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Clinical Presentations and Epidemiology of Urinary Tract Infections

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  • Author: Suzanne E. Geerlings1
  • Editors: Matthew A. Mulvey2, Ann E. Stapleton3, David J. Klumpp4
  • VIEW AFFILIATIONS HIDE AFFILIATIONS
    Affiliations: 1: Department of Internal Medicine, Division of Infectious Diseases, Center for Infection and Immunity Amsterdam (CINIMA), Academic Medical Center, 1105 AZ Amsterdam, The Netherlands; 2: University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT; 3: University of Washington, Seattle, WA; 4: Northwestern University, Chicago, IL
  • Source: microbiolspec September 2016 vol. 4 no. 5 doi:10.1128/microbiolspec.UTI-0002-2012
  • Received 29 June 2012 Accepted 01 April 2016 Published 09 September 2016
  • Suzanne E. Geerlings, S.E.Geerlings@amc.uva.nl
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  • Abstract:

    Urinary tract infection (UTI) is one of the most common bacterial infections, and the incidence in women is much higher than in men. The diagnosis of a UTI can be made based on a combination of symptoms and a positive urine analysis or culture. Most UTIs are uncomplicated UTIs, defined as cystitis in a woman who is not pregnant, is not immunocompromised, has no anatomical and functional abnormalities of the urogenital tract, and does not exhibit signs of tissue invasion and systemic infection. All UTIs that are not uncomplicated are considered to be complicated UTIs. Differentiation between uncomplicated and complicated UTIs has implications for therapy because the risks of complications or treatment failure are increased for patients with a complicated UTI. Asymptomatic bacteriuria (ASB) is defined as the presence of a positive urine culture collected from a patient without symptoms of a UTI. Concerning the complicated UTI, it is possible to make a differentiation between UTI with systemic symptoms (febrile UTI) and UTI in a host, which carries an increased risk to develop complications of this UTI. Febrile UTIs are urosepsis, pyelonephritis, and prostatitis. A complicated host is defined as one that has an increased risk for complications, to which the following groups belong: men, pregnant women, immunocompromised patients, or those who have an anatomical or functional abnormality of the urogenital tract (e.g., spinal cord-injury patients, renal stones, urinary catheter).

  • Citation: Geerlings S. 2016. Clinical Presentations and Epidemiology of Urinary Tract Infections. Microbiol Spectrum 4(5):UTI-0002-2012. doi:10.1128/microbiolspec.UTI-0002-2012.

Key Concept Ranking

Urinary Tract Infections
0.79590344
Infectious Diseases
0.65282583
Asymptomatic Bacteriuria
0.5497159
Acute Cystitis
0.51505035
First Generation Cephalosporin
0.4247047
0.79590344

References

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2016-09-09
2017-08-20

Abstract:

Urinary tract infection (UTI) is one of the most common bacterial infections, and the incidence in women is much higher than in men. The diagnosis of a UTI can be made based on a combination of symptoms and a positive urine analysis or culture. Most UTIs are uncomplicated UTIs, defined as cystitis in a woman who is not pregnant, is not immunocompromised, has no anatomical and functional abnormalities of the urogenital tract, and does not exhibit signs of tissue invasion and systemic infection. All UTIs that are not uncomplicated are considered to be complicated UTIs. Differentiation between uncomplicated and complicated UTIs has implications for therapy because the risks of complications or treatment failure are increased for patients with a complicated UTI. Asymptomatic bacteriuria (ASB) is defined as the presence of a positive urine culture collected from a patient without symptoms of a UTI. Concerning the complicated UTI, it is possible to make a differentiation between UTI with systemic symptoms (febrile UTI) and UTI in a host, which carries an increased risk to develop complications of this UTI. Febrile UTIs are urosepsis, pyelonephritis, and prostatitis. A complicated host is defined as one that has an increased risk for complications, to which the following groups belong: men, pregnant women, immunocompromised patients, or those who have an anatomical or functional abnormality of the urogenital tract (e.g., spinal cord-injury patients, renal stones, urinary catheter).

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FIGURE 1

Overview of the incidence of symptomatic UTI and the prevalence of asymptomatic bacteriuria according to age and sex (curves, females; hatched areas, males) ( 79 ).

Source: microbiolspec September 2016 vol. 4 no. 5 doi:10.1128/microbiolspec.UTI-0002-2012
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