1887
No metrics data to plot.
The attempt to load metrics for this article has failed.
The attempt to plot a graph for these metrics has failed.

Endocrine and Metabolic Aspects of Tuberculosis

MyBook is a cheap paperback edition of the original book and will be sold at uniform, low price.
Buy this Microbiology Spectrum Article
Price Non-Member $15.00
  • Authors: Christopher Vinnard1, Emily A. Blumberg2
  • Editor: David Schlossberg3
  • VIEW AFFILIATIONS HIDE AFFILIATIONS
    Affiliations: 1: The Public Health Research Institute Center and Department of Medicine, New Jersey Medical School, Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey, Newark, NJ 07103; 2: Division of Infectious Diseases, Department of Medicine, Perelman School of Medicine at the University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA 19104; 3: Philadelphia Health Department, Philadelphia, PA
  • Source: microbiolspec February 2017 vol. 5 no. 1 doi:10.1128/microbiolspec.TNMI7-0035-2016
  • Received 09 December 2016 Accepted 12 December 2016 Published 24 February 2017
  • Emily A. Blumberg, emily.blumberg@uphs.upenn.edu
image of Endocrine and Metabolic Aspects of Tuberculosis
    Preview this microbiology spectrum article:
    Zoom in
    Zoomout

    Endocrine and Metabolic Aspects of Tuberculosis, Page 1 of 2

    | /docserver/preview/fulltext/microbiolspec/5/1/TNMI7-0035-2016-1.gif /docserver/preview/fulltext/microbiolspec/5/1/TNMI7-0035-2016-2.gif
  • Abstract:

    Endocrine and metabolic derangements are infrequent in patients with tuberculosis, but they are important when they occur. The basis for these abnormalities is complex. While has been described to infect virtually every endocrine gland, the incidence of gland involvement is low, especially in the era of effective antituberculosis therapy. Furthermore, endocrine and metabolic abnormalities do not always reflect direct infection of the gland but may result from physiological response or as a consequence of therapy. Metabolic disease may also predispose patients to the development of active tuberculosis, particularly in the case of diabetes mellitus. While hormonal therapy may be necessary in some instances, frequently these endocrine complications do not require specific interventions other than antituberculous therapy itself. With the exception of diabetes mellitus, which will be covered elsewhere, this chapter reviews the endocrinologic and metabolic issues related to tuberculosis.

  • Citation: Vinnard C, Blumberg E. 2017. Endocrine and Metabolic Aspects of Tuberculosis. Microbiol Spectrum 5(1):TNMI7-0035-2016. doi:10.1128/microbiolspec.TNMI7-0035-2016.

Key Concept Ranking

Positron Emission Tomography
0.41432533
Magnetic Resonance Imaging
0.40894446
0.41432533

References

1. Guttman P. 1930. Addison’s disease: a statistical analysis of 566 cases and a study of pathology. Arch Pathol 10:742–745.[PubMed]
2. Betterle C, Morlin L. 2011. Autoimmune Addison’s disease. Endocr Dev 20:161–172.
3. Kannan CR. 1988. The Adrenal Gland, vol 2. Plenum Medical Book Company, New York, NY.
4. Lack EE, Kozakewich HPW. 1990. Embryology, developmental anatomy, and selected aspects of non-neoplastic pathology. In Lack EE (ed), Contemporary Issues in Surgical Pathology, vol 14. Pathology of the Adrenal Glands. Churchill Livingstone, New York, NY.
5. Lam KY, Lo CY. 2001. A critical examination of adrenal tuberculosis and a 28-year autopsy experience of active tuberculosis. Clin Endocrinol (Oxford) 54:633–639. [PubMed]
6. Alvarez S, McCabe WR. 1984. Extrapulmonary tuberculosis revisited: a review of experience at Boston City and other hospitals. Medicine (Baltimore) 63:25–55. [PubMed]
7. Benini F, Savarin T, Senna GE, Durigato S, Vettore L. 1990. Diagnostic and therapeutic problems in a case of adrenal tuberculosis and acute Addison’s disease. J Endocrinol Invest 13:597–600. [PubMed]
8. Keleştimur F, Ozbakir O, Sağlam A, Oztürk F, Yücesoy M. 1993. Acute adrenocortical failure due to tuberculosis. J Endocrinol Invest 16:281–284. [PubMed]
9. Cooper MS, Stewart PM. 2003. Corticosteroid insufficiency in acutely ill patients. N Engl J Med 348:727–734. [PubMed]
10. Bancos I, Hahner S, Tomlinson J, Arlt W. 2015. Diagnosis and management of adrenal insufficiency. Lancet Diabetes Endocrinol 3:216–226. [PubMed]
11. Beadsworth MB, van Oosterhout JJ, Diver MJ, Faragher EB, Shenkin A, Mwandumba HC, Khoo S, O’Dempsey T, Squire SB, Zijlstra EE. 2008. Hypoadrenalism is not associated with early mortality during tuberculosis treatment in Malawi. Int J Tuberc Lung Dis 12:314–318. [PubMed]
12. Kaplan FJ, Levitt NS, Soule SG. 2000. Primary hypoadrenalism assessed by the 1 microg ACTH test in hospitalized patients with active pulmonary tuberculosis. QJM 93:603–609. [PubMed]
13. Post FA, Soule SG, Willcox PA, Levitt NS. 1994. The spectrum of endocrine dysfunction in active pulmonary tuberculosis. Clin Endocrinol (Oxford) 40:367–371. [PubMed]
14. Francois Venter WD, Panz VR, Feldman C, Joffe BI. 2006. Adrenocortical function in hospitalised patients with active pulmonary tuberculosis receiving a rifampicin-based regimen—a pilot study. S Afr Med J 96:62–66. [PubMed]
15. Prasad GA, Sharma SK, Mohan A, Gupta N, Bajaj S, Saha PK, Misra NK, Kochupillai NP, Pande JN. 2000. Adrenocortical reserve and morphology in tuberculosis. Indian J Chest Dis Allied Sci 42:83–93. [PubMed]
16. Zargar AH, Sofi FA, Akhtar MA, Salahuddin M, Masoodi SR, Laway BA. 2001. Adrenocortical reserve in patients with active tuberculosis. J Pak Med Assoc 51:427–433. [PubMed]
17. Laway BA, Khan I, Shah BA, Choh NA, Bhat MA, Shah ZA. 2013. Pattern of adrenal morphology and function in pulmonary tuberculosis: response to treatment with antitubercular therapy. Clin Endocrinol (Oxford) 79:321–325. [PubMed]
18. Keleştimur F, Göktaş Z, Gülmez I, Unlühizarci K, Bayram F, Ozesmi M, Güven M, Tutuş A. 2000. Low dose (1 microg) adrenocorticotropin stimulation test in the evaluation of hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal axis in patients with active pulmonary tuberculosis. J Endocrinol Invest 23:235–239. [PubMed]
19. Hawken MP, Ojoo JC, Morris JS, Kariuki EW, Githui WA, Juma ES, Gathua SN, Kimari JN, Thiong’o LN, Raynes JG, Broadbent P, Gilks CF, Otieno LS, McAdam KP. 1996. No increased prevalence of adrenocortical insufficiency in human immunodeficiency virus-associated tuberculosis. Tuber Lung Dis 77:444–448.
20. Osborne TM, Sage MJ. 1988. Disseminated tuberculosis causing acute adrenal failure, C.T. findings with post mortem correlation. Australas Radiol 32:394–397. [PubMed]
21. Wilkins EG, Hnizdo E, Cope A. 1989. Addisonian crisis induced by treatment with rifampicin. Tubercle 70:69–73. [PubMed]
22. Huang YC, Tang YL, Zhang XM, Zeng NL, Li R, Chen TW. 2015. Evaluation of primary adrenal insufficiency secondary to tuberculous adrenalitis with computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging: current status. World J Radiol 7:336–342. [PubMed]
23. Buxi TB, Vohra RB, Sujatha, Byotra SP, Mukherji S, Daniel M. 1992. CT in adrenal enlargement due to tuberculosis: a review of literature with five new cases. Clin Imaging 16:102–108. [PubMed]
24. Doppman JL, Gill JR, Jr, Nienhuis AW, Earll JM, Long JA, Jr. 1982. CT findings in Addison’s disease. J Comput Assist Tomogr 6:757–761. [PubMed]
25. Vita JA, Silverberg SJ, Goland RS, Austin JH, Knowlton AI. 1985. Clinical clues to the cause of Addison’s disease. Am J Med 78:461–466. [PubMed]
26. Guo YK, Yang ZG, Li Y, Ma ES, Deng YP, Min PQ, Yin LL, Hu J, Zhang XC, Chen TW. 2007. Addison’s disease due to adrenal tuberculosis: contrast-enhanced CT features and clinical duration correlation. Eur J Radiol 62:126–131. [PubMed]
27. Zhang XC, Yang ZG, Li Y, Min PQ, Guo YK, Deng YP, Dong ZH. 2008. Addison’s disease due to adrenal tuberculosis: MRI features. Abdom Imaging 33:689–694. [PubMed]
28. Wang L, Yang J. 2008. Tuberculous Addison’s disease mimics malignancy in FDG-PET images. Intern Med 47:1755–1756. [PubMed]
29. Kumar R, Dey P. 2016. Fine-needle aspiration cytology of non-neoplastic adrenal pathology. Diagn Cytopathol 44:472–476. [PubMed]
30. Gill P, Coatsworth NR, Gundara JS, Hugh TJ, Samra JS. 2013. Tuberculosis: experience in a low endemic area Australian tertiary hospital. World J Surg 37:984–990. [PubMed]
31. Nahid P, Dorman SE, Alipanah N, Barry PM, Brozek JL, Cattamanchi A, Chaisson LH, Chaisson RE, Daley CL, Grzemska M, Higashi JM, Ho CS, Hopewell PC, Keshavjee SA, Lienhardt C, Menzies R, Merrifield C, Narita M, O’Brien R, Peloquin CA, Raftery A, Saukkonen J, Schaaf HS, Sotgiu G, Starke JR, Migliori GB, Vernon A. 2016. Official American Thoracic Society/Centers for Disease Control and Prevention/Infectious Diseases Society of America clinical practice guidelines: treatment of drug-susceptible tuberculosis. Clin Infect Dis 63:e147–e195. [PubMed]
32. Edwards OM, Courtenay-Evans RJ, Galley JM, Hunter J, Tait AD. 1974. Changes in cortisol metabolism following rifampicin therapy. Lancet ii:548–551.
33. Keven K, Uysal AR, Erdogan G. 1998. Adrenal function during tuberculous infection and effects of antituberculosis treatment on endogenous and exogenous steroids. Int J Tuberc Lung Dis 2:419–424. [PubMed]
34. Kyriazopoulou V, Parparousi O, Vagenakis AG. 1984. Rifampicin-induced adrenal crisis in Addisonian patients receiving corticosteroid replacement therapy. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 59:1204–1206. [PubMed]
35. Schulte HM, Mönig H, Benker G, Pagel H, Reinwein D, Ohnhaus EE. 1987. Pharmacokinetics of aldosterone in patients with Addison’s disease: effect of rifampicin treatment on glucocorticoid and mineralocorticoid metabolism. Clin Endocrinol (Oxford) 27:655–662.
36. Yokoyama T, Toda R, Kimura Y, Mikagi M, Aizawa H. 2009. Addison’s disease induced by miliary tuberculosis and the administration of rifampicin. Intern Med 48:1297–1300. [PubMed]
37. Annear TD, Baker GP. 1961. Tuberculous Addison’s disease. A case apparently cured by chemotherapy. Lancet ii:577–578. [PubMed]
38. Nordin BE. 1955. Addison’s disease with partial recovery. Proc R Soc Med 48:1024–1026. [PubMed]
39. Al-Mamari A, Balkhair A, Gujjar A, Ben Abid F, Al-Farqani A, Al-Hamadani A, Jain R. 2009. A case of disseminated tuberculosis with adrenal insufficiency. Sultan Qaboos Univ Med J 9:324–327. [PubMed]
40. Bhatia E, Jain SK, Gupta RK, Pandey R. 1998. Tuberculous Addison’s disease: lack of normalization of adrenocortical function after anti-tuberculous chemotherapy. Clin Endocrinol (Oxford) 48:355–359.
41. Chuang TJ, Liu JS, Hung YJ, Hsieh CH. 2015. Thyroid tuberculosis. QJM 108:47–48. [PubMed]
42. Slavin RE, Walsh TJ, Pollack AD. 1980. Late generalized tuberculosis: a clinical pathologic analysis and comparison of 100 cases in the preantibiotic and antibiotic eras. Medicine (Baltimore) 59:352–366.
43. Das DK, Pant CS, Chachra KL, Gupta AK. 1992. Fine needle aspiration cytology diagnosis of tuberculous thyroiditis. A report of eight cases. Acta Cytol 36:517–522. [PubMed]
44. Mondal A, Patra DK. 1995. Efficacy of fine needle aspiration cytology in the diagnosis of tuberculosis of the thyroid gland: a study of 18 cases. J Laryngol Otol 109:36–38. [PubMed]
45. Rankin FW, Graham AS. 1932. Tuberculosis of the thyroid gland. Ann Surg 96:625–648. [PubMed]
46. El Malki HO, Mohsine R, Benkhraba K, Amahzoune M, Benkabbou A, El Absi M, Ifrine L, Belkouchi A, Balafrej S. 2006. Thyroid tuberculosis: diagnosis and treatment. Chemotherapy 52:46–49. [PubMed]
47. Gupta N, Sharma K, Barwad A, Sharma M, Rajwanshi A, Dutta P, Sharma A. 2011. Thyroid tuberculosis—role of PCR in diagnosis of a rare entity. Cytopathology 22:392–396. [PubMed]
48. Ozekinci S, Mizrak B, Saruhan G, Senturk S. 2009. Histopathologic diagnosis of thyroid tuberculosis. Thyroid 19:983–986. [PubMed]
49. Khan EM, Haque I, Pandey R, Mishra SK, Sharma AK. 1993. Tuberculosis of the thyroid gland: a clinicopathological profile of four cases and review of the literature. Aust N Z J Surg 63:807–810. [PubMed]
50. Barnes P, Weatherstone R. 1979. Tuberculosis of the thyroid: two case reports. Br J Dis Chest 73:187–191. [PubMed]
51. Johnson AG, Phillips ME, Thomas RJ. 1973. Acute tuberculous abscess of the thyroid gland. Br J Surg 60:668–669. [PubMed]
52. Kapoor VK, Subramani K, Das SK, Mukhopadhyay AK, Chattopadhyay TK. 1985. Tuberculosis of the thyroid gland associated with thyrotoxicosis. Postgrad Med J 61:339–340. [PubMed]
53. Berger SA, Zonszein J, Villamena P, Mittman N. 1983. Infectious diseases of the thyroid gland. Rev Infect Dis 5:108–122. [PubMed]
54. Emery P. 1980. Tuberculous abscess of the thyroid with recurrent laryngeal nerve palsy: case report and review of the literature. J Laryngol Otol 94:553–558. [PubMed]
55. Baidya A, Singha A, Bhattacharjee R, Dalal BS. 2015. Tuberculosis of the thyroid gland: two case reports. Oxf Med Case Rep 2015:262–264. [PubMed]
56. Nieuwland Y, Tan KY, Elte JW. 1992. Miliary tuberculosis presenting with thyrotoxicosis. Postgrad Med J 68:677–679. [PubMed]
57. Bulbuloglu E, Ciralik H, Okur E, Ozdemir G, Ezberci F, Cetinkaya A. 2006. Tuberculosis of the thyroid gland: review of the literature. World J Surg 30:149–155. [PubMed]
58. Kang BC, Lee SW, Shim SS, Choi HY, Baek SY, Cheon YJ. 2000. US and CT findings of tuberculosis of the thyroid: three case reports. Clin Imaging 24:283–286. [PubMed]
59. Madhusudhan KS, Seith A, Khadgawat R, Das P, Mathur S. 2009. Tuberculosis of the thyroid gland: magnetic resonance imaging appearances. Singapore Med J 50:e235–e238. [PubMed]
60. Ilias I, Tselebis A, Boufas A, Panoutsopoulos G, Filippou N, Christakopoulou J. 1998. Pulmonary tuberculosis and its therapy do not significantly affect thyroid function tests. Int J Clin Pract 52:227–228. [PubMed]
61. Chow CC, Mak TW, Chan CH, Cockram CS. 1995. Euthyroid sick syndrome in pulmonary tuberculosis before and after treatment. Ann Clin Biochem 32:385–391. [PubMed]
62. Munkner T. 1969. Studies on goitre due to para-aminosalicylic acid. Scand J Respir Dis 50:212–226. [PubMed]
63. Chhabra N, Gupta N, Aseri ML, Mathur SK, Dixit R. 2011. Analysis of thyroid function tests in patients of multidrug resistance tuberculosis undergoing treatment. J Pharmacol Pharmacother 2:282–285. [PubMed]
64. Munivenkatappa S, Anil S, Naik B, Volkmann T, Sagili KD, Akshatha JS, Buggi S, Sharada MA, Kulkarni S, Chadha VK, Moonan PK. 2016. Drug-induced hypothyroidism during anti-tuberculosis treatment of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis: notes from the field. J Tuberc Res 4:105–110. [PubMed]
65. Thee S, Zöllner EW, Willemse M, Hesseling AC, Magdorf K, Schaaf HS. 2011. Abnormal thyroid function tests in children on ethionamide treatment. Int J Tuberc Lung Dis 15:1191–1193, i. [PubMed]
66. Ohnhaus EE, Studer H. 1983. A link between liver microsomal enzyme activity and thyroid hormone metabolism in man. Br J Clin Pharmacol 15:71–76. [PubMed]
67. Kim DL, Song KH, Lee JH, Lee KY, Kim SK. 2007. Rifampin-induced hypothyroidism without underlying thyroid disease. Thyroid 17:793–795. [PubMed]
68. Kirshbaum JD, Levy HA. 1941. Tuberculoma of hypophysis with insufficiency of anterior lobe: a clinical and pathological study of two cases. Arch Intern Med 68:1095–1104.
69. Berger SA, Edberg SC, David G. 1986. Infectious disease in the sella turcica. Rev Infect Dis 8:747–755. [PubMed]
70. Ranjan A, Chandy MJ. 1994. Intrasellar tuberculoma. Br J Neurosurg 8:179–185. [PubMed]
71. Rickards AG, Harvey PW. 1954. Giant-cell granuloma and the other pituitary granulomata. Q J Med 23:425–439. [PubMed]
72. Delsedime M, Aguggia M, Cantello R, Chiado Cutin I, Nicola G, Torta R, Gilli M. 1988. Isolated hypophyseal tuberculoma: case report. Clin Neuropathol 7:311–313. [PubMed]
73. Brooks MH, Dumlao JS, Bronsky D, Waldstein SS. 1973. Hypophysial tuberculoma with hypopituitarism. Am J Med 54:777–781. [PubMed]
74. Srisukh S, Tanpaibule T, Kiertiburanakul S, Boongird A, Wattanatranon D, Panyaping T, Sriphrapradang C. 2016. Pituitary tuberculoma: a consideration in the differential diagnosis in a patient manifesting with pituitary apoplexy-like syndrome. IDCases 5:63–66. [PubMed]
75. Lam KS, Sham MM, Tam SC, Ng MM, Ma HT. 1993. Hypopituitarism after tuberculous meningitis in childhood. Ann Intern Med 118:701–706. [PubMed]
76. Sherman BM, Di Chiro G. 1971. Postmeningitic selective hypopituitarism with suprasellar calcification. Arch Intern Med 128:600–604. [PubMed]
77. Beatrice AM, Selvan C, Mukhopadhyay S. 2013. Pituitary dysfunction in infective brain diseases. Indian J Endocrinol Metab 17(Suppl 3):S608–S611. [PubMed]
78. Dhanwal DK, Vyas A, Sharma A, Saxena A. 2010. Hypothalamic pituitary abnormalities in tubercular meningitis at the time of diagnosis. Pituitary 13:304–310. [PubMed]
79. Flannery MT, Pattani S, Wallach PM, Warner E. 1993. Case report: hypothalamic tuberculoma associated with secondary panhypopituitarism. Am J Med Sci 306:101–103. [PubMed]
80. Sharma MC, Arora R, Mahapatra AK, Sarat-Chandra P, Gaikwad SB, Sarkar C. 2000. Intrasellar tuberculoma—an enigmatic pituitary infection: a series of 18 cases. Clin Neurol Neurosurg 102:72–77.
81. Stalldecker G, Diez S, Carabelli A, Reynoso R, Rey R, Hofmann N, Beresñak A. 2002. Pituitary stalk tuberculoma. Pituitary 5:155–162. [PubMed]
82. Tanimoto K, Imbe A, Shishikura K, Imbe H, Hiraiwa T, Miyata T, Ikeda N, Kuroiwa T, Terasaki J, Hanafusa T. 2015. Reversible hypopituitarism with pituitary tuberculoma. Intern Med 54:1247–1251. [PubMed]
83. Chung DK, Hubbard WW. 1969. Hyponatremia in untreated active pulmonary tuberculosis. Am Rev Respir Dis 99:595–597. [PubMed]
84. Morris CD, Bird AR, Nell H. 1989. The haematological and biochemical changes in severe pulmonary tuberculosis. Q J Med 73:1151–1159. [PubMed]
85. Jonaidi Jafari N, Izadi M, Sarrafzadeh F, Heidari A, Ranjbar R, Saburi A. 2013. Hyponatremia due to pulmonary tuberculosis: review of 200 cases. Nephrourol Mon 5:687–691. [PubMed]
86. Ellison DH, Berl T. 2007. Clinical practice. The syndrome of inappropriate antidiuresis. N Engl J Med 356:2064–2072. [PubMed]
87. Celik US, Alabaz D, Yildizdas D, Alhan E, Kocabas E, Ulutan S. 2005. Cerebral salt wasting in tuberculous meningitis: treatment with fludrocortisone. Ann Trop Paediatr 25:297–302. [PubMed]
88. Zaki SA, Lad V, Shanbag P. 2012. Cerebral salt wasting following tuberculous meningoencephalitis in an infant. Ann Indian Acad Neurol 15:148–150. [PubMed]
89. Ahmad S, Majid Z, Mehdi M, Mubarak M. 2016. Cerebral salt wasting syndrome due to tuberculous meningitis; a case report. J Renal Inj Prev 5:53–54. [PubMed]
90. Weiss H, Katz S. 1965. Hyponatremia resulting from apparently inappropriate secretion of antidiuretic hormone in patients with pulmonary tuberculosis. Am Rev Respir Dis 92:609–616. [PubMed]
91. Anderson RJ, Pluss RG, Berns AS, Jackson JT, Arnold PE, Schrier RW, McDonald KE. 1978. Mechanism of effect of hypoxia on renal water excretion. J Clin Invest 62:769–777. [PubMed]
92. Wong LL, Verbalis JG. 2002. Systemic diseases associated with disorders of water homeostasis. Endocrinol Metab Clin North Am 31:121–140. [PubMed]
93. Hill AR, Uribarri J, Mann J, Berl T. 1990. Altered water metabolism in tuberculosis: role of vasopressin. Am J Med 88:357–364. [PubMed]
94. Lee P, Ho KK. 2010. Hyponatremia in pulmonary TB: evidence of ectopic antidiuretic hormone production. Chest 137:207–208. [PubMed]
95. Cotton MF, Donald PR, Schoeman JF, Aalbers C, Van Zyl LE, Lombard C. 1991. Plasma arginine vasopressin and the syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion in tuberculous meningitis. Pediatr Infect Dis J 10:837–842. [PubMed]
96. Roca B, Tornador N, Tornador E. 2008. Presentation and outcome of tuberculous meningitis in adults in the province of Castellon, Spain: a retrospective study. Epidemiol Infect 136:1455–1462. [PubMed]
97. Cotton MF, Donald PR, Schoeman JF, Van Zyl LE, Aalbers C, Lombard CJ. 1993. Raised intracranial pressure, the syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion, and arginine vasopressin in tuberculous meningitis. Childs Nerv Syst 9:10–15; discussion, 15–16. [PubMed]
98. Palmer BF. 2003. Hyponatremia in patients with central nervous system disease: SIADH versus CSW. Trends Endocrinol Metab 14:182–187. [PubMed]
99. Dass R, Nagaraj R, Murlidharan J, Singhi S. 2003. Hyponatraemia and hypovolemic shock with tuberculous meningitis. Indian J Pediatr 70:995–997. [PubMed]
100. Ti LK, Kang SC, Cheong KF. 1998. Acute hyponatraemia secondary to cerebral salt wasting syndrome in a patient with tuberculous meningitis. Anaesth Intensive Care 26:420–423. [PubMed]
101. Camous L, Valin N, Zaragoza JL, Bourry E, Caumes E, Deray G, Izzedine H. 2008. Hyponatraemic syndrome in a patient with tuberculosis—always the adrenals? Nephrol Dial Transplant 23:393–395. [PubMed]
102. Nagotkar L, Shanbag P, Dasarwar N. 2008. Cerebral salt wasting syndrome following neurosurgical intervention in tuberculous meningitis. Indian Pediatr 45:598–601. [PubMed]
103. Shek CC, Natkunam A, Tsang V, Cockram CS, Swaminathan R. 1990. Incidence, causes and mechanism of hypercalcaemia in a hospital population in Hong Kong. Q J Med 77:1277–1285. [PubMed]
104. Kitrou MP, Phytou-Pallikari A, Tzannes SE, Virvidakis K, Mountokalakis TD. 1982. Hypercalcemia in active pulmonary tuberculosis. Ann Intern Med 96:255. [PubMed]
105. Liam CK, Lim KH, Srinivas P, Poi PJ. 1998. Hypercalcaemia in patients with newly diagnosed tuberculosis in Malaysia. Int J Tuberc Lung Dis 2:818–823. [PubMed]
106. Roussos A, Lagogianni I, Gonis A, Ilias I, Kazi D, Patsopoulos D, Philippou N. 2001. Hypercalcaemia in Greek patients with tuberculosis before the initiation of anti-tuberculosis treatment. Respir Med 95:187–190. [PubMed]
107. Sharma SC. 1981. Serum calcium in pulmonary tuberculosis. Postgrad Med J 57:694–696. [PubMed]
108. British Thoracic Association. 1981. A controlled trial of six months chemotherapy in pulmonary tuberculosis. First report: results during chemotherapy. Br J Dis Chest 75:141–153.
109. Fuss M, Karmali R, Pepersack T, Bergans A, Dierckx P, Prigogine T, Bergmann P, Corvilain J. 1988. Are tuberculous patients at a great risk from hypercalcemia? Q J Med 69:869–878. [PubMed]
110. Keleştimur F, Güven M, Ozesmi M, Paşaoğlu H. 1996. Does tuberculosis really cause hypercalcemia? J Endocrinol Invest 19:678–681. [PubMed]
111. Shai F, Baker RK, Addrizzo JR, Wallach S. 1972. Hypercalcemia in mycobacterial infection. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 34:251–256. [PubMed]
112. Braman SS, Goldman AL, Schwarz MI. 1973. Steroid-responsive hypercalcemia in disseminated bone tuberculosis. Arch Intern Med 132:269–271. [PubMed]
113. Lin SM, Tsai SL, Chan CS. 1994. Hypercalcemia in tuberculous peritonitis without active pulmonary tuberculosis. Am J Gastroenterol 89:2249–2250. [PubMed]
114. Wyllie JP, Chippindale AJ, Cant AJ. 1993. Miliary tuberculosis and symptomatic hypercalcemia. Pediatr Infect Dis J 12:780–782. [PubMed]
115. Need AG, Phillips PJ. 1979. Pulmonary tuberculosis and hypercalcaemia. Ann Intern Med 91:652–653.
116. Ferrand RA, Elgalib A, Newsholme W, Childerhouse A, Edwards SG, Miller RF. 2006. Hypercalcaemia complicating immune reconstitution in an HIV-infected patient with disseminated tuberculosis. Int J STD AIDS 17:349–350. [PubMed]
117. Lawn SD, Macallan DC. 2004. Hypercalcemia: a manifestation of immune reconstitution complicating tuberculosis in an HIV-infected person. Clin Infect Dis 38:154–155. [PubMed]
118. Abbasi AA, Chemplavil JK, Farah S, Muller BF, Arnstein AR. 1979. Hypercalcemia in active pulmonary tuberculosis. Ann Intern Med 90:324–328. [PubMed]
119. Felsenfeld AJ, Drezner MK, Llach F. 1986. Hypercalcemia and elevated calcitriol in a maintenance dialysis patient with tuberculosis. Arch Intern Med 146:1941–1945. [PubMed]
120. Gkonos PJ, London R, Hendler ED. 1984. Hypercalcemia and elevated 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D levels in a patient with end-stage renal disease and active tuberculosis. N Engl J Med 311:1683–1685. [PubMed]
121. Isaacs RD, Nicholson GI, Holdaway IM. 1987. Miliary tuberculosis with hypercalcaemia and raised vitamin D concentrations. Thorax 42:555–556. [PubMed]
122. Peces R, Alvarez J. 1987. Hypercalcemia and elevated 1,25(OH)2D3 levels in a dialysis patient with disseminated tuberculosis. Nephron 46:377–379. [PubMed]
123. Saggese G, Bertelloni S, Baroncelli GI, Di Nero G. 1993. Ketoconazole decreases the serum ionized calcium and 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D levels in tuberculosis-associated hypercalcemia. Am J Dis Child 147:270–273.
124. Hung YM, Chan HH, Chung HM. 2004. Tuberculous peritonitis in different dialysis patients in Southern Taiwan. Am J Trop Med Hyg 70:532–535. [PubMed]
125. Lee CT, Hung KH, Lee CH, Eng HL, Chen JB. 2002. Chronic hypercalcemia as the presenting feature of tuberculous peritonitis in a hemodialysis patient. Am J Nephrol 22:555–559. [PubMed]
126. Yonemura K, Ohtake T, Matsushima H, Fujigaki Y, Hishida A. 2004. High ratio of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 to parathyroid hormone in serum of tuberculous patients with end-stage renal disease. Clin Nephrol 62:202–207. [PubMed]
127. Cadranel J, Hance AJ, Milleron B, Paillard F, Akoun GM, Garabedian M. 1988. Vitamin D metabolism in tuberculosis. Production of 1,25(OH)2D3 by cells recovered by bronchoalveolar lavage and the role of this metabolite in calcium homeostasis. Am Rev Respir Dis 138:984–989. [PubMed]
128. Tsuganezawa H, Kobayashi K, Iyori M, Araki T, Koizumi A, Watanabe S, Kaneko A, Fukao T, Monkawa T, Yoshida T, Kim DK, Kanai Y, Endou H, Hayashi M, Saruta T. 2001. A new member of the HCO3(−) transporter superfamily is an apical anion exchanger of beta-intercalated cells in the kidney. J Biol Chem 276:8180–8189. [PubMed]
129. Chang K, Lee SJ, Cheong I, Billiar TR, Chung HT, Han JA, Kwon YG, Ha KS, Kim YM. 2004. Nitric oxide suppresses inducible nitric oxide synthase expression by inhibiting post-translational modification of IkappaB. Exp Mol Med 36:311–324. [PubMed]
130. Facchini L, Venturini E, Galli L, de Martino M, Chiappini E. 2015. Vitamin D and tuberculosis: a review on a hot topic. J Chemother 27:128–138. [PubMed]
131. Rockett KA, Brookes R, Udalova I, Vidal V, Hill AV, Kwiatkowski D. 1998. 1,25-Dihydroxyvitamin D3 induces nitric oxide synthase and suppresses growth of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in a human macrophage-like cell line. Infect Immun 66:5314–5321. [PubMed]
132. Liu PT, Stenger S, Li H, Wenzel L, Tan BH, Krutzik SR, Ochoa MT, Schauber J, Wu K, Meinken C, Kamen DL, Wagner M, Bals R, Steinmeyer A, Zügel U, Gallo RL, Eisenberg D, Hewison M, Hollis BW, Adams JS, Bloom BR, Modlin RL. 2006. Toll-like receptor triggering of a vitamin D-mediated human antimicrobial response. Science 311:1770–1773. [PubMed]
133. Coussens AK, Wilkinson RJ, Hanifa Y, Nikolayevskyy V, Elkington PT, Islam K, Timms PM, Venton TR, Bothamley GH, Packe GE, Darmalingam M, Davidson RN, Milburn HJ, Baker LV, Barker RD, Mein CA, Bhaw-Rosun L, Nuamah R, Young DB, Drobniewski FA, Griffiths CJ, Martineau AR. 2012. Vitamin D accelerates resolution of inflammatory responses during tuberculosis treatment. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 109:15449–15454. [PubMed]
134. Davies PD, Church HA, Brown RC, Woodhead JS. 1987. Raised serum calcium in tuberculosis patients in Africa. Eur J Respir Dis 71:341–344. [PubMed]
135. Sullivan JN, Salmon WD, Jr. 1987. Hypercalcemia in active pulmonary tuberculosis. South Med J 80:572–576. [PubMed]
136. Grobler L, Nagpal S, Sudarsanam TD, Sinclair D. 2016. Nutritional supplements for people being treated for active tuberculosis. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2016(6):CD006086. [PubMed]
137. Brodie MJ, Boobis AR, Hillyard CJ, Abeyasekera G, Stevenson JC, MacIntyre I, Park BK. 1982. Effect of rifampicin and isoniazid on vitamin D metabolism. Clin Pharmacol Ther 32:525–530. [PubMed]
138. Jick SS, Lieberman ES, Rahman MU, Choi HK. 2006. Glucocorticoid use, other associated factors, and the risk of tuberculosis. Arthritis Rheum 55:19–26. [PubMed]
139. Lee CH, Lee MC, Shu CC, Lim CS, Wang JY, Lee LN, Chao KM. 2013. Risk factors for pulmonary tuberculosis in patients with chronic obstructive airway disease in Taiwan: a nationwide cohort study. BMC Infect Dis 13:194. [PubMed]
140. Andonopoulos AP, Safridi C, Karokis D, Bounas A. 1998. Is a purified protein derivative skin test and subsequent antituberculous chemoprophylaxis really necessary in systemic rheumatic disease patients receiving corticosteroids? Clin Rheumatol 17:181–185. [PubMed]
141. Kim HA, Yoo CD, Baek HJ, Lee EB, Ahn C, Han JS, Kim S, Lee JS, Choe KW, Song YW. 1998. Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection in a corticosteroid-treated rheumatic disease patient population. Clin Exp Rheumatol 16:9–13. [PubMed]
142. Bahçeciler NN, Nuhoglu Y, Nursoy MA, Kodalli N, Barlan IB, Başaran MM. 2000. Inhaled corticosteroid therapy is safe in tuberculin-positive asthmatic children. Pediatr Infect Dis J 19:215–218. [PubMed]
143. Schatz M, Patterson R, Kloner R, Falk J. 1976. The prevalence of tuberculosis and positive tuberculin skin tests in a steroid-treated asthmatic population. Ann Intern Med 84:261–265. [PubMed]
144. Shaikh WA. 1992. Pulmonary tuberculosis in patients treated with inhaled beclomethasone. Allergy 47:327–330. [PubMed]
145. Jones BE, Taikwel EK, Mercado AL, Sian SU, Barnes PF. 1994. Tuberculosis in patients with HIV infection who receive corticosteroids for presumed Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 149:1686–1688. [PubMed]
146. Martos A, Podzamczer D, Martinez-Lacasa J, Rufi G, Santin M, Gudiol F. 1995. Steroids do not enhance the risk of developing tuberculosis or other AIDS-related diseases in HIV-infected patients treated for Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia. AIDS 9:1037–1041. [PubMed]
147. Bovornkitti S, Kangsadal P, Sathirapat P, Oonsombatti P. 1960. Reversion and reconversion rate of tuberculin skin reactions in correction with the use of prednisone. Dis Chest 38:51–55. [PubMed]
148. Truelove LH. 1957. Enhancement of Mantoux reaction coincident with treatment with cortisone and prednisolone. BMJ 2:1135–1137. [PubMed]
149. Clifford V, Zufferey C, Germano S, Ryan N, Leslie D, Street A, Denholm J, Tebruegge M, Curtis N. 2015. The impact of anti-tuberculous antibiotics and corticosteroids on cytokine production in QuantiFERON-TB Gold In Tube assays. Tuberculosis (Edinburgh) 95:343–349. [PubMed]
150. MacGregor RR, Sheagren JN, Lipsett MB, Wolff SM. 1969. Alternate-day prednisone therapy. Evaluation of delayed hypersensitivity responses, control of disease and steroid side effects. N Engl J Med 280:1427–1431. [PubMed]
151. American Thoracic Society. 2000. Targeted tuberculin testing and treatment of latent tuberculosis infection. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 161:S221–S247. [PubMed]
152. Busey JF, Fenger EPK, Hepper NG, Kent DC, Kilburn KH, Matthews LW, Simpson DG, Grzybowski S. 1968. Adrenal corticosteroids and tuberculosis. A statement by the Committee on Therapy. Am Rev Respir Dis 97:484–485.
153. Mazurek GH, Jereb J, Vernon A, LoBue P, Goldberg S, Castro K. 2010. Updated guidelines for using interferon gamma release assays to detect Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection—United States, 2010. MMWR Recommend Rep 59(RR-5):1–25. [PubMed]
microbiolspec.TNMI7-0035-2016.citations
cm/5/1
content/journal/microbiolspec/10.1128/microbiolspec.TNMI7-0035-2016
Loading

Citations loading...

Loading

Article metrics loading...

/content/journal/microbiolspec/10.1128/microbiolspec.TNMI7-0035-2016
2017-02-24
2017-11-23

Abstract:

Endocrine and metabolic derangements are infrequent in patients with tuberculosis, but they are important when they occur. The basis for these abnormalities is complex. While has been described to infect virtually every endocrine gland, the incidence of gland involvement is low, especially in the era of effective antituberculosis therapy. Furthermore, endocrine and metabolic abnormalities do not always reflect direct infection of the gland but may result from physiological response or as a consequence of therapy. Metabolic disease may also predispose patients to the development of active tuberculosis, particularly in the case of diabetes mellitus. While hormonal therapy may be necessary in some instances, frequently these endocrine complications do not require specific interventions other than antituberculous therapy itself. With the exception of diabetes mellitus, which will be covered elsewhere, this chapter reviews the endocrinologic and metabolic issues related to tuberculosis.

Highlighted Text: Show | Hide
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

Supplemental Material

No supplementary material available for this content.

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Please check the format of the address you have entered.
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error