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Bacterial Prostatitis: Bacterial Virulence, Clinical Outcomes, and New Directions

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  • Authors: John N. Krieger1, Praveen Thumbikat2
  • Editors: Matthew A. Mulvey3, Ann E. Stapleton4, David J. Klumpp5
  • VIEW AFFILIATIONS HIDE AFFILIATIONS
    Affiliations: 1: Department of Urology, University of Washington School of Medicine, Seattle, WA 98195; 2: Department of Urology, Northwestern University School of Medicine, Chicago, IL 60611; 3: University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT; 4: University of Washington, Seattle, WA; 5: Northwestern University, Chicago, IL
  • Source: microbiolspec January 2016 vol. 4 no. 1 doi:10.1128/microbiolspec.UTI-0004-2012
  • Received 03 July 2012 Accepted 03 April 2015 Published 07 January 2016
  • Praveen Thumbikat, thumbikat@northwestern.edu
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  • Abstract:

    Four prostatitis syndromes are recognized clinically: acute bacterial prostatitis, chronic bacterial prostatitis, chronic prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome, and asymptomatic prostatitis. Because represents the most common cause of bacterial prostatitis, we investigated the importance of bacterial virulence factors and antimicrobial resistance in strains causing prostatitis and the potential association of these characteristics with clinical outcomes. A structured literature review revealed that we have limited understanding of the virulence-associated characteristics of causing acute prostatitis. Therefore, we completed a comprehensive microbiological and molecular investigation of a unique strain collection isolated from healthy young men. We also considered new data from an animal model system suggesting certain might prove important in the etiology of chronic prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome. Our human data suggest that needs multiple pathogenicity-associated traits to overcome anatomic and immune responses in healthy young men without urological risk factors. The phylogenetic background and accumulation of an exceptional repertoire of extraintestinal pathogenic virulence-associated genes indicate that these strains belong to a highly virulent subset of uropathogenic variants. In contrast, antibiotic resistance confers little added advantage to strains in these healthy outpatients. Our animal model data also suggest that certain pathogenic may be important in the etiology of chronic prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome through mechanisms that are dependent on the host genetic background and the virulence of the bacterial strain.

  • Citation: Krieger J, Thumbikat P. 2016. Bacterial Prostatitis: Bacterial Virulence, Clinical Outcomes, and New Directions. Microbiol Spectrum 4(1):UTI-0004-2012. doi:10.1128/microbiolspec.UTI-0004-2012.

Key Concept Ranking

Urinary Tract Infections
0.62644064
Bacterial Pathogenesis
0.57701373
Microbial Virulence Factors
0.56205785
Bacterial Virulence Factors
0.51884264
Cytolethal Distending Toxin
0.516129
0.62644064

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2016-01-07
2017-11-19

Abstract:

Four prostatitis syndromes are recognized clinically: acute bacterial prostatitis, chronic bacterial prostatitis, chronic prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome, and asymptomatic prostatitis. Because represents the most common cause of bacterial prostatitis, we investigated the importance of bacterial virulence factors and antimicrobial resistance in strains causing prostatitis and the potential association of these characteristics with clinical outcomes. A structured literature review revealed that we have limited understanding of the virulence-associated characteristics of causing acute prostatitis. Therefore, we completed a comprehensive microbiological and molecular investigation of a unique strain collection isolated from healthy young men. We also considered new data from an animal model system suggesting certain might prove important in the etiology of chronic prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome. Our human data suggest that needs multiple pathogenicity-associated traits to overcome anatomic and immune responses in healthy young men without urological risk factors. The phylogenetic background and accumulation of an exceptional repertoire of extraintestinal pathogenic virulence-associated genes indicate that these strains belong to a highly virulent subset of uropathogenic variants. In contrast, antibiotic resistance confers little added advantage to strains in these healthy outpatients. Our animal model data also suggest that certain pathogenic may be important in the etiology of chronic prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome through mechanisms that are dependent on the host genetic background and the virulence of the bacterial strain.

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Figures

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FIGURE 1

Geno- and phenotypic diversity of acute prostatitis strains. White and black denote the presence and absence, respectively, of virulence-associated genes or traits, as detected by PCR or phenotypic tests. CPE refers to cytopathic effect.

Source: microbiolspec January 2016 vol. 4 no. 1 doi:10.1128/microbiolspec.UTI-0004-2012
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Tables

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TABLE 1

Studies of virulence factors in bacterial prostatitis

Source: microbiolspec January 2016 vol. 4 no. 1 doi:10.1128/microbiolspec.UTI-0004-2012
Generic image for table
TABLE 2

Sequence types (ST), clonal complexes, phylogenetic groupings, and predominant pathotypes of 18 isolates from healthy young men with acute bacterial prostatitis

Source: microbiolspec January 2016 vol. 4 no. 1 doi:10.1128/microbiolspec.UTI-0004-2012
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TABLE 3

Virulence-associated genes in 18 isolates from healthy young men with acute prostatitis

Source: microbiolspec January 2016 vol. 4 no. 1 doi:10.1128/microbiolspec.UTI-0004-2012
Generic image for table
TABLE 4

Characteristics of study strains

Source: microbiolspec January 2016 vol. 4 no. 1 doi:10.1128/microbiolspec.UTI-0004-2012

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