Urosepsis is defined as sepsis caused by an infection in the urogenital tract. In approximately 30% of all septic patients the infectious focus is localized in the urogenital tract, mainly due to obstructions at various levels, such as ureteral stones. Urosepsis may also occur after operations in the urogenital tract. In urosepsis, complete bacteria and components of the bacterial cell wall from the urogenital tract trigger the host inflammatory event and act as exogenous pyrogens on eukaryotic target cells of patients. A burst of second messenger molecules leads to several different stages of the septic process, from hyperactivity to immunosuppression. As pyelonephritis is the most frequent cause for urosepsis, the kidney function is therefore most important in terms of cause and as a target organ for dysfunction in the course of the sepsis.
Since effective antimicrobial therapy must be initiated early during sepsis, the empiric intravenous therapy should be initiated immediately after microbiological sampling. For the selection of appropriate antimicrobials, it is important to know risk factors for resistant organisms and whether the sepsis is primary or secondary and community or nosocomially acquired. In addition, the preceding antimicrobial therapies should be recorded as precisely as possible. Resistance surveillance should, in any case, be performed locally to adjust for the best suitable empiric treatment. Treatment challenges arise from the rapid increase of antibiotic resistance in Gram-negative bacteria, especially extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)-producing bacteria. Treatment of urosepsis comprises four basic strategies I) supportive therapy (stabilizing and maintaining blood pressure), II) antimicrobial therapy, III) control or elimination of the complicating factor, and IV) specific sepsis therapy.
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