Chapter 1 : Overview of Infections in the Immunocompromised Host

MyBook is a cheap paperback edition of the original book and will be sold at uniform, low price.

Preview this chapter:
Zoom in

Overview of Infections in the Immunocompromised Host, Page 1 of 2

| /docserver/preview/fulltext/10.1128/9781555815455/9781555813970_Chap01-1.gif /docserver/preview/fulltext/10.1128/9781555815455/9781555813970_Chap01-2.gif


This chapter briefly reviews the components of host defense and the types of infections that are most likely to occur with specific defects in the defense mechanisms. It describes the infections that occur in patients with a variety of primary and secondary immunodeficiency disorders so as to provide illustrative examples. Patients on potent immunosuppressive regimens are at risk for fungal infections. The majority of these infections are caused by and species. A variety of fungal infections that are kept in check by granuloma formation have also been reported for these patients, the most common of which are disseminated histoplasmosis, cryptococcosis, coccidioidomycosis, and aspergillosis. The period from 1 to 6 months after transplantation is the critical time after transplantation during which infections unique to the immunocompromised hosts most often arise. Based upon information provided in the chapter, the types of infections, the drugs being used, and other symptoms should help to focus the laboratory workup on specific parts of the immune system. Immunocompromised hosts have an increased susceptibility to infections for a wide variety of reasons. The chapter lays the groundwork for understanding why an individual patient may have an increased susceptibility to specific types of pathogens.

Citation: Dropulic L, Lederman H. 2009. Overview of Infections in the Immunocompromised Host, p 3-43. In Hayden R, Carroll K, Tang Y, Wolk D (ed), Diagnostic Microbiology of the Immunocompromised Host. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815455.ch1
Highlighted Text: Show | Hide
Loading full text...

Full text loading...


Image of Figure 1.
Figure 1.

Timeline of infections after solid organ transplantation. Alterations in the timeline occur as a result of antimicrobial prophylaxis or in the presence of excessive immunosuppression or intense immunologic exposure to potential pathogens.

Citation: Dropulic L, Lederman H. 2009. Overview of Infections in the Immunocompromised Host, p 3-43. In Hayden R, Carroll K, Tang Y, Wolk D (ed), Diagnostic Microbiology of the Immunocompromised Host. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815455.ch1
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint
Image of Figure 2.
Figure 2.

Timeline of infections after autologous blood and marrow transplantation.

Citation: Dropulic L, Lederman H. 2009. Overview of Infections in the Immunocompromised Host, p 3-43. In Hayden R, Carroll K, Tang Y, Wolk D (ed), Diagnostic Microbiology of the Immunocompromised Host. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815455.ch1
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint
Image of Figure 3.
Figure 3.

Timeline of infections after allogeneic blood and marrow transplantation. CMI, cell-mediated immunity; RES, reticuloendothelial system.

Citation: Dropulic L, Lederman H. 2009. Overview of Infections in the Immunocompromised Host, p 3-43. In Hayden R, Carroll K, Tang Y, Wolk D (ed), Diagnostic Microbiology of the Immunocompromised Host. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815455.ch1
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint


1. Abzug, M. J.,, M. J. Levin, and, H. A. Rotbart. 1993. Profile of enterovirus disease in the first two weeks of life. Pediatr. Infect. Dis. J. 12: 820824.
2. Aderem, A. 2003. Phagocytosis and the inflammatory response. J. Infect. Dis. 187 (Suppl. 2) : S340S345.
3. Aksoy, S.,, H. Harputluoglu,, S. Kilickap,, D. S. Dede,, O. Dizdar,, K. Altundag, and, K. Barista. 2007. Rituximab-related viral infections in lymphoma patients. Leukoc. Lymphoma 48: 13071312.
4. Alam, R.,, and M. Gorska. 2003. Lymphocytes. J. Allergy Clin. Immunol. 111 (Suppl. 2) : S476S485.
5. Alarcon, G. S. 2006. Infections in systemic connective tissue diseases: systemic lupus erythematosus, scleroderma, and polymyositis/dermatomyositis. Infect. Dis. Clin. N. Am. 20: 849875.
6. Algood, H. M.,, P. L. Lin, and, J. L. Flynn. 2005. Tumor necrosis factor and chemokine interactions in the formation and maintenance of granulomas in tuberculosis. Clin. Infect. Dis. 41 (Suppl 3) : S189S193.
7. Allendoerfer, R.,, and G. S. Deepe, Jr. 1998. Blockade of endogenous TNF-alpha exacerbates primary and secondary pulmonary histoplasmosis by different mechanisms. J. Immunol. 160: 60726082.
8. American Journal of Transplantation. 2004. Guidelines for the prevention and management of infectious complications of solid organ transplantation. Am. J. Transplant. 4 (Suppl. 10) : 620.
9. Anding, K.,, P. Gross,, J. M. Rost,, D. Allgaier, and, E. Jacobs. 2003. The influence of uraemia and haemodialysis on neutrophil phagocytosis and antimicrobial killing. Nephrol. Dial. Transplant. 18: 20672073.
10. Andreone, P.,, G. Annagiulia,, S. Lorenzini,, M. Biselli,, C. Cursaro,, S. Pileri, and, M. Bernardi. 2003. Post-transplantation lymphoproliferative disorders. Arch. Intern. Med. 163: 19972004.
11. Andoniou, C. E.,, D. M. Andrews, and, M. A. Degli-Esposti. 2006. Natural killer cells in viral infection: more than just killers. Immunol. Rev. 214: 239250.
12. Reference deleted.
13. Antonelli, M. A.,, L. W. Moreland, and, J. E. Brick. 1991. Herpes zoster in patients with rheumatoid arthritis treated with weekly, low-dose methotrexate. Am. J. Med. 90: 295298.
14. Arima, S.,, S. M. Akbar, and, K. E. Michitaka. 2003. Impaired function of antigen-presenting dendritic cells in patients with chronic hepatitis B: localization of HBV DNA and HBV RNA in blood dendritic cells by in situ hybridization. J. Mol. Med. 11: 169174.
15. Arunkumar, P.,, T. Crook, and, J. Ballard. 2004. Disseminated histoplasmosis presenting as pancytopenia in a methotrexate-treated patient. Am. J. Hematol. 77: 8687.
16. Assi, M. A.,, J. E. Rosenblatt, and, W. F. Marshall. 2007. Donor-transmitted toxoplasmosis in liver transplant recipients: a case report and literature review. Transpl. Infect. Dis. 9: 132136.
17. Auphan, N.,, J. A. DiDonato,, C. Rosette,, A. Helmberg, and, M. Karin. 1995. Immunosuppression by glucocorticoids: inhibition of NF-κ β activation through induction of I kappa biosynthesis. Science 270: 286290.
18. Balow, J. E.,, and A. S. Rosenthal. 1973. Glucocorticoid suppression of macrophage migration inhibitory factor. J. Exp. Med. 137: 10311041.
19. Barcán, L.,, C. Luna,, L. Clara,, A. Sinagra,, A. Valledor,, A. M. De Rissio,, A. Gadano,, M. M. García,, E. de Santibañes, and, A. Riarte. 2005. Transmission of T. cruzi infection via liver transplantation to a nonreactive recipient for Chagas’ disease. Liver Transplant. 11: 11121116.
20. Barnes, P. D.,, and K. A. Marr. 2007. Risks, diagnosis and outcomes of invasive fungal infections in haematopoietic stem cell transplant recipients. Br. J. Haematol. 139: 519531.
21. Barrett, D. J. 1985. Human immune responses to polysaccharide antigens: an analysis of bacterial polysaccharide vaccines in infants. Adv. Pediatr. 32: 139158.
22. Barsoum, R. S. 2004. Parasitic infections in organ transplantation. Exp. Clin. Transplant. 2: 258267.
23. Basu, A.,, M. Ramkumar,, H. P. Tan,, A. Khan,, J. McCauley,, A. Marcos,, J. J. Fung,, T. E. Starzl, and, R. Shapiro. 2005. Reversal of acute cellular rejection after renal transplantation with Campath H-1. Transplant. Proc. 37: 923926.
24. Bergstrom, L.,, D. E. Yocum,, N. M. Ampel,, I. Villanueva,, J. Lisse,, O. Gluck,, J. Tesser,, J. Posever,, M. Miller,, J. Araujo,, D. M. Kageyama,, M. Berry,, L. Karl, and, C. M. Yung. 2004. Increased risk of coccidioidiomycosis in patients treated with tumor necrosis factor alpha antagonists. Arthritis Rheum. 50: 19591966.
25. Bermas, B. L.,, M. Petri,, D. Goldman,, B. Mittleman,, M. W. Miller,, N. I. Stocks,, C. S. Via, and, G. M. Shearer. 1994. T helper cell dysfunction in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE): relation to disease activity. J. Clin. Immunol. 14: 169177.
26. Bernini, J. C. 1996. Diagnosis and management of chronic neutropenia during childhood. Pediatr. Clin. N. Am. 43: 773792.
27. Beutler, B.,, and A. Cerami. 1989. The biology of cachectin/TNF—a primary mediator of the host response. Annu. Rev. Immunol. 7: 625655.
28. Bhat, S.,, and S. Milner. 2007. Antimicrobial peptides in burns and wounds. Curr. Protein Pept. Sci. 8: 506520.
29. Bizzarro, M. J.,, C. Raskind,, R. S. Baltimore, and, P. G. Gallagher. 2005. Seventy-five years of neonatal sepsis at Yale: 1928-2003. Pediatrics 116: 595602.
30. Bjerknes, R.,, H. Vindenes, and, O. D. Laerum. 1990. Altered neutrophil functions in patients with large burns. Blood Cells 16: 127141.
31. Blair, J. E. 2007. Coccidioidiomycosis in patients who have undergone transplantation. Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci. 1111: 365376.
32. Bodey, G. P.,, M. Buckley,, Y. S. Sathe, and, E. J. Freireich. 1966. Quantitative relationships between circulating leukocytes and infection in patients with acute leukemia. Ann. Intern. Med. 64: 328340.
33. Bodey, G. P.,, L. Jadeja, and, L. Elting. 1985. Pseudomonas bacteremia: retrospective analysis of 410 episodes. Arch. Intern. Med. 145: 16211629.
34. Boni, C.,, P. Fisicaro,, C. Valdatta,, B. Amadei,, P. Di Vincenzo,, T. Giuberti,, D. Laccabue,, A. Zerbini,, A. Cavalli,, G. Missale,, A. Bertoletti, and, C. Ferrari. 2001. Characterization of hepatitis B virus (HBV)-specific T-cell dysfunction in chronic HBV infection. J. Virol. 81: 42154225.
35. Bonnefoy-Berard, N.,, and J. P. Revillard. 1996. Mechanisms of immunosuppression induced by antithymocyte globulins and OKT3. J. Heart Lung Transplant. 15: 435442.
36. Boumpas, D. T.,, G. P. Chrousos,, R. L. Wilder,, T. R. Cupps, and, J. E. Balow. 1993. Glucocorticoid therapy for immunemediated diseases: basic and clinical correlates. Ann. Intern. Med. 119: 11981208.
37. Braconier, J. H. 1999. Reversible total IgA deficiency associated with phenytoin treatment. Scand. J. Infect. Dis. 31: 515516.
38. Brennan, D. C.,, J. A. Daller,, K. D. Lake,, D. Cibrik, and, D. Del Castillo. 2006. Rabbit antithymocyte globulin versus basiliximab in renal transplantation. N. Engl. J. Med. 355: 19671977.
39. Brennan, D. C.,, K. Flavin,, J. A. Lowell,, T. K. Howard,, S. Shenoy,, S. Burgess,, S. Dolan,, J. M. Kano,, M. Mahon,, M. A. Schnitzler,, R. Woodward,, W. Irish, and, G. G. Singer. 1999. A randomized, double-blinded comparison of thymoglobulin versus Atgam for induction immunosuppressive therapy in adult renal transplant recipients. Transplantation 7: 10111018.
40. Brown, J. M. Y. 2005. The influence of the conditions of hematopoietic cell transplantation on infectious complications. Curr. Opin. Infect. Dis. 18: 346351.
41. Buckley, R. H. 2004. The multiple causes of human SCID. J. Clin. Investig. 114: 14091411.
42. Busca, A.,, E. Lovisone,, S. Aliberti,, F. Locatelli,, A. Serra,, P. Scaravaglio,, P. Omede,, G. Rossi,, D. Cirillo,, A. Barbui,, V. Ghisetti,, A. M. Dall’Omo, and, M. Falda. 2003. Immune reconstitution and early infectious complications following nonmyeloablative hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. Hematology 8: 303311.
43. Bustami, R. T.,, A. O. Ojo,, R. A. Wolfe,, R. M. Merion,, W. M. Bennett,, S. V. McDiarmid,, A. B. Leichtman,, P. J. Held, and, F. K. Port. 2004. Immunosuppression and the risk of post-transplant malignancy among cadaveric first kidney transplant recipients. Am. J. Transplant. 4: 8793.
44. Caillard, S.,, V. Dharnidharka,, L. Agodoa,, E. Bohen, and, K. Abbott. 2005. Post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorders after renal transplantation in the United States in the era of modern immunosuppression. Transplantation 80: 12331243.
45. Calabrese, L. H.,, E. S. Molloy,, D. Huang, and, R. M. Ransohoff. 2007. Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy in rheumatic diseases. Arthritis Rheum. 56: 21162128.
46. Calvet, H. M.,, and T. T. Yoshikawa. 2001. Infections in diabetes. Infect. Dis. Clin. N. Am. 15: 407421.
47. Cannon, G. W.,, and J. M. Kremer. 2004. Leflunomide. Rheum. Dis. Clin. N. Am. 30: 295309.
48. Caputo, G. M.,, N. Joshi, and, M. R. Weitekamp. 1997. Foot infections in patients with diabetes. Am. Fam. Physician 56: 195202.
49. Castagnola, E.,, S. Dallorso,, M. Faraci,, G. Morreale,, D. Di Martino,, E. Cristina,, L. Scarso, and, E. Lanino. 2003. Long-lasting hypogammaglobulinemia following rituximab administration for Epstein-Barr virus-related post-transplant lymphoproliferative disease preemptive therapy. J. Hematother. Stem Cell Res. 12: 910.
50. Castagnola, E.,, V. Fontana,, I. Caviglia,, S. Caruso,, M. Faraci,, F. Fioredda,, M. L. Garrè,, C. Moroni,, M. Conte,, G. Losurdo,, F. Scuderi,, R. Bandettini,, P. Tomà,, C. Viscoli, and, R. Haupt. 2007. A prospective study on the epidemiology of febrile episodes during chemotherapy-induced neutropenia in children with cancer or after hemopoietic stem cell transplantation. Clin. Infect. Dis. 45: 12961304.
51. Castigli, E.,, and R. S. Geha. 2006. Molecular basis of common variable immunodeficiency. J. Allergy Clin. Immunol. 117: 740746.
52. Castle, S. C. 2000. Impact of age-related immune dysfunction on risk of infections. Z. Gerontol. Geriatr. 33: 341349.
53. Castle, S. C. 2000. Clinical relevance of age-related immune dysfunction. Clin. Infect. Dis. 31: 578585.
54. Castle, S. C.,, K. Uyemura,, T. Fulop, and, T. Makinodan. 2007. Host resistance and immune responses in advanced age. Clin. Geriatr. Med. 23: 463479.
55. Cedzynski, M.,, J. Szemraj,, A. S. Swierzko,, L. Bak-Romaniszyn,, M. Banasik,, K. Zeman, and, D. C. Kilpatrick. 2004. Mannan-binding lectin insufficiency in children with recurrent infections of the respiratory system. Clin. Exp. Immunol. 136: 304311.
56. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. 1997. Anergy skin testing and tuberculosis preventive therapy for HIV-infected persons: revised recommendations. MMWR Recommend. Rep. 46 (RR-15) : 110.
57. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. 2002. Chagas disease after organ transplantation—United States, 2001. MMWR Morb. Mortal. Wkly. Rep. 51: 210212.
58. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. 2000. Guidelines for preventing opportunistic infections among hematopoietic stem cell transplant recipients. Recommendations of the CDC, the Infectious Diseases Society of America, and the American Society of Blood and Marrow Transplantation. MMWR Morb. Mortal. Wkly. Rep. 49 (RR10) : 1128.
59. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. 2005. West Nile virus infections in organ transplant recipients—New York and Pennsylvania, August-September, 2005. MMWR Morb. Mortal. Wkly. Rep. 54: 10211023.
60. Cheong, H.-J.,, J.-Y. Song,, J.-W. Park,, J.-E. Yeon,, K.-S. Byun,, C.-H. Lee,, H.-I. Cho,, T.-G. Kim, and, W.-J. Kim. 2006. Humoral and cellular immune responses to influenza vaccine in patients with advanced cirrhosis. Vaccine 24: 24172422.
61. Cheson, B. D. 1995. Infectious and immunosuppressive complications of purine analog therapy. J. Clin. Oncol. 13: 24312448.
62. Chung, J. W.,, S. O. Lee,, S. H. Choi,, J. H. Woo,, J. Ryu,, Y. S. Kim, and, N. J. Kim. 2006. Risk factors and outcome for breakthrough candidaemia in patients with cancer. Mycoses 49: 114118.
63. Cohen, S.,, G. W. Cannon,, M. Schiff,, A. Weaver,, R. Fox,, N. Olsen,, D. Furst,, J. Sharp,, L. Moreland,, J. Caldwell,, J. Kaine, and, V. Strand. 2001. Two-year, blinded, randomized, controlled trial of treatment of active rheumatoid arthritis with leflunomide compared with methotrexate. Arthritis Rheum. 44: 19841992.
64. Cooperative Group for the Study of Immunoglobulin in Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia. 1988. Intravenous immunoglobulin for the prevention of infection in chronic lymphocytic leukemia: a randomized, controlled clinical trial. N. Engl. J. Med. 319: 902907.
65. Corales, R.,, J. Chua,, S. Mawhorter,, J. B. Young,, R. Starling,, J. W. Tomford,, P. McCarthy,, W. E. Braun,, N. Smedira,, R. Hobbs,, G. Haas,, D. Pelegrin,, M. Majercik,, K. Hoercher,, D. Cook, and, R. K. Avery. 2000. Significant post-transplant hypogammaglobulinemia in six heart transplant recipients: an emerging clinical phenomenon? Transpl. Infect. Dis. 2: 133139.
66. Cordonnier, C.,, R. Martino,, P. Trabasso,, T. K. Held,, H. Akan,, M. S. Ward,, K. Fabian,, A. J. Ullmann,, N. Wulffraat,, P. Ljungman,, E. P. Alessandrino,, J. Pretnar,, J. Gmür,, R. Varela,, A. Vitek,, S. Sica,, M. Rovira, and European Blood and Marrow Transplant Group Infectious Diseases Working Party. 2004. Mycobacterial infection: a difficult and late diagnosis in stem cell transplant recipients. Clin. Infect. Dis. 38: 12291236.
67. Cortez, K. J.,, D. D. Erdman,, T. C. Peret,, V. J. Gill,, R. Childs,, A. J. Barrett, and, J. E. Bennett. 2001. Outbreak of human parainfluenza virus 3 infections in a hematopoietic stem cell transplant population. J. Infect. Dis. 184: 10931097.
68. Cunningham-Rundles, C. 2001. Physiology of IgA and IgA deficiency. J. Clin. Immunol. 21: 303309.
69. Cunningham-Rundles, C.,, and C. Bodian. 1999. Common variable immunodeficiency: clinical and immunological features of 248 patients. Clin. Immunol. 92: 3448.
70. David-Neto, E.,, J. A. da Fonseca,, F. J. de Paula,, W. C. Nahas,, E. Sabbaga, and, L. E. Ianhez. 1999. Is azathioprine harmful to chronic viral hepatitis in renal transplantation? A longterm study on azathioprine withdrawal. Transplant. Proc. 31: 11491150.
71. Davis, C. A.,, E. H. Vallota, and, J. Forristal. 1979. Serum complement levels in infancy: age related changes. Pediatr. Res. 13: 10431046.
72. Delamaire, M.,, D. Maugendre,, M. Moreno,, M. C. Le Goff,, H. Allannic, and, B. Genetet. 1997. Impaired leucocyte functions in diabetic patients. Diabetes Med. 14: 2934.
73. de Latour, R. P.,, V. Levy,, T. Asselah,, P. Marcellin,, C. Scieux,, L. Ades,, R. Traineau,, A. Devergie,, P. Ribaud,, H. Esperou,, E. Gluckman,, D. Valla, and, G. Socie. 2004. Long-term outcome of hepatitis C infection after bone marrow transplantation. Blood 103: 16181624.
74. Delves, P. J.,, and I. M. Roitt. 2000. The immune system. First of two parts. N. Engl. J. Med. 343: 3749.
75. Delves, P. J.,, and I. M. Roitt. 2000. The immune system. Second of two parts. N. Engl. J. Med. 343: 108117.
76. Dinits-Pensy, M.,, G. N. Forrest,, A. S. Cross, and, M. K. Hise. 2005. The use of vaccines in adult patients with renal disease. Am. J. Kidney Dis. 46: 9971011.
77. Doucette, K.,, and J. A. Fishman. 2004. Nontuberculous mycobacterial infection in hematopoietic stem cell and solid organ transplant recipients. Clin. Infect. Dis. 38: 14281439.
78. Drachenberg, C. B.,, H. H. Hirsch,, J. C. Papadimitriou,, R. Gosert,, R. K. Wali,, R. Munivenkatappa,, J. Nogueira,, C. B. Cangro,, A. Haririan,, S. Mendley, and, E. Ramos. 2007. Polyomavirus BK versus JC replication and nephropathy in renal transplant recipients: a prospective evaluation. Transplantation 84: 323330.
79. Dvorak, C. C.,, W. J. Steinbach,, J. M. Y. Brown, and, R. Agarwal. 2005. Risk factors and outcomes of invasive fungal infections in pediatric patients undergoing allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation. Bone Marrow Transplant. 36: 621629.
80. Ehlers, S. 2005. Tumor necrosis factor and its blockade in gramulomatous infections: differential modes of action of infliximab and etanercept? Clin. Infect. Dis. 41 (Suppl. 3) : S199S203.
81. Eisen, H. J.,, J. Kobashigawa,, A. Keogh,, R. Bourge,, D. Ren-lund,, R. Mentzer,, E. Aldreman,, H. Valantine,, G. Dureau,, D. Mancini,, R. Mamelok,, R. Gordon,, W. Wang,, M. Mehra,, M. R. Constanzo,, M. Hummel,, J. Johnson. 2005. Three-year results of a randomized, double-blind, controlled trial of mycophenolate mofetil versus azathioprine in cardiac transplant recipients. J. Heart Lung Transplant. 24: 517525.
82. Englund, J. A.,, M. Boeckh,, J. Kuypers,, W. G. Nichols,, R. C. Hackman,, R. A. Morrow,, D. N. Fredricks, and, L. Corey. 2006. Brief communication: fatal human metapneumovirus infection in stem-cell transplant recipients. Ann. Intern. Med. 144: 344349.
83. Epstein, J. B.,, A. Ransier,, C. H. Sherlock,, J. J. Spinelli, and, D. Reece. 1996. Acyclovir prophylaxis of oral herpes during bone marrow transplantation. Eur. J. Cancer B 32B: 158162.
84. Erard, V.,, M. L. Huang,, J. Ferrenberg,, L. Nguy,, T. L. Stevens-Ayers,, R. C. Hackman,, L. Corey, and, M. Boeckh. 2007. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction for detection of adenovirus after T cell-replete hematopoietic cell transplantation: viral load as a marker for invasive disease. Clin. Infect. Dis. 45: 958965.
85. Estahbanati, H. K.,, P. P. Kashani, and, F. Ghanaatpisheh. 2002. Frequency of Pseudomonas aeruginosa serotypes in burn wound infections and their resistance to antibiotics. Burns 28: 340348.
86. Falsey, A. R.,, P. A. Hennessey,, M. A. Formica,, C. Cox, and, E. E. Walsh. 2005. Respiratory syncytial virus infection in elderly and high-risk adults. N. Engl. J. Med. 352: 17491759.
87. Fauci, A. S.,, D. C. Dale, and, J. E. Balow. 1976. Glucocorticoid therapy: mechanisms of action and clinical considerations. Ann. Intern. Med. 84: 304315.
88. Fauci, A. S.,, G. Pantaleo,, S. Stanley, and, D. Weissman. 1996. Immunopathogenic mechanisms of HIV infection. Ann. Intern. Med. 124: 654663.
89. Figueroa, J. E.,, and P. Densen. 1991. Infectious diseases associated with complement deficiencies. Clin. Microbiol. Rev. 4: 359395.
90. Fischer, S. A.,, M. B. Graham,, M. J. Kuehnert,, C. N. Kotton,, A. Srinivasan,, F. M. Marty,, J. A. Comer,, J. Guarner,, C. D. Paddock,, D. L. DeMeo,, W. J. Shieh,, B. R. Erickson,, U. Bandy,, A. DeMaria, Jr.,, J. P. Davis,, F. L. Delmonico,, B. Pavlin,, A. Likos,, M. J. Vincent,, T. K. Sealy,, C. S. Goldsmith,, D. B. Jernigan,, P. E. Rollin,, M. M. Packard,, M. Patel,, C. Rowland,, R. F. Helfand,, S. T. Nichol,, J. A. Fishman,, T. Ksiazek,, S. R. Zaki, et al. 2006. Transmission of lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus by organ transplantation. N. Engl. J. Med. 354: 22352249.
91. Fishman, J. A.,, and R. H. Rubin. 1998. Infection in organ transplant recipients. N. Engl. J. Med. 338: 17411751.
92. Fishman, J. A. 2001. Prevention of infection caused by Pneumocystis carinii in transplant recipients. Clin. Infect. Dis. 33: 13971405.
93. Flynn, J. L.,, M. M. Goldstein,, J. Chan,, K. J. Triebold,, K. Pfeffer,, C. J. Lowenstein,, R. Schreiber,, T. W. Mak, and, B. R. Bloom. 1995. Tumor necrosis factor-alpha is required in the protective immune response against Mycobacterium tuberculosis in mice. Immunity 2: 561572.
94. Folds, J. D.,, and J. L. Schmitz. 2003. Clinical and laboratory assessment of immunity. J. Allergy Clin. Immunol. 111 (Suppl. 2) : S702S711.
95. Fothergill, L. D.,, and J. Wright. 1933. Influenzal meningitis: the relation of age incidence to the bactericidal power of blood against the causal organism. J. Immunol. 24: 273284.
96. Freifeld, A. G.,, P. C. Iwen,, B. L. Lesiak,, R. K. Gilroy,, R. B. Stevens, and, A. C. Kalil. 2005. Histoplasmosis in solid organ transplant recipients at a large Midwestern university transplant center. Transpl. Infect. Dis. 7: 109115.
97. Gaspar, H. B.,, R. Sharifi,, K. C. Gilmour, and, A. J. Thrasher. 2002. X-linked lymphoproliferative disease: clinical, diagnostic and molecular perspective. Br. J. Haematol. 119: 585595.
98. Gauthier, G. M.,, N. Safdar,, B. S. Klein, and, D. R. Andes. 2007. Blastomycosis in solid organ transplant recipients. Transpl. Infect. Dis. 9: 310317.
99. Georgeson, G. D.,, B. J. Szony,, K. Streitman,, A. Kovács,, L. Kovács, and, A. László. 2001. Natural killer cell cytotoxicity is deficient in newborns with sepsis and recurrent infections. Eur. J. Pediatr. 160: 478482.
100. Ginzler, E.,, H. Diamond,, D. Kaplan,, M. Weiner,, M. Schlesinger, and, M. Seleznick. 1978. Computer analysis of factors influencing frequency of infection in systemic lupus erythematosus. Arthritis Rheum. 21: 3744.
101. Girndt, M.,, M. Sester,, U. Sester,, H. Kaul, and, H. Köhler. 2001. Molecular aspects of T and B cell function in uremia. Kidney Int. 59 (Suppl. 78) : S206S211.
102. Gluckman, E.,, R. Traineau,, A. Devergie,, H. Esperou–Bourdeau, and, I. Hirsch. 1992. Prevention and treatment of CMV infection after allogeneic bone marrow transplant. Ann. Hematol. 64 (Suppl. A) : 158161.
103. Goodarzi, H.,, J. Trowbridge, and, R. L. Gallo. 2007. Innate immunity: a cutaneous perspective. Clin. Rev. Allergy Immunol. 33: 1526.
104. Gorensek, M. J.,, M. H. Lebel, and, J. D. Nelson. 1988. Peritonitis in children with nephrotic syndrome. Pediatrics 81: 849856.
105. Gourley, M. F.,, H. A. Austin III,, D. Scott,, C. H. Yarboro,, E. M. Vaughan,, J. Muir,, D. T. Boumpas,, J. H. Klippel,, J. E. Balow, and, A. D. Steinberg. 1996. Methylprednisolone and cyclophosphamide, alone or in combination, in patients with lupus nephritis. A randomized, controlled trial. Ann. Intern. Med. 125: 549557.
106. Grim, S. A.,, T. Pham,, J. Thielke,, H. Sankary,, J. Oberholzer,, E. Benedetti, and, N. M. Clark. 2007. Infectious complications associated with rituximab use for ABO-incompatible and positive cross-match renal transplant recipients. Clin. Transplant. 21: 628632.
107. Groth, C. G.,, L. Bäckman,, J. M. Morales,, R. Calne,, H. Kreis,, P. Lang,, J. L. Touraine,, K. Claesson,, J. M. Campistol,, D. Durand,, L. Wramner,, C. Brattström,, B. Charpentier, et al. 1999. Sirolimus (rapamycin)-based therapy in human renal transplantation: similar efficacy and different toxicity compared with cyclosporine. Transplantation 67: 10361042.
108. Guerreiro-Cacais, A. O.,, L. Li,, D. Donati,, M. T. Bejarano,, A. Morgan,, M. G. Masucci,, L. Hutt-Fletcher, and, V. Levitsky. 2004. Capacity of Epstein-Barr virus to infect monocytes and inhibit their development into dendritic cells is affected by the cell type supporting virus replication. J. Gen. Virol. 85: 27672778.
109. Reference deleted.
110. Reference deleted.
111. Gutierrez-Ureña, S.,, J. F. Molina,, C. O. García,, M. L. Cuéllar, and, L. R. Espinoza. 1996. Pancytopenia secondary to methotrexate therapy in rheumatoid arthritis. Arthritis Rheum. 39: 272276.
112. Hagen, E. A.,, H. Stern,, D. Porter,, K. Duffy,, K. Foley,, S. Luger,, S. J. Schuster,, E. A. Stadtmauer, and, M. G. Schuster. 2003. High rate of invasive fungal infections following nonmyeloablative allogeneic transplantation. Clin. Infect. Dis. 36: 915.
113. Hammarström, V.,, K. Pauksen,, H. Svensson,, B. Lönnqvist,, B. Simonsson,, O. Ringdén, and, P. Ljungman. 2000. Serum immunoglobulin levels in relation to levels of specific antibodies in allogeneic and autologous bone marrow transplant recipients. Transplantation 69: 15821586.
114. Hanson, D. L.,, S. Y. Chu,, M. Farizo,, J. W. Ward, et al. 1995. Distribution of CD4+ lymphocytes at diagnosis of the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome-defining and other human immunodeficiency virus-related illnesses. Arch. Intern. Med. 155: 15371542.
115. Hardinger, K. L. 2006. Rabbit antithymocyte globulin induction therapy in adult renal transplantation. Pharmacotherapy 26: 17711783.
116. Heffron, T. G.,, G. A. Smallwood,, M. E. de Vera,, L. Davis,, E. Martinez, and, A. C. Stieber. 2001. Daclizumab induction in liver transplant recipients. Transplant. Proc. 33: 1527.
117. Hemsley, C.,, and S. J. Eykyn. 1998. Pneumococcal peritonitis in previously healthy adults: case report and review. Clin. Infect. Dis. 27: 376379.
118. Herrod, H. G. 1990. Chronic mucocutaneous candidiasis in childhood and complications of non-Candida infection: a report of the Pediatric Immunodeficiency Collaborative Study Group. J. Pediatr. 116: 377382.
119. Hibberd, P. L.,, N. E. Tolkoff-Rubin,, A. B. Cosimi,, R. T. Schooley,, D. Isaacson,, M. Doran,, A. Delvecchio,, F. L. Delmonico,, H. Auchincloss, Jr., and, R. H. Rubin. 1992. Symptomatic cytomegalovirus disease in the cytomegalovirus antibody seropositive renal transplant recipient treated with OKT3. Transplantation 53: 6872.
120. Hidalgo, S.,, M. García Erro,, D. Cisterna, and, M. C. Freire. 2003. Paralytic poliomyelitis caused by a vaccine-derived polio virus in an antibody-deficient Argentinean child. Pediatr. Infect. Dis. J. 22: 570572.
121. High, K. P. 1994. The antimicrobial activities of cyclosporine, FK506, and rapamycin. Transplantation 57: 16891700.
122. Ho, D. D.,, A. U. Neumann, and, A. S. Perelson. 1995. Rapid turnover of plasma virions and CD4 lymphocytes in HIV-1 infection. Nature 373: 123126.
123. Holm, G.,, H. Mellstedt,, M. Björkholm,, B. Johansson,, D. Killander,, R. Sundblad, and, G. Söderberg. 1976. Lymphocyte abnormalities in untreated patients with Hodgkin’s disease. Cancer 37: 751762.
124. Homann, C.,, K. Varming,, K. Hogasen,, T. E. Mollnes,, N. Graudal,, A. C. Thomsen, and, P. Garred. 1997. Acquired C3 deficiency in alcoholic cirrhosis predisposing to infection and increased mortality. Gut 40: 544549.
125. Huffnagle, G. B.,, G. B. Toews,, M. D. Burdick,, M. B. Boyd,, K. S. McAllister,, R. A. McDonald,, S. L. Kunkel, and, R. M. Strieter. 1996. Afferent phase production of TNF-alpha is required for the development of protective T cell immunity to Cryptococcus neoformans. J. Immunol. 157: 45294536.
126. Humphreys, J. M.,, R. E. Stringer,, C. A. Hart, and, S. W. Edwards. 1993. Effect of cytotoxic drugs on mature neutrophil function in the presence and absence of granulocyte-macrophage colony stimulating factor. Br. J. Haematol. 84: 316321.
127. Husain, S.,, and N. Singh. 2002. The impact of novel immunosuppressive agents on infections in organ transplant recipients and interactions of these agents with antimicrobials. Clin. Infect. Dis. 35: 5361.
128. Hutchison, P.,, M. Jose,, R. C. Atkins, and, S. R. Holdsworth. 2004. Ex vivo lymphocyte proliferative function is severely inhibited in renal transplant patients on mycophenolate mofetil treatment. Transplant. Immunol. 13: 5561.
129. Imashuku, S.,, T. Teramura,, A. Morimoto,, M. Naya, and, H. Kuroda. 2004. Prolonged hypogammaglobulinemia following rituximab treatment for post transplant Epstein-Barr virus-associated lymphoproliferative disease. Bone Marrow Transplant. 33: 129130.
130. Reference deleted.
131. Ison, M. G. 2007. Respiratory viral infections in transplant recipients. Antivir. Ther. 12: 627638.
132. Ison, M. G.,, and F. G. Hayden. 2002. Viral infections in immunocompromised patients: what’s new with respiratory viruses? Curr. Opin. Infect. Dis. 15: 355367.
133. Jabs, W. J.,, H. J. Wagner,, S. Maurmann,, H. Hennig, and, B. Kreft. 2002. Inhibition of macrophage inflammatory protein-1 alpha production by Epstein-Barr virus. Blood 99: 15121516.
134. Jain, A. B.,, I. Hamad,, J. Rakela,, F. Dodson,, D. Kramer,, J. Demetris,, J. McMichael,, T. E. Starzl, and, J. J. Fung. 1998. A prospective randomized trial of tacrolimus and prednisone versus tacrolimus, prednisone, and mycophenolate mofetil in primary adult liver transplant recipients: an interim report. Transplantation 66: 13951398.
135. James, L. C.,, G. Hale,, H. Waldmann, and, A. C. Bloomer. 1999. 1.9A structure of the therapeutic antibody Campath-1H fab in complex with a synthetic peptide antigen. J. Mol. Biol. 289: 293301.
136. Jenks, K. A.,, L. K. Stamp,, J. L. O’Donnell,, R. L. Savage, and, P. T. Chapman. 2007. Leflunomide-associated infections in rheumatoid arthritis. J. Rheumatol. 34: 22012203.
137. Jirapongsananuruk, O.,, H. L. Malech,, D. B. Kuhns,, J. E. Niemela,, M. R. Brown,, M. Anderson-Cohen, and, T. A. Fleisher. 2003. Diagnostic paradigm for evaluation of male patients with chronic granulomatous disease, based on the dihydrorhodamine 123 assay. J. Allergy Clin. Immunol. 111: 374379.
138. Johnson, D. H.,, and B. A. Cunha. 2001. Infections in cirrhosis. Infect. Dis. Clin. N. Am. 15: 363371.
139. Joshi, N.,, G. M. Caputo,, M. R. Weitekamp, and, A. W. Karchmer. 1999. Infections in patients with diabetes mellitus. N. Engl. J. Med. 341: 19061912.
140. Junghanss, G.,, M. Boeckh,, R. A. Carter,, B. M. Sandmaier,, M. B. Maris,, D. G. Maloney,, T. Chauncey,, P. A. McSweeney,, M. T. Little,, L. Corey, and, R. Storb. 2002. Incidence and outcome of cytomegalovirus infections following nonmyeloablative compared with myeloablative allogeneic stem cell transplantation, a matched control study. Blood 99: 19781985.
141. Kahan, B. D. 2000. Efficacy of sirolimus compared with azathioprine for reduction of acute renal allograft rejection: a randomised multicentre study. Lancet 356: 194202.
142. Kahan, B. D.,, P. R. Rajagopalan, and, M. Hall. 1999. Reduction of the occurrence of acute cellular rejection among renal allograft recipients treated with basiliximab, a chimeric anti-interleukin-2-receptor monoclonal antibody. Transplantation 67: 276284.
143. Kaisho, T.,, and S. Akira. 2006. Toll-like receptor function and signaling. J. Allergy Clin. Immunol. 117: 979987.
144. Kamel, O. W.,, M. van de Rijn,, L. M. Weiss,, G. J. Del Zoppo,, P. K. Hench,, B. A. Robbins,, P. G. Montgomery,, R. A. Warnke, and, R. F. Dorfman. 1993. Brief report: reversible lymphomas associated with Epstein-Barr virus occurring during methotrexate therapy for rheumatoid arthritis and dermatomyositis. N. Engl. J. Med. 328: 13171321.
145. Kanik, K. S.,, and J. M. Cash. 1997. Does methotrexate increase the risk of infection or malignancy? Rheum. Dis. Clin. N. Am. 23: 955967.
146. Kaur, N.,, and T. C. Mahl. 2007. Pneumocystis jiroveci (carinii) pneumonia after infliximab therapy: a review of 84 cases. Dig. Dis. Sci. 52: 14811484.
147. Kawasaki, H.,, J. Takayama, and, M. Ohira. 1996. Herpes zoster infection after bone marrow transplantation in children. J. Pediatr. 128: 353356.
148. Keane, J.,, S. Gershon,, R. P. Wise,, E. Mirabile-Levens,, J. Kasznica,, W. D. Schwieterman,, J. N. Siegel, and, M. M. Braun. 2001. Tuberculosis associated with infliximab, a tumor necrosis factor α-neutralizing agent. N. Engl. J. Med. 345: 10981104.
149. Keating, M.,, S. Coutre,, K. Rai,, A. Osterborg,, S. Faderl,, B. Kennedy,, T. Kipps,, G. Bodey,, J. C. Byrd,, S. Rosen,, C. Dearden,, M. J. Dyer, and, P. Hillmen. 2004. Management guidelines for use of alemtuzumab in B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia. Clin. Lymphoma 4: 220227.
150. Keegan, J. M.,, and J. W. Byrd. 1988. Nocardiosis associated with low dose methotrexate for rheumatoid arthritis. J. Rheumatol. 15: 15851586.
151. Khan, S. A.,, and J. R. Wingard. 2001. Infection and mucosal injury in cancer treatment. J. Natl. Cancer Inst. Monogr. 29: 3136.
152. Kimberlin, D. W. 2007. Herpes simplex virus infections of the newborn. Semin. Perinatol. 31: 1925.
153. Kinch, A.,, G. Oberg,, J. Arvidson,, K. I. Falk,, A. Linde, and, K. Pauksens. 2007. Post-transplant lymphoproliferative disease and other Epstein-Barr virus diseases in allogeneic haematopoietic stem cell transplantation after introduction of monitoring of viral load by polymerase chain reaction. Scand. J. Infect. Dis. 39: 235244.
154. Klastersky, J.,, L. Ameye,, J. Maertens,, A. Georgala,, F. Muanza,, M. Aoun,, A. Ferrant,, B. Rapoport,, K. Rolston, and, M. Paesmans. 2007. Bacteraemia in febrile neutropenic cancer patients. Int. J. Antimicrob. Agents 30 (Suppl. 1) : S51S59.
155. Kniker, W. T.,, B. M. Lesourd,, J. L. McBryde, and, R. N. Corriel. 1985. Cell-mediated immunity assessed by multitest CMI skin testing in infants and preschool children. Am. J. Dis. Child. 139: 840845.
156. Kobrynski, L. J.,, and K. E. Sullivan. 2007. Velocardiofacial syndrome, DiGeorge syndrome: the chromosome 22q11.2 deletion syndromes. Lancet 370: 14431452.
157. Koc, Y.,, K. B. Miller,, D. P. Schenkein,, J. Griffith,, M. Akhtar,, J. DesJardin, and, D. R. Snydman. 2000. Varicella zoster virus infections following allogeneic bone marrow transplantation: frequency, risk factors, and clinical outcome. Biol. Blood Marrow Transplant. 6: 4449.
158. Koch, A.,, M. Melbye,, P. Sørensen,, P. Homøe,, H. O. Madsen,, K. Mølbak,, C. H. Hansen,, L. H. Andersen,, G. W. Hahn, and, P. Garred. 2001. Acute respiratory tract infections and mannose-binding lectin insufficiency during early childhood. JAMA 285: 13161321.
159. Kotton, C. N. 2007. Zoonoses in solid-organ and hematopoietic stem cell transplant recipients. Clin. Infect. Dis. 44: 857866.
160. Koziel, H.,, and M. J. Koziel. 1995. Pulmonary complication of diabetes mellitus: pneumonia. Infect. Dis. Clin. N. Am. 9: 6596.
161. Kreis, H.,, J. M. Cisterne,, W. Land,, L. Wramner,, J. P. Squifflet,, D. Abramowicz,, J. M. Campistol,, J. M. Morales,, J. M. Grinyo,, G. Mourad,, F. C. Berthoux,, C. Brattström,, Y. Lebranchu, and, P. Vialtel. 2000. Sirolimus in association with mycophenolate mofetil induction for the prevention of acute graft rejection in renal allograft recipients. Transplantation 69: 12521260.
162. Lang, B.,, W. Riegel,, T. Peters, and, H. H. Peter. 1991. Low dose methotrexate therapy for rheumatoid arthritis complicated by pancytopenia and Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia. J. Rheumatol. 18: 12571259.
163. Lee, J.-H.,, N. R. Slifman,, S. K. Gershon,, E. T. Edwards,, W. D. Schwieterman,, J. N. Siegel,, R. P. Wise,, S. L. Brown,, J. N. Udall, Jr., and, M. M. Braun. 2002. Life-threatening histoplasmosis complicating immunotherapy with tumor necrosis factor α antagonists infliximab and etanercept. Arthritis Rheum. 46: 25652570.
164. Lim, W. H.,, G. R. Russ, and, P. T. H. Coates. 2006. Review of Epstein-Barr virus and post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorder post-solid organ transplantation. Nephrology 11: 355356.
165. Linares, L.,, C. Cervera,, F. Cofán,, M. J. Ricart,, N. Esforzado,, V. Torregrosa,, F. Oppenheimer,, J. M. Campistol,, F. Marco, and, A. Moreno. 2007. Epidemiology and outcomes of multiple antibiotic-resistant bacterial infection in renal transplantation. Transplant. Proc. 39: 22222224.
166. Ljungman, P.,, K. N. Ward,, B. N. Crooks,, A. Parker,, R. Martino,, P. J. Shaw,, L. Brinch,, M. Brune,, R. De La Camara,, A. Dekker,, K. Pauksen,, N. Russell,, A. P. Schwarer, and, C. Cordonnier. 2001. Respiratory virus infections after stem cell transplantation: a prospective study from the Infectious Diseases Working Party of the European Group for Blood and Marrow Transplantation. Bone Marrow Transplant. 28: 479484.
167. López-Medrano, F.,, J. M. Aguado,, M. Lizasoain,, D. Folgueira,, R. S. Juan,, C. Díaz-Pedroche,, C. Lumbreras,, J. M. Morales,, J. F. Delgado, and, E. Moreno-González. 2007. Clinical implications of respiratory virus infections in solid organ transplant recipients: a prospective study. Transplantation 84: 851856.
168. Lubel, J. S.,, A. G. Testro, and, P. W. Angus. 2007. Hepatitis B virus reactivation following immunosuppressive therapy: guidelines for prevention and management. Intern. Med. J. 37: 705712.
169. Lum, L. G.,, M. C. Seigneuret,, R. F. Storb,, R. P. Witherspoon, and, E. D. Thomas. 1981. In vitro regulation of immunoglobulin synthesis after marrow transplantation. I. T-cell and B-cell in patients with and without chronic graft-versus-host-diseases. Blood 58: 431439.
170. Lundin, J.,, A. Porwit-MacDonald,, E. D. Rossmann,, C. Karlsson,, P. Edman,, M. R. Rezvany,, E. Kimby,, A. Osterborg, and, H. Mellstedt. 2004. Cellular immune reconstitution after subcutaneous alemtuzumab (anti-CD52 monocloncal antibody, CAMPATH-1H) treatment of first-line therapy for B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia. Leukemia 18: 484490.
171. Lynn, J.,, A. K. Knight,, M. Kamoun, and, A. I. Levinson. 2004. A 55-year-old man with hypogammaglobulinemia, lymphopenia, and unrelenting cutaneous warts. J. Allergy Clin. Immunol. 114: 409414.
172. MacDonald, A. S., et al. 2001. A worldwide, phase III, randomized, controlled, safety and efficacy study of a sirolimus/cyclosporine regimen for prevention of acute rejection in recipients of primary mismatched renal allografts. Transplantation 71: 271280.
173. Machado, C. M.,, F. B. Gonçalves,, C. S. Pannuti,, F. L. Dulley, and, V. A. de Souza. 2002. Measles in bone marrow transplant recipients during an outbreak in São Paulo, Brazil. Blood 99: 8387.
174. Mackall, C. 2000. T-cell immunodeficiency following cytotoxic antineoplastic therapy: a review. Stem Cells 18: 1018.
175. Mackall, C. L.,, T. A. Fleisher,, M. R. Brown,, I. T. Magrath,, A. T. Shad,, M. E. Horowitz,, L. H. Wexler,, M. A. Adde,, L. L. McClure, and, R. E. Gress. 1994. Lymphocyte depletion during treatment with intensive chemotherapy for cancer. Blood 84: 22212228.
176. Maloney, D. G.,, B. Smith, and, A. Rose. 2002. Rituximab: mechanism of action and resistance. Semin. Oncol. 29 (1 Suppl. 2) : 29.
177. Mangi, R. J.,, J. C. Niederman,, J. E. Kelleher, Jr.,, J. M. Dwyer,, A. S. Evans, and, F. S. Kantor. 1974. Depression of cell-mediated immunity during acute infectious mononucleosis. N. Engl. J. Med. 291: 11491153.
178. Mannick, J. A.,, M. L. Rodrick, and, J. A. Lederer. 2001. The immunologic response to injury. J. Am. Coll. Surg. 193: 237244.
179. Marder, W.,, and W. J. McCune. 2000. Advances in immunosuppressive therapy. Semin. Respir. Crit. Care Med. 28: 398417.
180. Maris, M.,, M. Boeckh,, B. Storer,, M. Dawson,, K. White,, M. Keng,, B. Sandmaier,, D. Maloney,, R. Storb, and, J. Storek. 2003. Immunologic recovery after hematopoietic cell transplantation with nonmyeloablative conditioning. Exp. Hematol. 31: 941952.
181. Marr, K. A. 2004. Invasive candida infections: the changing epidemiology. Oncology 18: 914.
182. Marr, K. A.,, and R. A. Bowden. 1999. Fungal infections in patients undergoing blood and marrow transplantation. Transpl. Infect. Dis. 1: 237246.
183. Marr, K. A.,, K. Seidel,, T. C. White, and, R. A. Bowden. 2000. Candidemia in allogeneic blood and marrow transplant recipients: evolution of risk factors after the adoption of prophylactic fluconazole. J. Infect. Dis. 181: 309316.
184. Martin, S. I.,, F. M. Marty,, K. Fiumara,, S. P. Treon,, J. G. Gribben, and, L. R. Baden. 2006. Infectious complications associated with alemtuzumab use for lymphoproliferative disorders. Clin. Infect. Dis. 43: 1624.
185. Maruani, A.,, E. Wierzbicka,, M. C. Machet,, M. Abdallah-Lotf,, A. de Muret, and, L. Machet. 2007. Reversal of multi-focal cutaneous lymphoproliferative disease associated with Epstein-Barr virus after withdrawal of methotrexate therapy for rheumatoid arthritis. J. Am. Acad. Dermatol. 57 (Suppl. 5) : S69S71.
186. Massry, S.,, and M. Smogorzewski. 2001. Dysfunction of polymorphonuclear leukocytes in uremia: role of parathyroid hormone. Kidney Int. 59 (Suppl. 78) : S195S196.
187. Matsumoto, Y.,, T. Shinzato,, I. Amano,, I. Takai,, Y. Kimura,, H. Morita,, M. Miwa,, K. Nakane,, Y. Yoshikai, and, K. Maeda. 1995. Relationship between susceptibility to apoptosis and Fas expression in peripheral blood T cells from uremic patients: a possible mechanism for lymphopenia in chronic renal failure. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 215: 98105.
188. McCurry, K. R.,, A. Iacono,, A. Zeevi,, S. Yousem,, A. Girnita,, S. Husain,, D. Zaldonis,, B. Johnson,, B. G. Hattler, and, T. E. Starzl. 2005. Early outcomes in human lung transplantation with thymoglobulin or Campath-1H for recipient pretreatment followed by posttransplant tacrolimus near-monotherapy. J. Thorac. Cardiovasc. Surg. 130: 528537.
189. McKinney, R. E., Jr.,, S. L. Katz, and, C. M. Wilfert. 1987. Chronic enteroviral meningoencephalitis in agammaglobulinemic patients. Rev. Infect. Dis. 9: 334356.
190. McNeil, S. A.,, P. N. Malani,, C. E. Chenoweth,, R. J. Fontana,, J. C. Magee,, J. D. Punch,, M. L. Mackin, and, C. A. Kauffman. 2006. Vancomycin-resistant enterococcal colonization and infection in liver transplant candidates and recipients: a prospective surveillance study. Clin. Infect. Dis. 42: 195203.
191. Medzhitov, R.,, and C. Janeway, Jr. 2000. The Toll receptor family and microbial recognition. Trends Microbiol. 8: 452456.
192. Mehrad, B.,, R. M. Strieter, and, T. J. Standiford. 1999. Role of TNF-alpha in pulmonary host defense in murine invasive aspergillosis. J. Immunol. 162: 16331640.
193. Meier-Kriesche, H. U.,, S. Li,, R. W. Gruessner,, J. J. Fung,, R. T. Bustami,, M. L. Barr, and, A. B. Leichtman. 2006. Immunosuppression: evolution in practice and trends, 1994–2004. Am. J. Transplant. 6: 11111131.
194. Mendonca, M. A. O.,, F. Q. Cunha,, E. F. C. Murta, and, B. M. Tavares-Murta. 2006. Failure of neutrophil chemo-tactic function in breast cancer patients treated with chemotherapy. Cancer Chemother. Pharmacol. 57: 663670.
195. Miller, D. L. 1964. Frequency of complications of measles. Br. Med. J. 2: 7578.
196. Miller, G. G.,, and J. S. Dummer. 2007. Herpes simplex and varicella zoster viruses: forgotten but not gone. Am. J. Transplant. 7: 741747.
197. Mocarski, E. S., Jr. 2002. Immunomodulation by cytomegaloviruses: manipulative strategies beyond evasion. Trends Microbiol. 10: 332339.
198. Molrine, D. C.,, G. R. Siber,, Y. Samra,, D. S. Shevy,, K. MacDonald,, R. Cieri, and, D. M. Ambrosino. 1999. Normal IgG and impaired IgM responses to polysaccharide vaccines in asplenic patients. J. Infect. Dis. 179: 513517.
199. Moore, K. W.,, P. Vieira,, D. F. Fiorentino,, M. L. Trounstine,, T. A. Khan, and, T. R. Mosmann. 1990. Homology of cytokine synthesis inhibitory factor (IL-10) to the Epstein-Barr virus gene BCRFI. Science 248: 12301234.
200. Moore, R. D.,, and R. E. Chaisson. 1996. Natural history of opportunistic disease in an HIV-infected urban clinical cohort. Ann. Intern. Med. 124: 633642.
201. Muller, L. M.,, K. J. Gorter,, E. Hak,, W. L. Goudzwaard,, F. G. Schellevis,, A. I. Hoepelman, and, G. E. Rutten. 2005. Increased risk of common infections in patients with type 1 and type 2 diabetes mellitus. Clin. Infect. Dis. 41: 281288.
202. Mullooly, J. P.,, M. D. Bennett,, M. C. Hornbrook,, W. H. Barker,, W. W. Williams,, P. A. Patriarca, and, P. H. Rhodes. 1994. Influenza vaccination programs for elderly persons: cost-effectiveness in a health maintenance organization. Ann. Intern. Med. 121: 947952.
203. Munier, M. L.,, and A. D. Kelleher. 2007. Acutely dysregulated, chronically disabled by the enemy within: T-cell responses to HIV-1 infection. Immunol. Cell Biol. 85: 615.
204. Munoz, A. I.,, and D. Limbert. 1977. Skin reactivity to Candida and streptokinase-streptodornase antigens in normal pediatric subjects: influence of age and acute illness. J. Pediatr. 91: 565568.
205. Munoz, P.,, C. Rodriguez, and, E. Bouza. 2005. Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection in recipients of solid organ transplants. Clin. Infect. Dis. 40: 581587.
206. Murdoch, D. M.,, W. D. Venter,, A. Van Rie, and, C. Feldman. 2007. Immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (IRIS): review of common infectious manifestations and treatment options. AIDS Res. Ther. 8: 49.
207. Nachbaur, D.,, C. Larcher,, B. Kircher,, G. Eibl,, W. Nussbaumer,, E. Gunsilius,, M. Haun,, K. Grunewald, and, G. Gastl. 2003. Risk for cytomegalovirus infection following reduced intensity allogeneic stem cell transplantation. Ann. Hematol. 82: 621627.
208. Narreddy, S.,, S. Mellon-Reppen,, M. H. Abidi,, J. L. Klein,, E. Peres,, L. K. Heilbrun,, D. Smith,, G. Alangaden, and, P. H. Chandrasekar. 2007. Non-bacterial infections in allogeneic non-myeloablative stem cell transplant recipients. Transpl. Infect. Dis. 9: 310.
209. Nashan, B.,, S. Light,, I. R. Hardie,, A. Lin, and, J. R. Johnson. 2000. Reduction of acute renal allograft rejection by daclizumab. Lancet 356: 194202.
210. Nelson, D. R.,, C. Soldevila-Pico,, A. Reed,, M. F. Abdelmalek,, A. W. Hemming,, W. J. Van der Werf,, R. Howard, and, G. L. Davis. 2001. Anti-interleukin-2 receptor therapy in combination with mycophenolate mofetil is associated with more severe hepatitis C recurrence after liver transplantation. Liver Transplant. 7: 10641070.
211. Neuhaus, P.,, R. Pichlmayr, and, R. Williams. 1994. Randomised trial comparing tacrolimus (FK506) and cyclosporine in prevention of liver allograft rejection. Lancet 344: 423428.
212. Neuman, M. G.,, J. P. Benhamou,, I. M. Malkiewicz,, R. Akremi,, N. H. Shear,, T. Asselah,, A. Ibrahim,, N. Boyer,, M. Martinot-Peignoux,, P. Jacobson-Brown,, G. G. Katz,, V. Le Breton,, G. Le Guludec,, A. Suneja, and, P. Marcellin. 2001. Cytokines as predictors for sustained response and as markers for immunomodulation in patients with chronic hepatitis C. Clin. Biochem. 34: 173182.
213. Ng, A. P.,, L. Worth,, L. Chen,, J. F. Seymour,, H. M. Prince,, M. Slavin, and, K. Thursky. 2005. Cytomegalovirus DNAemia and disease: incidence, natural history and management in setting other than allogeneic stem cell transplantation. Haematologica 90: 16721679.
214. Nichols, W. G.,, K. A. Guthrie,, L. Corey, and, M. Boeckh. 2004. Influenza infections after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation: risk factors, mortality, and the effect of antiviral therapy. Clin. Infect. Dis. 39: 13001306.
215. Ochs, H. D.,, and A. J. Thrasher. 2006. The Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome. J. Allergy Clin. Immunol. 117: 725738.
216. Ohri, L. K.,, J. M. Manley,, A. Chatterjee, and, N. E. Cornish. 2004. Pediatric case series evaluating a standardized Candida albicans skin test product. Ann. Pharmacother. 38: 973977.
217. Ortiz, Z.,, B. Shea,, M. E. Suarez-Almazor,, D. Moher,, G. A. Wells, and, P. Tugwell. 1998. The efficacy of folic acid and folinic acid in reducing methotrexate gastrointestinal toxicity in rheumatoid arthritis. A meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. J. Rheumatol. 25: 3643.
218. Oz, H. S.,, and W. T. Hughes. 1997. Novel anti-Pneumocystis carinii effects of the immunosuppressant mycophenolate mofetil in contrast to the provocative effects of tacrolimus, sirolimus, and dexamethasone. J. Infect. Dis. 175: 901904.
219. Pabst, H. F.,, and H. W. Kreth. 1980. Ontogeny of the immune response as a basis of childhood disease. J. Pediatr. 97: 519534.
220. Pachiadakis, I.,, G. Pollara,, B. M. Chain, and, N. V. Naoumov. 2005. Is hepatitis C infection of dendritic cells a mechanism of facilitating viral persistence. Lancet Infect. Dis. 5: 298304.
221. Paliogianni, F.,, S. S. Ahuja,, J. P. Balow,, J. E. Balow, and, D. T. Boumpas. 1993. Novel mechanism for inhibition of human T cells by glucocorticoids: glucocorticoids inhibit signal transduction through IL-2 receptor. J. Immunol. 151: 40814089.
222. Palmer, S. M.,, M. A. Baz,, L. Sanders,, A. P. Miralles,, C. M. Lawrence,, J. B. Rea,, D. S. Zander,, L. J. Edwards,, E. D. Staples,, V. F. Tapson, and, R. D. Davis. 2001. Results of a randomized, prospective, multicenter trial of mycophenolate mofetil versus azathioprine in the prevention of acute lung allograft rejection. Transplantation 71: 17721776.
223. Pappas, P. G. 2006. Invasive candidiasis. Infect. Dis. Clin. N. Am. 20: 485506.
224. Patriarca, P. A.,, J. A. Weber,, R. A. Parker,, W. N. Hall,, A. P. Kendal,, D. J. Bregman, and, L. B. Schonberger. 1985. Efficacy of influenza vaccine in nursing homes: reduction in illness and complications during an influenza A (H3N2) epidemic. JAMA 253: 11361139.
225. Peleg, A. Y.,, S. Husain,, E. J. Kwak,, F. P. Silveira,, M. Ndirangu,, J. Tran,, K. A. Shutt,, R. Shapiro,, N. Thai,, K. Abu-Elmagd,, K. R. McCurry,, A. Marcos, and, D. L. Paterson. 2007. Opportunistic infections in 547 organ transplant recipients receiving alemtuzumab, a humanized monoclonal CD-52 antibody. Clin. Infect. Dis. 44: 204212.
226. Pelosini, M.,, D. Focosi,, F. Rita,, S. Galimberti,, F. Caracciolo,, E. Benedetti,, F. Papineschi, and, M. Petrini. 2008. Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy: report of three cases in HIV-negative hematological patients and review of the literature. Ann. Hematol. 87: 405412.
227. Pereyra, F.,, and R. H. Rubin. 2004. Prevention and treatment of cytomegalovirus infection in solid organ transplant recipients. Curr. Opin. Infect. Dis. 17: 357361.
228. Perreault, C.,, M. Giasson,, M. Gyger,, R. Belanger,, M. David,, Y. Bonny,, J. Boileau,, R. Barcelo, and, J. P. Moguin. 1985. Serum immunoglobulin levels following allogeneic bone marrow transplantation. Blut 51: 137142.
229. Plebani, A.,, A. Soresina,, R. Rondelli,, G. M. Amato,, C. Azzari,, F. Cardinale,, G. Cazzola,, R. Consolini,, D. De Mattia,, G. Dell’Erba,, M. Duse,, M. Fiorini,, S. Martino,, B. Martire,, M. Masi,, V. Monafo,, V. Moschese,, L. D. Notarangelo,, P. Orlandi,, P. Panei,, A. Pession,, M. C. Pietrogrande,, C. Pignata,, I. Quinti,, V. Ragno,, P. Rossi,, A. Sciotto,, A. Stabile, et al. 2002. Clinical, immunological, and molecular analysis in a large cohort of patients with X-linked agammaglobulinemia: an Italian multicenter study. Clin. Immunol. 104: 221230.
230. Pratt, G.,, O. Goodyear, and, P. Moss. 2007. Immunodeficiency and immunotherapy in multiple myeloma. Br. J. Haematol. 138: 563579.
231. Pryor, B. D.,, S. G. Bologna, and, L. E. Kahl. 1996. Risk factors for serious infection during treatment with cyclophosphamide and high-dose corticosteroids for systemic lupus erythematosus. Arthritis Rheum. 39: 14751482.
232. Quartier, P.,, S. Foray,, J. L. Casanova,, I. Hau-Rainsard,, S. Blanche, and, A. Fischer. 1987. Enteroviral meningoencephalitis in X-linked agammaglobulinemia: intensive immunoglobulin therapy and sequential viral detection in cerebrospinal fluid by polymerase chain reaction. Rev. Infect. Dis. 9: 334356.
233. Ramirez, C. B.,, and I. R. Marino. 2007. The role of basiliximab induction therapy in organ transplantation. Expert Opin. Biol. Ther. 7: 137148.
234. Ranua, J.,, K. Luoma,, A. Auvinen,, J. Peltola,, A. M. Haapala,, J. Raitanen, and, J. Isojärvi. 2005. Serum IgA, IgG, and IgM concentrations in patients with epilepsy and matched controls: a cohort-based cross-sectional study. Epilepsy Behav. 6: 191195.
235. Raulet, D. H. 2004. Interplay of natural killer cells and their receptors with the adaptive immune response. Nat. Immunol. 5: 9961002.
236. Rawstron, A. C.,, B. Kennedy,, P. Moreton,, A. J. Dickinson,, M. J. Cullen,, S. J. Richards,, A. S. Jack, and, P. Hillmen. 2004. Early prediction of outcome and response to alemtuzumab therapy in chronic lymphocytic leukemia. Blood 103: 20272031.
237. Rhen, T.,, and J. A. Cidlowski. 2005. Antiinflammatory action of glucocorticoids—new mechanisms for old drugs. N. Engl. J. Med. 353: 17111723.
238. Rimola, A.,, R. Soto,, F. Bory,, V. Arroyo,, C. Piera, and, J. Rodes. 1984. Reticuloendothelial cell system phagocytic activity in cirrhosis and its relation to bacterial infection and prognosis. Hepatology 4: 5358.
239. Rinehart, J. J.,, S. P. Balcerzak,, A. L. Sagone, and, A. F. LoBuglio. 1974. Effects of glucocorticoids on human monocyte function. J. Clin. Investig. 54: 13371343.
240. Rogers, N. M.,, C. A. Peh,, R. Faull,, M. Pannell,, J. Cooper, and, G. R. Russ. 2008. Transmission of toxoplasmosis in two renal allograft recipients receiving an organ from the same donor. Transpl. Infect Dis. 10: 7174.
241. Romero-Steiner, S.,, D. M. Musher,, M. S. Cetron,, L. B. Pais,, J. E. Groover,, A. E. Fiore,, B. D. Plikaytis, and, G. M. Carlone. 1999. Reduction in functional antibody activity against Streptococcus pneumoniae in vaccinated elderly individuals highly correlates with decreased IgG antibody avidity. Clin. Infect. Dis. 29: 281288.
242. Rosenzweig, S. D.,, and S. M. Holland. 2004. Phagocyte immunodeficiencies and their infections. J. Allergy Clin. Immunol. 113: 620626.
243. Ross, S. C.,, and P. Densen. 1984. Complement deficiency states and infection: epidemiology, pathogenesis and consequences of neisserial and other infections in an immune deficiency. Medicine (Baltimore) 63: 243273.
244. Rubin, R. H. 2002. Infection in the organ transplant recipient, p. 573–679. In R. H. Rubin and, L. S. Young (ed.), Clinical Approach to Infection in the Compromised Host, 4th ed. Kluwer Academic/Plenum Publishers, New York, NY.
245. Rubin, R. H. 2007. The pathogenesis and clinical management of cytomegalovirus infection in the organ transplant recipient: the end of the ‘silo hypothesis.’ Curr. Opin. Infect. Dis. 20: 399407.
246. Rubins, J. B.,, A. K. Puri,, J. Loch,, D. Charboneau,, R. MacDonald,, N. Opstad, and, E. N. Janoff. 1998. Magnitude, duration, quality, and function of pneumococcal vaccine responses in elderly adults. J. Infect. Dis. 178: 431440.
247. Ruiz, I.,, J. Gavalda,, V. Montforte,, O. Len,, A. Roman,, C. Bravo,, A. Ferrer,, L. Tenorio,, F. Roman,, J. Maestre,, I. Molina,, F. Morell, and, A. Pahissa. 2006. Donor-to-host transmission of bacterial and fungal infections in lung transplantation. Am. J. Transplant. 6: 178182.
248. Saag, K. G.,, R. Koehnke,, J. R. Caldwell,, R. Brasington,, L. F. Burmeister,, B. Zimmerman,, J. A. Kohler, and, D. E. Furst. 1994. Low dose long-term glucocorticoid therapy in rheumatoid arthritis: an analysis of serious adverse events. Am. J. Med. 96: 115123.
249. Safdar, N.,, A. Said,, M. R. Lucey,, S. J. Knechtle,, A. D’Alessandro,, A. Musat,, J. Pirsch,, J. McDermott,, M. Kalayoglu, and, D. G. Maki. 2004. Infected bilomas in liver transplant recipients: clinical features, optimal management, and risk factors for mortality. Clin. Infect. Dis. 39: 517525.
250. Sakoda, Y.,, D. Hashimoto,, S. Asakura,, K. Takeuchi,, M. Harada,, M. Tanimoto, and, T. Teshima. 2007. Donorderived thymic-dependent T cells cause chronic graft-versus-host disease. Blood 109: 17561764.