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Cholera

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  • Authors: Donatella Lippi1, Eduardo Gotuzzo2, Saverio Caini3
  • Editors: Michel Drancourt4, Didier Raoult5
  • VIEW AFFILIATIONS HIDE AFFILIATIONS
    Affiliations: 1: Department of Experimental and Clinical Medicine, University of Florence, Florence, Italy; 2: Institute of Tropical Medicine, Peruvian University Cayetano Heredia, Lima, Peru; 3: Cancer Risk Factors and Lifestyle Epidemiology, Cancer Research and Prevention Institute (ISPO), Florence, Italy; 4: Aix Marseille Université Faculté de Médecine, Marseille, France; 5: Aix Marseille Université Faculté de Médecine, Marseille, France
  • Source: microbiolspec July 2016 vol. 4 no. 4 doi:10.1128/microbiolspec.PoH-0012-2015
  • Received 06 February 2016 Accepted 07 March 2016 Published 01 July 2016
  • Donatella Lippi, donatella.lippi@unifi.it
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  • Abstract:

    Cholera is an acute disease of the gastrointestinal tract caused by . Cholera was localized in Asia until 1817, when a first pandemic spread from India to several other regions of the world. After this appearance, six additional major pandemics occurred during the 19th and 20th centuries, the latest of which originated in Indonesia in the 1960s and is still ongoing. In 1854, a cholera outbreak in Soho, London, was investigated by the English physician John Snow (1813 to 1858). He described the time course of the outbreak, managed to understand its routes of transmission, and suggested effective measures to stop its spread, giving rise to modern infectious disease epidemiology. The germ responsible for cholera was discovered twice: first by the Italian physician Filippo Pacini during an outbreak in Florence, Italy, in 1854, and then independently by Robert Koch in India in 1883, thus favoring the germ theory over the miasma theory of disease. Unlike many other infectious diseases, such as plague, smallpox, and poliomyelitis, cholera persists as a huge public health problem worldwide, even though there are effective methods for its prevention and treatment. The main reasons for its persistence are socioeconomic rather than purely biological; cholera flourishes where there are unsatisfactory hygienic conditions and where a breakdown of already fragile sanitation and health infrastructure occurs because of natural disasters or humanitarian crises.

  • Citation: Lippi D, Gotuzzo E, Caini S. 2016. Cholera. Microbiol Spectrum 4(4):PoH-0012-2015. doi:10.1128/microbiolspec.PoH-0012-2015.

Key Concept Ranking

Gastrointestinal Diseases
0.5587417
Infectious Diseases
0.55229294
Cholera
0.50249964
Asymptomatic Carriers
0.48492754
Bacillus anthracis
0.48335552
0.5587417

References

1. Heymann DL (ed). 2008. Control of Communicable Disease Manual, 19th ed. American Public Health Association (APHA), Washington, DC. [PubMed][CrossRef]
2. Lipp EK, Huq A, Colwell RR. 2002. Effects of global climate on infectious disease: the cholera model. Clin Microbiol Rev 15:757–770. [CrossRef]
3. Barua D. 1992. History of cholera, p 1–35. In Barua D, Greenough WB (ed), Cholera. Plenum Publishing, New York, NY.
4. Siddique AK, Cash R. 2014. Cholera outbreaks in the classical biotype era. Curr Top Microbiol Immunol 379:1–16. [PubMed][CrossRef]
5. Lacey SW. 1995. Cholera: calamitous past, ominous future. Clin Infect Dis 20:1409–1419. [PubMed][CrossRef]
6. Smith GD. 2002. Commentary: Behind the Broad Street pump: aetiology, epidemiology and prevention of cholera in mid-19th century Britain. Int J Epidemiol 31:920–932. [PubMed][CrossRef]
7. Buechner JS, Constantine H, Gjelsvik A. 2004. John Snow and the Broad Street pump: 150 years of epidemiology. Med Health R I. 87:314–315. [PubMed]
8. Lippi D, Gotuzzo E. 2014. The greatest steps towards the discovery of Vibrio cholerae. Clin Microbiol Infect 20:191–195. [PubMed][CrossRef]
9. Poirier MJ, Izurieta R, Malavade SS, McDonald MD. 2012. Re-emergence of cholera in the Americas: risks, susceptibility, and ecology. J Glob Infect Dis 4:162–171. [PubMed][CrossRef]
10. Morris JG, Jr. 2011. Cholera—modern pandemic disease of ancient lineage. Emerg Infect Dis 17:2099–2104. [PubMed][CrossRef]
11. Ali M, Lopez AL, You YA, Kim YE, Sah B, Maskery B, Clemens J. 2012. The global burden of cholera. Bull World Health Org 90:209–218A. [PubMed][CrossRef]
12. Talavera A, Pérez EM. 2009. Is cholera disease associated with poverty? J Infect Dev Ctries 3:408–411. [PubMed][CrossRef]
13. Naseer M, Jamali T. 2014. Epidemiology, determinants and dynamics of cholera in Pakistan: gaps and prospects for future research. J Coll Physicians Surg Pak 24:855–860. [PubMed]
14. Lantagne D, Balakrish Nair G, Lanata CF, Cravioto A. 2014. The cholera outbreak in Haiti: where and how did it begin? Curr Top Microbiol Immunol 379:145–164. [PubMed][CrossRef]
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/content/journal/microbiolspec/10.1128/microbiolspec.PoH-0012-2015
2016-07-01
2017-11-21

Abstract:

Cholera is an acute disease of the gastrointestinal tract caused by . Cholera was localized in Asia until 1817, when a first pandemic spread from India to several other regions of the world. After this appearance, six additional major pandemics occurred during the 19th and 20th centuries, the latest of which originated in Indonesia in the 1960s and is still ongoing. In 1854, a cholera outbreak in Soho, London, was investigated by the English physician John Snow (1813 to 1858). He described the time course of the outbreak, managed to understand its routes of transmission, and suggested effective measures to stop its spread, giving rise to modern infectious disease epidemiology. The germ responsible for cholera was discovered twice: first by the Italian physician Filippo Pacini during an outbreak in Florence, Italy, in 1854, and then independently by Robert Koch in India in 1883, thus favoring the germ theory over the miasma theory of disease. Unlike many other infectious diseases, such as plague, smallpox, and poliomyelitis, cholera persists as a huge public health problem worldwide, even though there are effective methods for its prevention and treatment. The main reasons for its persistence are socioeconomic rather than purely biological; cholera flourishes where there are unsatisfactory hygienic conditions and where a breakdown of already fragile sanitation and health infrastructure occurs because of natural disasters or humanitarian crises.

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Figures

Image of FIGURE 1
FIGURE 1

Map by John Snow of the cholera outbreak in Soho, London, 1854, modified by means of geoprofiling methods to show the areas most likely (from red to green) to have contained the source of infection. The pumps are marked with red circles, and the deaths from cholera are marked with blue squares. (Courtesy of Ugo Santosuosso and Alessio Papini, University of Florence, Florence, Italy.)

Source: microbiolspec July 2016 vol. 4 no. 4 doi:10.1128/microbiolspec.PoH-0012-2015
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