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Human Lice in Paleoentomology and Paleomicrobiology

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  • Authors: Rezak Drali1, Kosta Mumcuoglu2, Didier Raoult3
  • Editors: Michel Drancourt4, Didier Raoult5
  • VIEW AFFILIATIONS HIDE AFFILIATIONS
    Affiliations: 1: Parasitology Unit, Department of Microbiology and Molecular Genetics, The Kuvin Center for the Study of Infectious and Tropical Diseases, Hadassah Medical School, The Hebrew University, Jerusalem, Israel; 2: Unité de Recherche sur les Maladies Infectieuses et Tropicales Emergentes: URMITE, Aix Marseille Université, UMR CNRS 7278, IRD 198, INSERM 1095, Faculté de Médecine, Marseille, France; 3: Unité de Recherche sur les Maladies Infectieuses et Tropicales Emergentes: URMITE, Aix Marseille Université, UMR CNRS 7278, IRD 198, INSERM 1095, Faculté de Médecine, Marseille, France; 4: Aix Marseille Université Faculté de Médecine, Marseille, France; 5: Aix Marseille Université Faculté de Médecine, Marseille, France
  • Source: microbiolspec August 2016 vol. 4 no. 4 doi:10.1128/microbiolspec.PoH-0005-2014
  • Received 14 January 2015 Accepted 29 January 2015 Published 18 August 2016
  • Didier Raoult, didier.raoult@gmail.com
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  • Abstract:

    Lice are a classic example of cospeciation. Human lice confirm this cospeciation with lice specialized in hominids which differ from those of gorillas and chimpanzees. Head lice and body lice seem to belong to closely related species with different ecotypes and a different geographical distribution which may reflect population movements. Paleo-entomology allows us in some cases to trace the migrations of archaic human populations. The analysis of lice found on mummies in Egypt and South America has clarified a certain number of these migrations, also the study of lice and the diseases they transmit has shed a new light on the epidemics of the past.

  • Citation: Drali R, Mumcuoglu K, Raoult D. 2016. Human Lice in Paleoentomology and Paleomicrobiology. Microbiol Spectrum 4(4):PoH-0005-2014. doi:10.1128/microbiolspec.PoH-0005-2014.

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/content/journal/microbiolspec/10.1128/microbiolspec.PoH-0005-2014
2016-08-18
2017-10-17

Abstract:

Lice are a classic example of cospeciation. Human lice confirm this cospeciation with lice specialized in hominids which differ from those of gorillas and chimpanzees. Head lice and body lice seem to belong to closely related species with different ecotypes and a different geographical distribution which may reflect population movements. Paleo-entomology allows us in some cases to trace the migrations of archaic human populations. The analysis of lice found on mummies in Egypt and South America has clarified a certain number of these migrations, also the study of lice and the diseases they transmit has shed a new light on the epidemics of the past.

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Figures

Image of FIGURE 1
FIGURE 1

Maximum likelihood (ML) phylogram of the cytochrome mitochondrial gene. ML bootstrapping supporting values greater than 75 are located above the nodes. Mitochondrial clade memberships are indicated to the right of each tree. GenBank accession numbers, manuscript lead author, and locality are indicated for each louse specimen. Localities are abbreviated as follows: Florida, FL; Georgia, GA; Maryland, MD; Democratic Republic of the Congo, RDC; United Kingdom, UK; Utah, UT.

Source: microbiolspec August 2016 vol. 4 no. 4 doi:10.1128/microbiolspec.PoH-0005-2014
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Image of FIGURE 2
FIGURE 2

Map showing major areas of ancient lice recovery worldwide. The numbers in parentheses refer to references.

Source: microbiolspec August 2016 vol. 4 no. 4 doi:10.1128/microbiolspec.PoH-0005-2014
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Image of FIGURE 3
FIGURE 3

Maximum-likelihood (ML) phylogram of the cytochrome mitochondrial gene. ML bootstrapping supporting values greater than 50 are located above the nodes. Mitochondrial clade memberships are indicated to the right of each tree.

Source: microbiolspec August 2016 vol. 4 no. 4 doi:10.1128/microbiolspec.PoH-0005-2014
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