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Diagnosis of Latent Tuberculosis Infection

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  • Authors: Alfred A. Lardizabal1, Lee B. Reichman2
  • Editor: David Schlossberg3
  • VIEW AFFILIATIONS HIDE AFFILIATIONS
    Affiliations: 1: New Jersey Medical School Global Tuberculosis Institute, Rutgers University, Newark, NJ 07103; 2: New Jersey Medical School Global Tuberculosis Institute, Rutgers University, Newark, NJ 07103; 3: Philadelphia Health Department, Philadelphia, PA
  • Source: microbiolspec February 2017 vol. 5 no. 1 doi:10.1128/microbiolspec.TNMI7-0019-2016
  • Received 03 October 2016 Accepted 13 October 2016 Published 10 February 2017
  • Alfred A. Lardizabal, lardizaa@njms.rutgers.edu
image of Diagnosis of Latent Tuberculosis Infection
  • Abstract:

    For 2015, tuberculosis (TB) incidence in the United States has plateaued at 3.0 per 100,000. This remains the lowest case rate since recording started. On the global level, although the TB epidemic is larger than previously estimated, TB deaths and incidence rate continue to fall. For both low and high incidence countries, accelerating the decline in TB incidence towards elimination goals requires that more emphasis be placed on strengthening systems for detection and treatment of latent TB infection (LTBI) in addition to improving TB care globally. Here, we review the tuberculin skin test and gamma interferon release assays currently available for the detection of LTBI.

  • Citation: Lardizabal A, Reichman L. 2017. Diagnosis of Latent Tuberculosis Infection. Microbiol Spectrum 5(1):TNMI7-0019-2016. doi:10.1128/microbiolspec.TNMI7-0019-2016.
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/content/journal/microbiolspec/10.1128/microbiolspec.TNMI7-0019-2016
2017-02-10
2018-07-16

Abstract:

For 2015, tuberculosis (TB) incidence in the United States has plateaued at 3.0 per 100,000. This remains the lowest case rate since recording started. On the global level, although the TB epidemic is larger than previously estimated, TB deaths and incidence rate continue to fall. For both low and high incidence countries, accelerating the decline in TB incidence towards elimination goals requires that more emphasis be placed on strengthening systems for detection and treatment of latent TB infection (LTBI) in addition to improving TB care globally. Here, we review the tuberculin skin test and gamma interferon release assays currently available for the detection of LTBI.

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Figures

Image of FIGURE 1
FIGURE 1

Distribution of reactions to 5 TU of PPD among Alaskans tested in 1962. Reprinted with permission from ( 6 ).

Source: microbiolspec February 2017 vol. 5 no. 1 doi:10.1128/microbiolspec.TNMI7-0019-2016
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Image of FIGURE 2
FIGURE 2

Distribution of reactions to 5 TU of PPD among white Navy recruits from the state of Georgia, with estimate of proportion infected with . Reprinted with permission from ( 7 ).

Source: microbiolspec February 2017 vol. 5 no. 1 doi:10.1128/microbiolspec.TNMI7-0019-2016
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Image of FIGURE 3
FIGURE 3

Schema of probable distribution of reactors to 5 TU of PPD in the New York City metropolitan area.

Source: microbiolspec February 2017 vol. 5 no. 1 doi:10.1128/microbiolspec.TNMI7-0019-2016
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Image of FIGURE 4
FIGURE 4

Schematic representation of three booster effect possibilities. (See text for discussion.)

Source: microbiolspec February 2017 vol. 5 no. 1 doi:10.1128/microbiolspec.TNMI7-0019-2016
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Tables

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TABLE 1

Criteria for tuberculin positivity, by risk group

Source: microbiolspec February 2017 vol. 5 no. 1 doi:10.1128/microbiolspec.TNMI7-0019-2016

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