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Non-Human Primate Models of Tuberculosis

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  • Authors: Juliet C. Peña1, Wen-Zhe Ho2
  • Editors: William R. Jacobs Jr.4, Helen McShane5, Valerie Mizrahi6, Ian M. Orme7
    Affiliations: 1: Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, Temple University Lewis Katz School of Medicine, Philadelphia, PA 19140; 2: Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, Temple University Lewis Katz School of Medicine, Philadelphia, PA 19140; 3: Animal Biosafety Level III Laboratory at the Center for Animal Experiment, State Key Laboratory of Virology, Wuhan University, Wuhan, China; 4: Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Albert Einstein School of Medicine, Bronx, NY 10461; 5: University of Oxford, Oxford OX3 7DQ, United Kingdom; 6: University of Cape Town, Rondebosch 7701, South Africa; 7: Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO 80523
  • Source: microbiolspec July 2016 vol. 4 no. 4 doi:10.1128/microbiolspec.TBTB2-0007-2016
  • Received 13 January 2016 Accepted 29 February 2016 Published 01 July 2016
  • Wen-Zhe Ho, [email protected]
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  • Abstract:

    Among the animal models of tuberculosis (TB), the non-human primates, particularly rhesus macaques () and cynomolgus macaques (), share the greatest anatomical and physiological similarities with humans. Macaques are highly susceptible to infection and manifest the complete spectrum of clinical and pathological manifestations of TB as seen in humans. Therefore, the macaque models have been used extensively for investigating the pathogenesis of infection and for preclinical testing of drugs and vaccines against TB. This review focuses on published major studies that exemplify how the rhesus and cynomolgus macaques have enhanced and may continue to advance global efforts in TB research.

  • Citation: Peña J, Ho W. 2016. Non-Human Primate Models of Tuberculosis. Microbiol Spectrum 4(4):TBTB2-0007-2016. doi:10.1128/microbiolspec.TBTB2-0007-2016.


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Among the animal models of tuberculosis (TB), the non-human primates, particularly rhesus macaques () and cynomolgus macaques (), share the greatest anatomical and physiological similarities with humans. Macaques are highly susceptible to infection and manifest the complete spectrum of clinical and pathological manifestations of TB as seen in humans. Therefore, the macaque models have been used extensively for investigating the pathogenesis of infection and for preclinical testing of drugs and vaccines against TB. This review focuses on published major studies that exemplify how the rhesus and cynomolgus macaques have enhanced and may continue to advance global efforts in TB research.

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Image of FIGURE 1

“Golden Age” of TB research using rhesus macaques. This timeline illustrates major studies of experimental infection in Indian rhesus macaques during the so-called “Golden Age” from the 1960s to 1970s ( 7 , 12 18 ). Events are organized chronologically by year of publication. Thus, the 10-year study by Good et al. ( 12 ) actually began before the first reported investigation in 1966. The location of the experiments (in red) and the first/corresponding author (in blue) are indicated as well. BCG, bacillus Calmette-Guérin; BPRC, Biomedical Primate Research Center; Hazleton Laboratories (former organization purchased by Covance Inc.); , intracutaneous; , intramuscular; , intratracheal; , intravenous; ; NBL, Naval Biological Laboratories; NPRC, National Primate Research Center; PPD, purified protein derivative; , subcutaneous; UC, University of California.

Source: microbiolspec July 2016 vol. 4 no. 4 doi:10.1128/microbiolspec.TBTB2-0007-2016
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Image of FIGURE 2

Twenty-first century TB research using rhesus and cynomolgus macaques. This is a summary timeline of important studies of experimental infection in rhesus and cynomolgus macaques from 1996 to 2016. Only one study ( 20 ) was published before 2001.

Source: microbiolspec July 2016 vol. 4 no. 4 doi:10.1128/microbiolspec.TBTB2-0007-2016
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Comparison of TB in humans versus rhesus and cynomolgus macaques

Source: microbiolspec July 2016 vol. 4 no. 4 doi:10.1128/microbiolspec.TBTB2-0007-2016
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TB studies using both rhesus macaques and cynomolgus macaques

Source: microbiolspec July 2016 vol. 4 no. 4 doi:10.1128/microbiolspec.TBTB2-0007-2016
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TB studies using rhesus macaques

Source: microbiolspec July 2016 vol. 4 no. 4 doi:10.1128/microbiolspec.TBTB2-0007-2016
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TB studies using cynomolgus macaques

Source: microbiolspec July 2016 vol. 4 no. 4 doi:10.1128/microbiolspec.TBTB2-0007-2016
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Novel TB vaccine models using macaques

Source: microbiolspec July 2016 vol. 4 no. 4 doi:10.1128/microbiolspec.TBTB2-0007-2016

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