1887
No metrics data to plot.
The attempt to load metrics for this article has failed.
The attempt to plot a graph for these metrics has failed.

Tuberculosis—a World Health Organization Perspective

MyBook is a cheap paperback edition of the original book and will be sold at uniform, low price.
Buy this Microbiology Spectrum Article
Price Non-Member $15.00
  • Authors: Giovanni Sotgiu1, Giorgia Sulis2, Alberto Matteelli3
  • Editor: David Schlossberg4
  • VIEW AFFILIATIONS HIDE AFFILIATIONS
    Affiliations: 1: Clinical Epidemiology and Medical Statistics Unit, Department of Biomedical Sciences, University of Sassari, Sassari 07100, Italy; 2: Department of Infectious and Tropical Diseases, WHO Collaborating Centre for TB/HIV and TB Elimination, University of Brescia, Brescia 25123, Italy; 3: Department of Infectious and Tropical Diseases, WHO Collaborating Centre for TB/HIV and TB Elimination, University of Brescia, Brescia 25123, Italy; 4: Philadelphia Health Department, Philadelphia, PA
  • Source: microbiolspec February 2017 vol. 5 no. 1 doi:10.1128/microbiolspec.TNMI7-0036-2016
  • Received 15 December 2016 Accepted 19 December 2016 Published 10 February 2017
  • Giovanni Sotgiu, gsotgiu@uniss.it
image of Tuberculosis—a World Health Organization Perspective
    Preview this microbiology spectrum article:
    Zoom in
    Zoomout

    Tuberculosis—a World Health Organization Perspective, Page 1 of 2

    | /docserver/preview/fulltext/microbiolspec/5/1/TNMI7-0036-2016-1.gif /docserver/preview/fulltext/microbiolspec/5/1/TNMI7-0036-2016-2.gif
  • Abstract:

    Tuberculosis (TB) is an important cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. The World Health Organization (WHO) has implemented and scaled-up three important global public health strategies (i.e., DOTS, Stop TB, and End TB) to improve the international scenario. Their epidemiological impact was relevant, as they decreased the number of potential new cases of disease and death. However, the emergence and spread of TB/HIV coinfection and multidrug-resistant TB have hindered the progress towards the elimination of TB by 2050. More efforts are required to increase the global annual decline of the TB incidence rate. Political commitment is necessary, with global and national strategies oriented to the adoption and adaptation of the international, evidence-based recommendations on diagnosis, treatment, and prevention. Research and development activities should be planned to improve the current tools adopted to fight the disease. New rapid diagnostics, an updated and effective therapeutic armamentarium, and an effective preventive vaccine could represent the solution to address the current epidemiological threats.

  • Citation: Sotgiu G, Sulis G, Matteelli A. 2017. Tuberculosis—a World Health Organization Perspective. Microbiol Spectrum 5(1):TNMI7-0036-2016. doi:10.1128/microbiolspec.TNMI7-0036-2016.

Key Concept Ranking

Clinical and Public Health
1.0241154
Mycobacterium tuberculosis
0.44917345
1.0241154

References

1. Dye C, Maher D, Weil D, Espinal M, Raviglione M. 2006. Targets for global tuberculosis control. Int J Tuberc Lung Dis 10:460–462. [PubMed]
2. World Health Organization. 2016. Global Tuberculosis Report 2016. WHO/HTM/TB/2016.13. World Health Organization, Geneva, Switzerland.
3. D’Ambrosio L, Dara M, Tadolini M, Centis R, Sotgiu G, van der Werf MJ, Gaga M, Cirillo D, Spanevello A, Raviglione M, Blasi F, Migliori GB, European national programme representatives. 2014. Tuberculosis elimination: theory and practice in Europe. Eur Respir J 43:1410–1420. [PubMed]
4. Lönnroth K, et al. 2015. Towards tuberculosis elimination: an action framework for low-incidence countries. Eur Respir J 45:928–952. [PubMed]
5. Raviglione MC, Uplekar MW. 2006. WHO’s new Stop TB strategy. Lancet 367:952–955. [PubMed]
6. World Health Organization. 2006. The Stop TB Strategy: Building On and Enhancing DOTS To Meet the Millennium Development Goals. WHO/HTM/TB/2006.368. World Health Organization, Geneva, Switzerland.
7. World Health Organization. 2008. The Global Burden of Disease: 2004 Update. World Health Organization, Geneva, Switzerland.
8. Dye C, Scheele S, Dolin P, Pathania V, Raviglione MC. 1999. Consensus statement. Global burden of tuberculosis: estimated incidence, prevalence, and mortality by country. WHO Global Surveillance and Monitoring Project. JAMA 282:677–686. [PubMed]
9. Raviglione MC, Dye C, Schmidt S, Kochi A. 1997. Assessment of worldwide tuberculosis control. WHO Global Surveillance and Monitoring Project. Lancet 350:624–629.
10. Pai M, Behr MA, Dowdy D, Dheda K, Divangahi M, Boehme CC, Ginsberg A, Swaminathan S, Spigelman M, Getahun H, Menzies D, Raviglione M. 2016. Tuberculosis. Nat Rev Dis Primers 2:16076. [PubMed]
11. World Health Organization. 2009. Global Tuberculosis Control: Epidemiology, Strategy, Financing. WHO/HTM/TB/2009.411. World Health Organization, Geneva, Switzerland.
12. Daley CL, Small PM, Schecter GF, Schoolnik GK, McAdam RA, Jacobs WR, Jr, Hopewell PC. 1992. An outbreak of tuberculosis with accelerated progression among persons infected with the human immunodeficiency virus. An analysis using restriction-fragment-length polymorphisms. N Engl J Med 326:231–235.
13. Di Perri G, et al. 1989. Nosocomial epidemic of active tuberculosis among HIV-infected patients. Lancet 2:1502–1504. [PubMed]
14. World Health Organization. 2002. A Strategic Framework To Decrease the Burden of TB/HIV. WHO/CDS/TB/2002.296. World Health Organization, Geneva, Switzerland.
15. World Health Organization. 2004. Interim Policy on Collaborative TB/HIV Activities. WHO/HTM/TB/2004.330. World Health Organization, Geneva, Switzerland.
16. Falzon D, Gandhi N, Migliori GB, Sotgiu G, Cox HS, Holtz TH, Hollm-Delgado MG, Keshavjee S, DeRiemer K, Centis R, D’Ambrosio L, Lange CG, Bauer M, Menzies D, Collaborative Group for Meta-Analysis of Individual Patient Data in MDR-TB. 2013. Resistance to fluoroquinolones and second-line injectable drugs: impact on multidrug-resistant TB outcomes. Eur Respir J 42:156–168. [PubMed]
17. Migliori GB, Sotgiu G, Gandhi NR, Falzon D, DeRiemer K, Centis R, Hollm-Delgado MG, Palmero D, Pérez-Guzmán C, Vargas MH, D’Ambrosio L, Spanevello A, Bauer M, Chan ED, Schaaf HS, Keshavjee S, Holtz TH, Menzies D, Collaborative Group for Meta-Analysis of Individual Patient Data in MDR-TB. 2013. Drug resistance beyond extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis: individual patient data meta-analysis. Eur Respir J 42:169–179. [PubMed]
18. Ahuja SD, et al, Collaborative Group for Meta-Analysis of Individual Patient Data in MDR-TB. 2012. Multidrug resistant pulmonary tuberculosis treatment regimens and patient outcomes: an individual patient data meta-analysis of 9,153 patients. PLoS Med 9:e1001300. [PubMed]
19. Pontali E, Sotgiu G, D’Ambrosio L, Centis R, Migliori GB. 2016. Bedaquiline and multidrug-resistant tuberculosis: a systematic and critical analysis of the evidence. Eur Respir J 47:394–402. [PubMed]
20. Sotgiu G, Tiberi S, D’Ambrosio L, Centis R, Alffenaar JW, Caminero JA, Abdo Arbex M, Alarcon Guizado V, Aleksa A, Dore S, Gaga M, Gualano G, Kunst H, Payen MC, Roby Arias AJ, Skrahina A, Solovic I, Sulis G, Tadolini M, Zumla A, Migliori GB, International Carbapenem Study Group. 2016. Faster for less: the new “shorter” regimen for multidrug-resistant tuberculosis. Eur Respir J 48:1503–1507. [PubMed]
21. Sotgiu G, Tiberi S, D’Ambrosio L, Centis R, Zumla A, Migliori GB. 2016. WHO recommendations on shorter treatment of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis. Lancet 387:2486–2487. [PubMed]
22. Caminero JA. 2010. Multidrug-resistant tuberculosis: epidemiology, risk factors and case finding. Int J Tuberc Lung Dis 14:382–390. [PubMed]
23. Kim JY, Shakow A, Castro A, Vande C, Farmer P. Tuberculosis control. World Health Organization, Geneva, Switzerland. http://www.who.int/trade/distance_learning/gpgh/gpgh3/en/index6.html.
24. Diel R, Vandeputte J, de Vries G, Stillo J, Wanlin M, Nienhaus A. 2014. Costs of tuberculosis disease in the European Union: a systematic analysis and cost calculation. Eur Respir J 43:554–565. [PubMed]
25. Russell S. 2004. The economic burden of illness for households in developing countries: a review of studies focusing on malaria, tuberculosis, and human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. Am J Trop Med Hyg 71(Suppl):147–155. [PubMed]
26. Diel R, Nienhaus A, Lampenius N, Rüsch-Gerdes S, Richter E. 2014. Cost of multi drug resistance tuberculosis in Germany. Respir Med 108:1677–1687. [PubMed]
27. Ross JD, Horne NW, Grant IWB, Crofton JW. 1958. Hospital treatment of pulmonary tuberculosis; a follow-up study of patients admitted to Edinburgh hospitals in 1953. BMJ 1:237–242. [PubMed]
28. Crofton J. 1960. Tuberculosis undefeated. BMJ 2:679–687. [PubMed]
29. Styblo K. 1989. Overview and epidemiological assessment of the current global tuberculosis situation: with an emphasis on tuberculosis control in developing countries. Z Erkr Atmungsorgane 173(Suppl 2):6–17. [PubMed]
30. World Health Organization. 1974. Expert Committee on Tuberculosis: Ninth Report. Technical report series 552. World Health Organization, Geneva, Switzerland.
31. World Health Organization. 2002. An Expanded DOTS Framework for Effective Tuberculosis Control. WHO/CDS/TB/2002.297. World Health Organization, Geneva, Switzerland.
32. World Health Organization. 1991. Forty-Fourth World Health Assembly. Resolutions and Decisions. Resolution WHA 44.8. WHA44/1991/REC/1. World Health Organization, Geneva, Switzerland.
33. World Health Organization. 1994. 47th World Health Assembly: Provisional Agenda Item 19. Tuberculosis Programme—Progress Report by the Director-General. WHA47/1994/A47/12. World Health Organization, Geneva, Switzerland.
34. Borgdorff MW, Floyd K, Broekmans JF. 2002. Interventions to reduce tuberculosis mortality and transmission in low- and middle-income countries. Bull World Health Organ 80:217–227. [PubMed]
35. Dye C, Garnett GP, Sleeman K, Williams BG. 1998. Prospects for worldwide tuberculosis control under the WHO DOTS strategy. Directly observed short-course therapy. Lancet 352:1886–1891.
36. Styblo K, Bumgarner JR. 1991. Tuberculosis Can Be Controlled with Existing Technologies: Evidence. Tuberculosis, Surveillance Research Unit, International Union Against Tuberculosis and Lung Disease, Paris, France.
37. World Health Organization. 1998. Global Tuberculosis Programme. Report of the Ad Hoc Committee on the Tuberculosis Epidemic, London, 17–19 March 1998. WHO/TB/98.245. World Health Organization, Geneva, Switzerland.
38. Stop TB Partnership. 2001. Annual Report 2001. WHO/CDS/STB/2002.17. World Health Organization, Geneva, Switzerland.
39. World Health Organization. 2000. Stop TB Initiative, Amsterdam, 22–24 March 2000, Tuberculosis and Sustainable Development. Report of a Conference. WHO/CDS/STB/2000.6. World Health Organization, Geneva, Switzerland.
40. World Health Organization. 2000. Fifty-Third World Health Assembly. Resolutions and Decisions. Resolution WHA 53.1. World Health Organization, Geneva, Switzerland. http://apps.who.int/gb/archive/pdf_files/WHA53/ResWHA53/1.pdf?ua=1.
41. Corbett EL, Watt CJ, Walker N, Maher D, Williams BG, Raviglione MC, Dye C. 2003. The growing burden of tuberculosis: global trends and interactions with the HIV epidemic. Arch Intern Med 163:1009–1021. [PubMed]
42. Espinal MA, Kim SJ, Suarez PG, Kam KM, Khomenko AG, Migliori GB, Baéz J, Kochi A, Dye C, Raviglione MC. 2000. Standard short-course chemotherapy for drug-resistant tuberculosis: treatment outcomes in 6 countries. JAMA 283:2537–2545. [PubMed]
43. World Health Organization. 2002. A Strategic Framework To Decrease the Burden of TB/HIV. WHO/CDS/TB/2002.296. World Health Organization, Geneva, Switzerland.
44. World Health Organization. 2004. Interim Policy on Collaborative TB/HIV Activities. WHO/HTM/TB/2004.330. World Health Organization, Geneva, Switzerland.
45. Espinal MA, Dye C, Raviglione M, Kochi A. 1999. Rational ‘DOTS plus’ for the control of MDR-TB. Int J Tuberc Lung Dis 3:561–563. [PubMed]
46. World Health Organization. 2000. Guidelines for Establishing DOTS-Plus Pilot Projects for the Management of Multidrug-Resistant Tuberculosis. WHO/CDS/TB/2000.279. World Health Organization, Geneva, Switzerland.
47. Gupta R, Kim JY, Espinal MA, Caudron JM, Pecoul B, Farmer PE, Raviglione MC. 2001. Public health. Responding to market failures in tuberculosis control. Science 293:1049–1051. [PubMed]
48. Gupta R, Cegielski JP, Espinal MA, Henkens M, Kim JY, Lambregts-Van Weezenbeek CS, Lee JW, Raviglione MC, Suarez PG, Varaine F. 2002. Increasing transparency in partnerships for health—introducing the Green Light Committee. Trop Med Int Health 7:970–976. [PubMed]
49. Matiru R, Ryan T. 2007. The Global Drug Facility: a unique, holistic and pioneering approach to drug procurement and management. Bull World Health Organ 85:348–353. [PubMed]
50. Stop TB Initiative. 2001. Global TB Drug Facility—Prospectus. World Health Organization. WHO/CDS/STB/2001.10a. World Health Organization, Geneva, Switzerland.
51. World Health Organization. 2004. Report on the Meeting of the Second Ad Hoc Committee on the TB Epidemic. Montreux, Switzerland, 18–19 September 2003. Recommendations to Stop TB Partners. WHO/HTM/STB/2004.28. World Health Organization, Geneva, Switzerland.
52. Raviglione MC, Uplekar MW. 2006. WHO’s new Stop TB strategy. Lancet 367:952–955. [PubMed]
53. Maher D, Dye C, Floyd K, Pantoja A, Lonnroth K, Reid A, Nathanson E, Pennas T, Fruth U, Cunningham J, Ignatius H, Raviglione MC, Koek I, Espinal M. 2007. Planning to improve global health: the next decade of tuberculosis control. Bull World Health Organ 85:341–347. [PubMed]
54. Stop TB Partnership and World Health Organization. 2006. The Global Plan to Stop TB, 2006–2015. WHO/HTM/STB/2006.35. World Health Organization, Geneva, Switzerland.
55. United Nations General Assembly. 2000. United Nations Millennium Declaration. Resolution Adopted by the General Assembly, 2000, A/RES/55/2. United Nations General Assembly, New York, NY. http://www.refworld.org/docid/3b00f4ea3.html. Accessed November 2016.
56. Stop TB Partnership. 2011. Global Plan to Stop TB 2011–2015. World Health Organization, Geneva, Switzerland. http://www.stoptb.org/assets/documents/global/plan/tb_globalplantostoptb2011-2015.pdf. Accessed November 2016.
57. Dye C, Williams BG. 2000. Criteria for the control of drug-resistant tuberculosis. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 97:8180–8185. [PubMed]
58. World Health Organization. 2008. Guidelines for the Programmatic Management of Drug-Resistant Tuberculosis. Emergency Update 2008. WHO/HTM/TB.2008.402. World Health Organization, Geneva, Switzerland.
59. World Health Organization. 2007. The Global MDR-TB and XDR-TB Response Plan 2007–2008. WHO/HTM/TB/2007.387. World Health Organization, Geneva, Switzerland.
60. Harries AD, Zachariah R, Corbett EL, Lawn SD, Santos-Filho ET, Chimzizi R, Harrington M, Maher D, Williams BG, De Cock KM. 2010. The HIV-associated tuberculosis epidemic—when will we act? Lancet 375:1906–1919.
61. World Health Organization. 2015. Implementing the End TB Strategy: The Essentials. WHO/HTM/TB/2015.31. World Health Organization, Geneva, Switzerland. http://www.who.int/tb/publications/2015/end_tb_essential.pdf?ua=1.
62. World Health Organization. 2010. Guidance on Ethics of Tuberculosis Prevention, Care and Control. WHO/HTM/TB/2010.16) World Health Organization, Geneva, Switzerland. http://whqlibdoc.who.int/publications/2010/9789241500531_eng.pdf?ua=1.
63. World Health Organization. 2010. World Health Report 2010: Health Systems Financing—The Path to Universal Coverage. World Health Organization, Geneva, Switzerland.
64. Tanimura T, Jaramillo E, Weil D, Raviglione M, Lönnroth K. 2014. Financial burden for tuberculosis patients in low- and middle-income countries: a systematic review. Eur Respir J 43:1763–1775. [PubMed]
65. World Health Organization. 2013. OneHealth Tool: Supporting Integrated Strategic Health Planning, Costing and Health Impact Analysis. World Health Organization, Geneva, Switzerland. http://www.who.int/choice/onehealthtool/OneHealth_Tool_Supporting_integrated_strategic_health_planning.pdf?ua=1. Accessed 9 December 2016.
66. Chaisson RE, Harrington M. 2009. How research can help control tuberculosis. Int J Tuberc Lung Dis 13:558–568. [PubMed]
67. Cole ST, Brosch R, Parkhill J, Garnier T, Churcher C, Harris D, Gordon SV, Eiglmeier K, Gas S, Barry CE, III, Tekaia F, Badcock K, Basham D, Brown D, Chillingworth T, Connor R, Davies R, Devlin K, Feltwell T, Gentles S, Hamlin N, Holroyd S, Hornsby T, Jagels K, Krogh A, McLean J, Moule S, Murphy L, Oliver K, Osborne J, Quail MA, Rajandream MA, Rogers J, Rutter S, Seeger K, Skelton J, Squares R, Squares S, Sulston JE, Taylor K, Whitehead S, Barrell BG. 1998. Deciphering the biology of Mycobacterium tuberculosis from the complete genome sequence. Nature 393:537–544. [PubMed]
68. Daniel TM. 2009. The history of tuberculosis: past, present, and challenges for the future, p 1–7. In Schaaf HS, Zumla A (ed), Tuberculosis: A Comprehensive Clinical Reference. Saunders Elsevier, London, United Kingdom. [PubMed]
69. Nobel Media AB. 2014. Robert Koch and tuberculosis. http://nobelprize.org/educational_games/medicine/tuberculosis/readmore.html. Accessed 5 January 2017.
70. Kaufmann SHE, Hussey G, Lambert PH. 2010. New vaccines for tuberculosis. Lancet 375:2110–2119. [PubMed]
71. Ma Z, Lienhardt C. 2009. Toward an optimized therapy for tuberculosis? Drugs in clinical trials and in preclinical development. Clin Chest Med 30:755–768, ix. [PubMed]
72. Wallis RS, Pai M, Menzies D, Doherty TM, Walzl G, Perkins MD, Zumla A. 2010. Biomarkers and diagnostics for tuberculosis: progress, needs, and translation into practice. Lancet 375:1920–1937. [PubMed]
73. Stop TB Partnership. 2006. Coordinating board meeting: decision points signed. DOC 2.06-1.1. Abuja, Nigeria. http://www.stoptb.org/assets/documents/about/cb/meetings/10/1.06-0%20Outcomes/Decisions%20Points.pdf.
microbiolspec.TNMI7-0036-2016.citations
cm/5/1
content/journal/microbiolspec/10.1128/microbiolspec.TNMI7-0036-2016
Loading

Citations loading...

Loading

Article metrics loading...

/content/journal/microbiolspec/10.1128/microbiolspec.TNMI7-0036-2016
2017-02-10
2017-09-21

Abstract:

Tuberculosis (TB) is an important cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. The World Health Organization (WHO) has implemented and scaled-up three important global public health strategies (i.e., DOTS, Stop TB, and End TB) to improve the international scenario. Their epidemiological impact was relevant, as they decreased the number of potential new cases of disease and death. However, the emergence and spread of TB/HIV coinfection and multidrug-resistant TB have hindered the progress towards the elimination of TB by 2050. More efforts are required to increase the global annual decline of the TB incidence rate. Political commitment is necessary, with global and national strategies oriented to the adoption and adaptation of the international, evidence-based recommendations on diagnosis, treatment, and prevention. Research and development activities should be planned to improve the current tools adopted to fight the disease. New rapid diagnostics, an updated and effective therapeutic armamentarium, and an effective preventive vaccine could represent the solution to address the current epidemiological threats.

Highlighted Text: Show | Hide
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

Figures

Image of FIGURE 1
FIGURE 1

Estimated TB incidence rates, 2015. Reprinted from reference 2 , with permission.

Source: microbiolspec February 2017 vol. 5 no. 1 doi:10.1128/microbiolspec.TNMI7-0036-2016
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint
Image of FIGURE 2
FIGURE 2

Estimated TB mortality rates in HIV-negative people, 2015. Reprinted from reference 2 , with permission.

Source: microbiolspec February 2017 vol. 5 no. 1 doi:10.1128/microbiolspec.TNMI7-0036-2016
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint
Image of FIGURE 3
FIGURE 3

Estimated number of deaths from HIV/AIDS and TB in 2015. Deaths from TB among HIV-positive people are shown in gray. For HIV/AIDS, the latest estimates of the number of deaths in 2015 that have been published by UNAIDS are available at http://www.unaids.org/en/resources/documents/2016/HIV_estimates_with_uncertainty_bounds_1990-2015. Deaths from TB among HIV-positive people are officially classified as deaths caused by HIV/AIDS in the International Classification of Diseases. Reprinted from reference 2 , with permission.

Source: microbiolspec February 2017 vol. 5 no. 1 doi:10.1128/microbiolspec.TNMI7-0036-2016
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint
Image of FIGURE 4
FIGURE 4

Estimated HIV prevalence in new and relapse cases, 2015. Reprinted from reference 2 , with permission.

Source: microbiolspec February 2017 vol. 5 no. 1 doi:10.1128/microbiolspec.TNMI7-0036-2016
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint
Image of FIGURE 5
FIGURE 5

Estimated new TB cases with MDR/RR-TB. Figures are based on the most recent year for which data have been reported, which varies among countries. Data reported before the year 2001 are not shown. Reprinted from reference 2 , with permission.

Source: microbiolspec February 2017 vol. 5 no. 1 doi:10.1128/microbiolspec.TNMI7-0036-2016
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint
Image of FIGURE 6
FIGURE 6

Percentage of previously treated TB cases with MDR/RR-TB. Figures are based on the most recent year for which data have been reported, which varies among countries. Data reported before the year 2001 are not shown. The high percentages of previously treated TB cases with MDR-TB in Bahamas, Bahrain, Belize, Bonaire-Saint Eustatius and Saba, French Polynesia, and São Tomé and Principe refer to only a small number of notified cases (range: 1 to 8 notified previously treated TB cases). Reprinted from reference 2 , with permission.

Source: microbiolspec February 2017 vol. 5 no. 1 doi:10.1128/microbiolspec.TNMI7-0036-2016
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint

Supplemental Material

No supplementary material available for this content.

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Please check the format of the address you have entered.
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error