transmission electron micrograph of a tachyzoite of in a mouse peritoneal exudate cell. Am, amylopectin granule; Co, conoid; Dg, electron-dense granule; Fp, finger-like projection of tachyzoite plasmalemma; Go, Golgi complex; Hc, host cell cytoplasm; Im, inner membrane complex; Mi, mitochondrion; Mn, microneme; Nu, nucleus; Pl, plasmalemma; Pv, parasitophorous vacuole; Rh, rhoptry; Sm, subpellicular microtubule; Tv, tubulovesicular membranes. Bar = 1 µm.

Source: microbiolspec August 2016 vol. 4 no. 4 doi:10.1128/microbiolspec.PFS-0011-2015
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Image of FIGURE 5
FIGURE 5

stages in and preparations. Tachyzoites in culture of human foreskin fibroblast cells. Giemsa stain. Bar = 25 µm. Rosettes of tachyzoites in human foreskin fibroblasts. Immunohistochemical stain with antitachyzoite-specific antibody. Smear. Bar = 10 µm. Tachyzoites in a cytospin smear of pleural fluid from a cat with pneumonia. Giemsa stain. Compare the size of tachyzoites (arrow) with host cells. Giemsa stain. Bar = 10 µm. Tachyzoites (arrows) and tissue cysts (large arrow) in section of mouse brain. Immunohistochemical stain with –specific antibody. Bar = 10 µm.

Source: microbiolspec August 2016 vol. 4 no. 4 doi:10.1128/microbiolspec.PFS-0011-2015
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Image of FIGURE 6
FIGURE 6

Tissue cysts of . Bar = 10 µm. Two tissue cysts (arrows). Note the thin cyst wall enclosing bradyzoites. Impression smear of mouse brain. Silver impregnation and Giemsa stain. A tissue cyst freed from mouse brain by homogenization in saline. Note the thin cyst wall (arrow) enclosing many bradyzoites. Unstained. A large tissue cyst in a section of rat brain 14 months postinfection. Note the thin cyst wall (arrow). Hematoxylin and eosin stain. A small tissue cyst with intact cyst wall (arrow) and four bradyzoites (arrowheads) with terminal nuclei adjacent to it. Section of mouse brain 8 months postinfection. Hematoxylin and eosin stain. A tissue cyst in a section of mouse brain. Note Periodic acid Schiff (PAS)–negative cyst wall (arrow) enclosing many PAS-positive bradyzoites (arrowheads). The bradyzoites stain bright red with PAS but they appear black in this photograph. PAS hematoxylin stain. An elongated tissue cyst (arrow) in a section of skeletal muscle of a mouse. PASH stain.

Source: microbiolspec August 2016 vol. 4 no. 4 doi:10.1128/microbiolspec.PFS-0011-2015
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Image of FIGURE 7
FIGURE 7

Transmission electron micrograph of a tissue cyst in the brain of a mouse 6 months postinfection. Note the thin cyst wall (opposing arrows), numerous bradyzoites each with a conoid (C), and electron-dense rhoptries (R). Bar = 3.0 µm.

Source: microbiolspec August 2016 vol. 4 no. 4 doi:10.1128/microbiolspec.PFS-0011-2015
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Tables

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TABLE 1

Protozoans of food safety importance and their hosts

Source: microbiolspec August 2016 vol. 4 no. 4 doi:10.1128/microbiolspec.PFS-0011-2015
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TABLE 2

Host tissues invaded by protozoan parasites

Source: microbiolspec August 2016 vol. 4 no. 4 doi:10.1128/microbiolspec.PFS-0011-2015
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TABLE 3

Oocyst characteristics of protozoans of food safety importance

Source: microbiolspec August 2016 vol. 4 no. 4 doi:10.1128/microbiolspec.PFS-0011-2015
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TABLE 4

Clinical signs in humans

Source: microbiolspec August 2016 vol. 4 no. 4 doi:10.1128/microbiolspec.PFS-0011-2015
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TABLE 5

Diagnosis and treatment

Source: microbiolspec August 2016 vol. 4 no. 4 doi:10.1128/microbiolspec.PFS-0011-2015

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