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Pathoadaptive Mutations in Uropathogenic

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  • Author: Evgeni Sokurenko1
  • Editors: Matthew A. Mulvey2, Ann E. Stapleton3, David J. Klumpp4
  • VIEW AFFILIATIONS HIDE AFFILIATIONS
    Affiliations: 1: University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195; 2: University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT; 3: University of Washington, Seattle, WA; 4: Northwestern University, Chicago, IL
  • Source: microbiolspec March 2016 vol. 4 no. 2 doi:10.1128/microbiolspec.UTI-0020-2015
  • Received 14 June 2015 Accepted 02 July 2015 Published 04 March 2016
  • Evgeni Sokurenko, evs@u.washington.edu
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  • Abstract:

    Uropathogenic (UPEC) are opportunistic human pathogens that primarily circulate as part of commensal intestinal microbiota. Though they have the ability to survive and proliferate in various urinary tract compartments, the urinary tract is a transient, occasional habitat for UPEC. Because of this, most of the UPEC traits have originally evolved to serve in intestinal colonization and transmission. Some of these bacterial traits serve as virulence factors – they are critical to or assist in survival of UPEC as pathogens, and the structure and/or function may be specialized for the infection. Other traits could serve as anti-virulence factors – they represent liability in the urinary tract and are under selection to be lost or inactivated during the infection. Inactivation, variation, or other changes of the bacterial genes that increase the pathogen’s fitness during the infection are called . This chapter describes examples of pathoadaptive mutations in UPEC and provides rationale for their further in-depth study.

  • Citation: Sokurenko E. 2016. Pathoadaptive Mutations in Uropathogenic . Microbiol Spectrum 4(2):UTI-0020-2015. doi:10.1128/microbiolspec.UTI-0020-2015.

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/content/journal/microbiolspec/10.1128/microbiolspec.UTI-0020-2015
2016-03-04
2017-09-26

Abstract:

Uropathogenic (UPEC) are opportunistic human pathogens that primarily circulate as part of commensal intestinal microbiota. Though they have the ability to survive and proliferate in various urinary tract compartments, the urinary tract is a transient, occasional habitat for UPEC. Because of this, most of the UPEC traits have originally evolved to serve in intestinal colonization and transmission. Some of these bacterial traits serve as virulence factors – they are critical to or assist in survival of UPEC as pathogens, and the structure and/or function may be specialized for the infection. Other traits could serve as anti-virulence factors – they represent liability in the urinary tract and are under selection to be lost or inactivated during the infection. Inactivation, variation, or other changes of the bacterial genes that increase the pathogen’s fitness during the infection are called . This chapter describes examples of pathoadaptive mutations in UPEC and provides rationale for their further in-depth study.

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Figures

Image of FIGURE 1
FIGURE 1

Eco-Evo categories of . UPEC = uropathogenic , EHEC = enterohemorrhagic , EPEC = enteropathogenic .

Source: microbiolspec March 2016 vol. 4 no. 2 doi:10.1128/microbiolspec.UTI-0020-2015
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FIGURE 2

UPEC ecology.

Source: microbiolspec March 2016 vol. 4 no. 2 doi:10.1128/microbiolspec.UTI-0020-2015
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FIGURE 3

Different genetic mechanisms of evolution of virulence exemplified by an adaptive increase in bacterial adhesiveness. Green surface = gastrointestinal mucosa; Gray surface = urothelium.

Source: microbiolspec March 2016 vol. 4 no. 2 doi:10.1128/microbiolspec.UTI-0020-2015
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FIGURE 4

Type 1 fimbriae of and functional variability of the FimH adhesin.

Source: microbiolspec March 2016 vol. 4 no. 2 doi:10.1128/microbiolspec.UTI-0020-2015
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FIGURE 5

Shear-dependent () and conformational () properties of FimH adhesin.

Source: microbiolspec March 2016 vol. 4 no. 2 doi:10.1128/microbiolspec.UTI-0020-2015
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FIGURE 6

Strategies of detection of patho-adapted gene variants (red).

Source: microbiolspec March 2016 vol. 4 no. 2 doi:10.1128/microbiolspec.UTI-0020-2015
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Tables

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TABLE 1

Pathoadaptive genes inactivation in long-term bladder colonization trial (premature stop-codons; frame-shift mutations, deletions)

Source: microbiolspec March 2016 vol. 4 no. 2 doi:10.1128/microbiolspec.UTI-0020-2015
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TABLE 2

Pathoadaptive gene variations found by genome-wide screening

Source: microbiolspec March 2016 vol. 4 no. 2 doi:10.1128/microbiolspec.UTI-0020-2015

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