Chapter 6 : Adenovirus

MyBook is a cheap paperback edition of the original book and will be sold at uniform, low price.

Preview this chapter:
Zoom in

Adenovirus, Page 1 of 2

| /docserver/preview/fulltext/10.1128/9781555815455/9781555813970_Chap06-1.gif /docserver/preview/fulltext/10.1128/9781555815455/9781555813970_Chap06-2.gif


Adenovirus infections are most common among children, people living in close quarters or closed populations, such as college students and military recruits, and immunocompromised patients. Among immunocompromised patients, infection is most commonly described for transplant recipients; adenovirus infection in such patients is the primary focus of this chapter. In hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) recipients, adenovirus is commonly associated with upper and/or lower respiratory tract infection, gastrointestinal (GI) disease, hepatitis, and cystitis. Adenovirus infection has been reported for a wide variety of solid organ transplant (SOT) recipient populations, including those receiving heart, lung, liver, intestinal, and renal transplants. The diagnostic approach to patients with adenovirus disease is complex. Sensitivities for immunofluorescence assays performed on primary specimens have ranged from 28 to 75%, while other antigen detection methods have had sensitivities that ranged from 43 to 89%. Electron microscopy may be used to identify adenovirus, particularly in stool. In summary, definitive diagnosis typically combines pathologic evidence of invasive adenoviral disease with positive culture or polymerase chain reaction (PCR) from the site of infection. Few labs are able to perform antiviral susceptibility testing.

Citation: Ison M, Hayden R. 2009. Adenovirus, p 129-140. In Hayden R, Carroll K, Tang Y, Wolk D (ed), Diagnostic Microbiology of the Immunocompromised Host. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815455.ch6
Highlighted Text: Show | Hide
Loading full text...

Full text loading...


Image of Figure 1.
Figure 1.

Typical adenovirus cytopathic effect in hybrid cell line composed of A549 and mink lung (Mv1Lu) cells. (Photograph courtesy of M. Bankowski.)

Citation: Ison M, Hayden R. 2009. Adenovirus, p 129-140. In Hayden R, Carroll K, Tang Y, Wolk D (ed), Diagnostic Microbiology of the Immunocompromised Host. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815455.ch6
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint
Image of Figure 2.
Figure 2.

Transmission electron microscopy of AdV41 negatively stained with uranyl acetate. (Photograph courtesy of Karin Boucke, University of Zürich.)

Citation: Ison M, Hayden R. 2009. Adenovirus, p 129-140. In Hayden R, Carroll K, Tang Y, Wolk D (ed), Diagnostic Microbiology of the Immunocompromised Host. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815455.ch6
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint
Image of Figure 3.
Figure 3.

Approach to screening for adenovirus disease in pediatric stem cell transplant recipients. (Adapted from reference with permission of the publisher.)

Citation: Ison M, Hayden R. 2009. Adenovirus, p 129-140. In Hayden R, Carroll K, Tang Y, Wolk D (ed), Diagnostic Microbiology of the Immunocompromised Host. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815455.ch6
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint
Image of Figure 4.
Figure 4.

Approach to diagnosis of suspected adenovirus disease ( ).

Citation: Ison M, Hayden R. 2009. Adenovirus, p 129-140. In Hayden R, Carroll K, Tang Y, Wolk D (ed), Diagnostic Microbiology of the Immunocompromised Host. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815455.ch6
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint


1. Adrian, T.,, G. Wadell,, J. C. Hierholzer, and, R. Wigand. 1986. DNA restriction analysis of adenovirus prototypes 1 to 41. Arch. Virol. 91: 277290.
2. Akiyama, H.,, T. Kurosu,, C. Sakashita,, T. Inoue,, S. Mori,, K. Ohashi,, S. Tanikawa,, H. Sakamaki,, Y. Onozawa,, Q. Chen,, H. Zheng, and, T. Kitamura. 2001. Adenovirus is a key pathogen in hemorrhagic cystitis associated with bone marrow transplantation. Clin. Infect. Dis. 32: 13251330.
3. August, M. J.,, and A. L. Warford. 1987. Evaluation of a commercial monoclonal antibody for detection of adenovirus antigen. J. Clin. Microbiol. 25: 22332235.
4. Baldwin, A.,, H. Kingman,, M. Darville,, A. B. Foot,, D. Grier,, J. M. Cornish,, N. Goulden,, A. Oakhill,, D. H. Pamphilon,, C. G. Steward, and, D. I. Marks. 2000. Outcome and clinical course of 100 patients with adenovirus infection following bone marrow transplantation. Bone Marrow Transplant. 26: 13331338.
5. Barenfanger, J.,, C. Drake,, N. Leon,, T. Mueller, and, T. Troutt. 2000. Clinical and financial benefits of rapid detection of respiratory viruses: an outcomes study. J. Clin. Microbiol. 38: 28242828.
6. Bateman, E. D.,, S. Hayashi,, K. Kuwano,, T. A. Wilke, and, J. C. Hogg. 1995. Latent adenoviral infection in follicular bronchiectasis. Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med. 151: 170176.
7. Berho, M.,, M. Torroella,, A. Viciana,, D. Weppler,, J. Thompson,, J. Nery,, A. Tzakis, and, P. Ruiz. 1998. Adenovirus enterocolitis in human small bowel transplants. Pediatr. Transplant. 2: 277282.
8. Bordigoni, P.,, A. S. Carret,, V. Venard,, F. Witz, and, A. Le Faou. 2001. Treatment of adenovirus infections in patients undergoing allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. Clin. Infect. Dis. 32: 12901297.
9. Bridges, N. D.,, T. L. Spray,, M. H. Collins,, N. E. Bowles, and, J. A. Towbin. 1998. Adenovirus infection in the lung results in graft failure after lung transplantation. J. Thorac. Cardiovasc. Surg. 116: 617623.
10. Bruno, B.,, T. Gooley,, R. C. Hackman,, C. Davis,, L. Corey, and, M. Boeckh. 2003. Adenovirus infection in hematopoietic stem cell transplantation: effect of ganciclovir and impact on survival. Biol. Blood Marrow Transplant. 9: 341352.
11. Carter, B. A.,, S. J. Karpen,, R. E. Quiros-Tejeira,, I. F. Chang,, B. S. Clark,, G. J. Demmler,, H. E. Heslop,, J. D. Scott,, P. Seu, and, J. A. Goss. 2002. Intravenous cidofovir therapy for disseminated adenovirus in a pediatric liver transplant recipient. Transplantation 74: 10501052.
12. Chakrabarti, S.,, K. E. Collingham,, C. D. Fegan,, D. Pillay, and, D. W. Milligan. 2000. Adenovirus infections following haematopoietic cell transplantation: is there a role for adoptive immunotherapy? Bone Marrow Transplant. 26: 305307.
13. Chakrabarti, S.,, V. Mautner,, H. Osman,, K. E. Collingham,, C. D. Fegan,, P. E. Klapper,, P. A. Moss, and, D. W. Milligan. 2002. Adenovirus infections following allogeneic stem cell transplantation: incidence and outcome in relation to graft manipulation, immunosuppression, and immune recovery. Blood 100: 16191627.
14. Chakrabarti, S.,, D. W. Milligan,, P. A. Moss, and, V. Mautner. 2004. Adenovirus infections in stem cell transplant recipients: recent developments in understanding of pathogenesis, diagnosis and management. Leuk. Lymphoma 45: 873885.
15. Claas, E. C.,, M. W. Schilham,, C. S. de Brouwer,, P. Hubacek,, M. Echavarria,, A. C. Lankester,, M. J. van Tol, and, A. C. Kroes. 2005. Internally controlled real-time PCR monitoring of adenovirus DNA load in serum or plasma of transplant recipients. J. Clin. Microbiol. 43: 17381744.
16. Conner, D. H.,, F. W. Chandler,, D. A. Schwartz,, H. J. Manz, and, E. E. Lack. 1997. Pathology of Infectious Diseases. Appleton & Lange, Stamford, CT.
17. Donoso Mantke, O.,, R. Meyer,, S. Prosch,, A. Nitsche,, K. Leitmeyer,, R. Kallies, and, M. Niedrig. 2005. High prevalence of cardiotropic viruses in myocardial tissue from ex-planted hearts of heart transplant recipients and heart donors: a 3-year retrospective study from a German patients’ pool. J. Heart Lung Transplant. 24: 16321638.
18. Ebner, K.,, M. Suda,, F. Watzinger, and, T. Lion. 2005. Molecular detection and quantitative analysis of the entire spectrum of human adenoviruses by a two-reaction real-time PCR assay. J. Clin. Microbiol. 43: 30493053.
19. Echavarria, M.,, M. Forman,, M. J. van Tol,, J. M. Vossen,, P. Charache, and, A. C. Kroes. 2001. Prediction of severe disseminated adenovirus infection by serum PCR. Lancet 358: 384385.
20. Echavarria, M. S.,, S. C. Ray,, R. Ambinder,, J. S. Dumler, and, P. Charache. 1999. PCR detection of adenovirus in a bone marrow transplant recipient: hemorrhagic cystitis as a presenting manifestation of disseminated disease. J. Clin. Microbiol. 37: 686689.
21. Espy, M. J.,, J. C. Hierholzer, and, T. F. Smith. 1987. The effect of centrifugation on the rapid detection of adenovirus in shell vials. Am. J. Clin. Pathol. 88: 358360.
22. Feuchtinger, T.,, S. Matthes-Martin,, C. Richard,, T. Lion,, M. Fuhrer,, K. Hamprecht,, R. Handgretinger,, C. Peters,, F. R. Schuster,, R. Beck,, M. Schumm,, R. Lotfi,, G. Jahn, and, P. Lang. 2006. Safe adoptive transfer of virus-specific T-cell immunity for the treatment of systemic adenovirus infection after allogeneic stem cell transplantation. Br. J. Haematol. 134: 6476.
23. Flomenberg, P.,, J. Babbitt,, W. R. Drobyski,, R. C. Ash,, D. R. Carrigan,, G. V. Sedmak,, T. McAuliffe,, B. Camitta,, M. M. Horowitz,, N. Bunin, et al. 1994. Increasing incidence of adenovirus disease in bone marrow transplant recipients. J. Infect. Dis. 169: 775781.
24. Friedrichs, N.,, A. M. Eis-Hubinger,, A. Heim,, E. Platen,, H. Zhou, and, R. Buettner. 2003. Acute adenoviral infection of a graft by serotype 35 following renal transplantation. Pathol. Res. Pract. 199: 565570.
25. Garbino, J.,, M. W. Gerbase,, W. Wunderli,, L. Kolarova,, L. P. Nicod,, T. Rochat, and, L. Kaiser. 2004. Respiratory viruses and severe lower respiratory tract complications in hospitalized patients. Chest 125: 10331039.
26. Gavel, G.,, S. Marven,, M. J. Evans,, J. Walker, and, A. J. Vora. 2003. Obliterative enteritis complicating graft versus host disease. Bone Marrow Transplant. 32: 10971098.
27. Grandien, M.,, C. A. Pettersson,, L. Svensson, and, I. Uhnoo. 1987. Latex agglutination test for adenovirus diagnosis in diarrheal disease. J. Med. Virol. 23: 311316.
28. Green, M.,, P. Ljungman, and, M. G. Michaels. 2003. Adenovirus, parvovirus B19, papilloma virus, and polyomaviruses after hemopoietic stem cell or solid organ transplantation, p. 412–438. In R. A. Bowden,, P. Ljungman, and, C. V. Paya (ed.), Transplant Infections. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, Philadelphia, PA.
29. Gu, Z.,, S. W. Belzer,, C. S. Gibson,, M. J. Bankowski, and, R. T. Hayden. 2003. Multiplexed, real-time PCR for quantitative detection of human adenovirus. J. Clin. Microbiol. 41: 46364641.
30. Hale, G. A.,, H. E. Heslop,, R. A. Krance,, M. A. Brenner,, D. Jayawardene,, D. K. Srivastava, and, C. C. Patrick. 1999. Adenovirus infection after pediatric bone marrow transplantation. Bone Marrow Transplant. 23: 277282.
31. Hatakeyama, N.,, N. Suzuki,, T. Kudoh,, T. Hori,, N. Mizue, and, H. Tsutsumi. 2003. Successful cidofovir treatment of adenovirus-associated hemorrhagic cystitis and renal dysfunction after allogenic bone marrow transplant. Pediatr. Infect. Dis. J. 22: 928929.
32. Heim, A.,, C. Ebnet,, G. Harste, and, P. Pring-Akerblom. 2003. Rapid and quantitative detection of human adenovirus DNA by real-time PCR. J. Med. Virol. 70: 228239.
33. Heirholzer, J. 1995. Adenoviruses, p. 169–188. In E. H. Lennette,, D. A. Lennette, and, E. T. Lennette (ed.), Diagnostic Procedures for Viral, Rickettsial, and Chlamydial Infections. American Public Health Association, Washington, DC.
34. Hierholzer, J. C.,, K. H. Johansson,, L. J. Anderson,, C. J. Tsou, and, P. E. Halonen. 1987. Comparison of monoclonal time-resolved fluoroimmunoassay with monoclonal capture-biotinylated detector enzyme immunoassay for adenovirus antigen detection. J. Clin. Microbiol. 25: 16621667.
35. Hoffman, J. A. 2006. Adenoviral disease in pediatric solid organ transplant recipients. Pediatr. Transplant. 10: 1725.
36. Hoffman, J. A.,, A. J. Shah,, L. A. Ross, and, N. Kapoor. 2001. Adenoviral infections and a prospective trial of cidofovir in pediatric hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. Biol. Blood Marrow Transplant. 7: 388394.
37. Horwitz, M. S. 2001. Adenoviruses, p. 2313–2316. In D. M. Knipe,, P. M. Howley,, D. E. Griffin,, R. A. Lamb,, M. A. Martin,, B. Roizman, and, S. E. Straus (ed.), Fields Virology. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, Philadelphia, PA.
38. Hoshino, T.,, T. Takanashi,, M. Okada, and, S. Uchida. 2002. Oxybuprocaine induces a false-positive response in immunochromatographic SAS Adeno test. Ophthalmology 109: 808809.
39. Howard, D. S.,, I. G. Phillips,, D. E. Reece,, R. K. Munn,, J. Henslee-Downey,, M. Pittard,, M. Barker, and, C. Pomeroy. 1999. Adenovirus infections in hematopoietic stem cell transplant recipients. Clin. Infect. Dis. 29: 14941501.
40. Hromas, R.,, K. Cornetta,, E. Srour,, C. Blanke, and, E. R. Broun. 1994. Donor leukocyte infusion as therapy of life-threatening adenoviral infections after T-cell-depleted bone marrow transplantation. Blood 84: 16891690.
41. Humar, A.,, K. Doucette,, D. Kumar,, X. L. Pang,, D. Lien,, K. Jackson, and, J. Preiksaitis. 2006. Assessment of adenovirus infection in adult lung transplant recipients using molecular surveillance. J. Heart Lung Transplant. 25: 14411446.
42. Humar, A.,, D. Kumar,, T. Mazzulli,, R. R. Razonable,, G. Moussa,, C. V. Paya,, E. Covington,, E. Alecock, and, M. D. Pescovitz. 2005. A surveillance study of adenovirus infection in adult solid organ transplant recipients. Am. J. Transplant. 5: 25552559.
43. Ishida, H.,, N. Shin-Nakai,, T. Yoshihara,, T. Teramura,, T. Imamura,, A. Mukouyama,, A. Morimoto, and, S. Imashuku. 2005. Invasive adenoviral infection in a recipient of unrelated bone marrow transplantation: problems with diagnostic PCR. Pediatr. Blood Cancer 44: 416419.
44. Ishii, T.,, G. V. Mazariegos,, J. Bueno,, S. Ohwada, and, J. Reyes. 2003. Exfoliative rejection after intestinal transplantation in children. Pediatr. Transplant. 7: 185191.
45. Ison, M. G. 2006. Adenovirus infections in transplant recipients. Clin. Infect. Dis. 43: 331339.
46. Kohdera, U.,, M. Kino, and, M. Ito. 2006. Detection of adenovirus DNA in throat swabs and blood by SYBR green real-time PCR assay in patients with adenovirus-associated tonsillitis. Jpn. J. Infect. Dis. 59: 394396.
47. Kojaoghlanian, T.,, P. Flomenberg, and, M. S. Horwitz. 2003. The impact of adenovirus infection on the immunocompromised host. Rev. Med. Virol. 13: 155171.
48. Koneru, B.,, R. Jaffe,, C. O. Esquivel,, R. Kunz,, S. Todo,, S. Iwatsuki, and, T. E. Starzl. 1987. Adenoviral infections in pediatric liver transplant recipients. JAMA 258: 489492.
49. Krisher, K. K.,, and M. A. Menegus. 1987. Evaluation of three types of cell culture for recovery of adenovirus from clinical specimens. J. Clin. Microbiol. 25: 13231324.
50. Landry, M. L.,, and D. Ferguson. 2000. SimulFluor respiratory screen for rapid detection of multiple respiratory viruses in clinical specimens by immunofluorescence staining. J. Clin. Microbiol. 38: 708711.
51. Landry, M. L.,, C. K. Fong,, K. Neddermann,, L. Solomon, and, G. D. Hsiung. 1987. Disseminated adenovirus infection in an immunocompromised host. Pitfalls in diagnosis. Am. J. Med. 83: 555559.
52. Lankester, A. C.,, B. Heemskerk,, E. C. Claas,, M. W. Schilham,, M. F. Beersma,, R. G. Bredius,, M. J. van Tol, and, A. C. Kroes. 2004. Effect of ribavirin on the plasma viral DNA load in patients with disseminating adenovirus infection. Clin. Infect. Dis. 38: 15211525.
53. Lankester, A. C.,, M. J. van Tol,, E. C. Claas,, J. M. Vossen, and, A. C. Kroes. 2002. Quantification of adenovirus DNA in plasma for management of infection in stem cell graft recipients. Clin. Infect. Dis. 34: 864867.
54. La Rosa, A. M.,, R. E. Champlin,, N. Mirza,, J. Gajewski,, S. Giralt,, K. V. Rolston,, I. Raad,, K. Jacobson,, D. Kontoyiannis,, L. Elting, and, E. Whimbey. 2001. Adenovirus infections in adult recipients of blood and marrow transplants. Clin. Infect. Dis. 32: 871876.
55. Leen, A. M.,, C. M. Bollard,, G. D. Myers, and, C. M. Rooney. 2006. Adenoviral infections in hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. Biol. Blood Marrow Transplant. 12: 243251.
56. Lehtomaki, K.,, I. Julkunen,, K. Sandelin,, J. Salonen,, M. Virtanen,, M. Ranki, and, T. Hovi. 1986. Rapid diagnosis of respiratory adenovirus infections in young adult men. J. Clin. Microbiol. 24: 108111.
57. Lenaerts, L.,, and L. Naesens. 2006. Antiviral therapy for adenovirus infections. Antivir. Res. 71: 172180.
58. Leruez-Ville, M.,, V. Minard,, F. Lacaille,, A. Buzyn,, E. Abachin,, S. Blanche,, F. Freymuth, and, C. Rouzioux. 2004. Real-time blood plasma polymerase chain reaction for management of disseminated adenovirus infection. Clin. Infect. Dis. 38: 4552.
59. Levy, M. F.,, J. S. Crippin,, O. Abbasoglu,, M. Vodapally,, R. M. Goldstein,, B. S. Husberg,, T. A. Gonwa, and, G. B. Klintmalm. 1996. Adenovirus infection of the human intestinal allograft: a case report. Transplant. Proc. 28: 27862787.
60. Lion, T.,, R. Baumgartinger,, F. Watzinger,, S. Matthes-Martin,, M. Suda,, S. Preuner,, B. Futterknecht,, A. Lawitschka,, C. Peters,, U. Potschger, and, H. Gadner. 2003. Molecular monitoring of adenovirus in peripheral blood after allogeneic bone marrow transplantation permits early diagnosis of disseminated disease. Blood 102: 11141120.
61. Lu, X.,, and D. D. Erdman. 2006. Molecular typing of human adenoviruses by PCR and sequencing of a partial region of the hexon gene. Arch. Virol. 151: 15871602.
62. Mahafzah, A. M.,, and M. L. Landry. 1989. Evaluation of immunofluorescent reagents, centrifugation, and conventional cultures for the diagnosis of adenovirus infection. Diagn. Microbiol. Infect. Dis. 12: 407411.
63. Matsuse, T.,, H. Matsui,, C. Y. Shu,, T. Nagase,, T. Wakabayashi,, S. Mori,, S. Inoue,, Y. Fukuchi, and, H. Orimo. 1994. Adenovirus pulmonary infections identified by PCR and in situ hybridisation in bone marrow transplant recipients. J. Clin. Pathol. 47: 973977.
64. McGrath, D.,, M. E. Falagas,, R. Freeman,, R. Rohrer,, R. Fairchild,, C. Colbach, and, D. R. Snydman. 1998. Adenovirus infection in adult orthotopic liver transplant recipients: incidence and clinical significance. J. Infect. Dis. 177: 459462.
65. McLaughlin, G. E.,, S. Delis,, L. Kashimawo,, G. P. Cantwell,, N. Mittal,, R. E. Cirocco,, P. Ruiz,, T. Kato, and, A. G. Tzakis. 2003. Adenovirus infection in pediatric liver and intestinal transplant recipients: utility of DNA detection by PCR. Am. J. Transplant. 3: 224228.
66. Metzger-Boddien, C.,, and J. Kehle. 2005. Development and evaluation of a sensitive PCR-ELISA for detection of adenoviruses in feces. Intervirology 48: 297300.
67. Michaels, M. G.,, M. Green,, E. R. Wald, and, T. E. Starzl. 1992. Adenovirus infection in pediatric liver transplant recipients. J. Infect. Dis. 165: 170174.
68. Moore, P. L.,, A. D. Steele, and, J. J. Alexander. 2000. Relevance of commercial diagnostic tests to detection of enteric adenovirus infections in South Africa. J. Clin. Microbiol. 38: 16611663.
69. Morfin, F.,, A. Boucher,, F. Najioullah,, Y. Bertrand,, N. Bleyzac,, F. Poitevin-Later,, F. Bienvenu,, V. Simonet,, C. Galambrun,, N. Philippe,, M. Aymard,, D. Thouvenot, and, G. Souillet. 2004. Cytomegalovirus and adenovirus infections and diseases among 75 paediatric unrelated allogeneic bone marrow transplant recipients. J. Med. Virol. 72: 257262.
70. Morfin, F.,, S. Dupuis-Girod,, S. Mundweiler,, D. Falcon,, D. Carrington,, P. Sedlacek,, M. Bierings,, P. Cetkovsky,, A. C. Kroes,, M. J. van Tol, and, D. Thouvenot. 2005. In vitro susceptibility of adenovirus to antiviral drugs is species-dependent. Antivir. Ther. 10: 225229.
71. Morris, D. J.,, R. J. Cooper,, T. Barr, and, A. S. Bailey. 1996. Polymerase chain reaction for rapid diagnosis of respiratory adenovirus infection. J. Infect. 32: 113117.
72. Ozolek, J. A.,, K. Cieply,, J. Walpusk, and, S. Ranganathan. 2006. Adenovirus infection within stromal cells in a pediatric small bowel allograft. Pediatr. Dev. Pathol. 9: 321327.
73. Parizhskaya, M.,, J. Walpusk,, G. Mazariegos, and, R. Jaffe. 2001. Enteric adenovirus infection in pediatric small bowel transplant recipients. Pediatr. Dev. Pathol. 4: 122128.
74. Pinchoff, R. J.,, S. S. Kaufman,, M. S. Magid,, D. D. Erdman,, G. E. Gondolesi,, M. H. Mendelson,, K. Tane,, S. G. Jenkins,, T. M. Fishbein, and, B. C. Herold. 2003. Adenovirus infection in pediatric small bowel transplantation recipients. Transplantation 76: 183189.
75. Pring-Åkerblom, P.,, F. E. J. Trijssenaar,, T. Adrian, and, H. Hoyer. 1999. Multiplex polymerase chain reaction for subgenus-specific detection of human adenoviruses in clinical samples. J. Med. Virol. 58: 8792.
76. Rabalais, G. P.,, G. G. Stout,, K. L. Ladd, and, K. M. Cost. 1992. Rapid diagnosis of respiratory viral infections by using a shell vial assay and monoclonal antibody pool. J. Clin. Microbiol. 30: 15051508.
77. Raboni, S. M.,, M. M. Siqueira,, S. R. Portes, and, R. Pasquini. 2003. Comparison of PCR, enzyme immunoassay and conventional culture for adenovirus detection in bone marrow transplant patients with hemorrhagic cystitis. J. Clin. Virol. 27: 270275.
78. Raty, R.,, M. Kleemola,, K. Melen,, M. Stenvik, and, I. Julkunen. 1999. Efficacy of PCR and other diagnostic methods for the detection of respiratory adenoviral infections. J. Med. Virol. 59: 6672.
79. Ray, C. G.,, and L. L. Minnich. 1987. Efficiency of immunofluorescence for rapid detection of common respiratory viruses. J. Clin. Microbiol. 25: 355357.
80. Rector, A.,, N. Azzi,, C. Liesnard,, K. Zlateva,, D. Van Beers,, R. Snoeck, and, M. Van Ranst. 2002. Use of polymerase chain reaction for diagnosis of disseminated adenovirus infection. Pediatr. Infect. Dis. J. 21: 11761178.
81. Roghmann, M.,, K. Ball,, D. Erdman,, J. Lovchik,, L. J. Anderson, and, R. Edelman. 2003. Active surveillance for respiratory virus infections in adults who have undergone bone marrow and peripheral blood stem cell transplantation. Bone Marrow Transplant. 32: 10851088.
82. Rosen, L. 1960. A hemagglutination-inhibition technique for typing adenoviruses. Am. J. Hyg. 71: 120128.
83. Rovida, F.,, E. Percivalle,, M. Zavattoni,, M. Torsellini,, A. Sarasini,, G. Campanini,, S. Paolucci,, F. Baldanti,, M. G. Revello, and, G. Gerna. 2005. Monoclonal antibodies versus reverse transcription-PCR for detection of respiratory viruses in a patient population with respiratory tract infections admitted to hospital. J. Med. Virol. 75: 336347.
84. Runde, V.,, S. Ross,, R. Trenschel,, E. Lagemann,, O. Basu,, K. Renzing-Kohler,, U. W. Schaefer,, M. Roggendorf, and, E. Holler. 2001. Adenoviral infection after allogeneic stem cell transplantation (SCT): report on 130 patients from a single SCT unit involved in a prospective multi center surveillance study. Bone Marrow Transplant. 28: 5157.
85. Russell, K. L.,, M. P. Broderick,, S. E. Franklin,, L. B. Blyn,, N. E. Freed,, E. Moradi,, D. J. Ecker,, P. E. Kammerer,, M. A. Osuna,, A. E. Kajon,, C. B. Morn, and, M. A. Ryan. 2006. Transmission dynamics and prospective environmental sampling of adenovirus in a military recruit setting. J. Infect. Dis. 194: 877885.
86. Ruuskanen, O.,, O. Meurman, and, G. Akusjärvi. 2002. Adenoviruses, p. 515–535. In D. D. Richman,, R. J. Whitley, and, F. G. Hayden (ed.), Clinical Virology. ASM Press, Washington, DC.
87. Rux, J. J.,, P. R. Kuser, and, R. M. Burnett. 2003. Structural and phylogenetic analysis of adenovirus hexons by use of high-resolution X-ray crystallographic, molecular modeling, and sequence-based methods. J. Virol. 77: 95539566.
88. Saad, R. S.,, A. J. Demetris,, R. G. Lee,, S. Kusne, and, P. S. Randhawa. 1997. Adenovirus hepatitis in the adult allograft liver. Transplantation 64: 14831485.
89. Sambursky, R.,, S. Tauber,, F. Schirra,, K. Kozich,, R. Davidson, and, E. J. Cohen. 2006. The RPS adeno detector for diagnosing adenoviral conjunctivitis. Ophthalmology 113: 17581764.
90. Schilham, M. W.,, E. C. Claas,, W. van Zaane,, B. Heemskerk,, J. M. Vossen,, A. C. Lankester,, R. E. Toes,, M. Echavarria,, A. C. Kroes, and, M. J. van Tol. 2002. High levels of adenovirus DNA in serum correlate with fatal outcome of adenovirus infection in children after allogeneic stem-cell transplantation. Clin. Infect. Dis. 35: 526532.
91. Scott-Taylor, T. H.,, and G. W. Hammond. 1992. Conserved sequences of the adenovirus genome for detection of all human adenovirus types by hybridization. J. Clin. Microbiol. 30: 17031710.
92. Seidemann, K.,, A. Heim,, E. D. Pfister,, H. Koditz,, A. Beilken,, A. Sander,, M. Melter,, K. W. Sykora,, M. Sasse, and, A. Wessel. 2004. Monitoring of adenovirus infection in pediatric transplant recipients by quantitative PCR: report of six cases and review of the literature. Am. J. Transplant. 4: 21022108.
93. Shields, A. F.,, R. C. Hackman,, K. H. Fife,, L. Corey, and, J. D. Meyers. 1985. Adenovirus infections in patients undergoing bone-marrow transplantation. N. Engl. J. Med. 312: 529533.
94. Shirali, G. S.,, J. Ni,, R. E. Chinnock,, J. K. Johnston,, G. L. Rosenthal,, N. E. Bowles, and, J. A. Towbin. 2001. Association of viral genome with graft loss in children after cardiac transplantation. N. Engl. J. Med. 344: 14981503.
95. Singhal, S.,, D. A. Muir,, D. A. Ratcliffe,, J. A. Shirley,, P. A. Cane,, J. G. Hastings,, D. Pillay, and, D. J. Mutimer. 1999. Respiratory viruses in adult liver transplant recipients. Transplantation 68: 981984.
96. Strickler, J. G.,, T. P. Singleton,, C. M. Copenhaver,, A. Erice, and, D. C. Snover. 1992. Adenovirus in the gastrointestinal tracts of immunosuppressed patients. Am. J. Clin. Pathol. 97: 555558.
97. Takiff, H. E.,, and S. E. Straus. 1982. Early replicative block prevents the efficient growth of fastidious diarrhea-associated adenoviruses in cell culture. J. Med. Virol. 9: 93100.
98. Takiff, H. E.,, S. E. Straus, and, C. F. Garon. 1981. Propagation and in vitro studies of previously non-cultivable enteral adenoviruses in 293 cells. Lancet ii: 832834.
99. Takimoto, S.,, M. Grandien,, M. A. Ishida,, M. S. Pereira,, T. M. Paiva,, T. Ishimaru,, E. M. Makita, and, C. H. Martinez. 1991. Comparison of enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, indirect immunofluorescence assay, and virus isolation for detection of respiratory viruses in nasopharyngeal secretions. J. Clin. Microbiol. 29: 470474.
100. Trabelsi, A.,, B. Pozzetto,, A. D. Mbida,, F. Grattard,, A. Ros, and, O. G. Gaudin. 1992. Evaluation of four methods for rapid detection of adenovirus. Eur. J. Clin. Microbiol. Infect. Dis. 11: 535539.
101. Turner, D.,, S. Martin,, B. Y. Ngan,, D. Grant, and, P. M. Sherman. 2006. Anastomotic ulceration following small bowel transplantation. Am. J. Transplant. 6: 236240.
102. Van Doornum, G. J.,, and J. C. De Jong. 1998. Rapid shell vial culture technique for detection of enteroviruses and adenoviruses in fecal specimens: comparison with conventional virus isolation method. J. Clin. Microbiol. 36: 28652868.
103. Wadell, G.,, A. Allard, and, J. C. Heirholzer. 1999. Adenoviruses, p. 970–982. In P. R. Murray,, E. J. Baron,, M. A. Pfaller,, F. C. Tenover, and, R. H. Yolken (ed.), Manual of Clinical Microbiology. ASM Press, Washington, DC.
104. Watanabe, M.,, U. Kohdera,, M. Kino,, T. Haruta,, S. Nukuzuma,, T. Suga,, K. Akiyoshi,, M. Ito,, S. Suga, and, Y. Komada. 2005. Detection of adenovirus DNA in clinical samples by SYBR green real-time polymerase chain reaction assay. Pediatr. Int. 47: 286291.
105. Weinberg, A.,, L. Brewster,, J. Clark, and, E. Simoes. 2004. Evaluation of R-Mix shell vials for the diagnosis of viral respiratory tract infections. J. Clin. Virol. 30: 100105.
106. Wiley, L.,, D. Springer,, R. P. Kowalski,, R. Arffa,, M. I. Roat,, R. A. Thoft, and, Y. J. Gordon. 1988. Rapid diagnostic test for ocular adenovirus. Ophthalmology 95: 431433.
107. Wiley, L. A.,, L. A. Roba,, R. P. Kowalski,, E. G. Romanowski, and, Y. J. Gordon. 1996. A 5-year evaluation of the adenoclone test for the rapid diagnosis of adenovirus from conjunctival swabs. Cornea 15: 363367.
108. Wood, S. R.,, I. R. Sharp,, E. O. Caul,, I. Paul,, A. S. Bailey,, M. Hawkins,, S. Pugh,, J. Treharne, and, S. Stevenson. 1997. Rapid detection and serotyping of adenovirus by direct immunofluorescence. J. Med. Virol. 51: 198201.
109. Yusuf, U.,, G. A. Hale,, J. Carr,, Z. Gu,, E. Benaim,, P. Woodard,, K. A. Kasow,, E. M. Horwitz,, W. Leung,, D. K. Srivastava,, R. Handgretinger, and, R. T. Hayden. 2006. Cidofovir for the treatment of adenoviral infection in pediatric hematopoietic stem cell transplant patients. Transplantation 81: 13981404.
110. Zavattoni, M.,, E. Percivalle,, E. Cattaneo,, M. G. Revello,, M. Torsellini, and, G. Gerna. 2003. Optimized detection of respiratory viruses in nasopharyngeal secretions. New Microbiol. 26: 133140.


Generic image for table
Table 1.

Infections associated with adenovirus species and serotype

Citation: Ison M, Hayden R. 2009. Adenovirus, p 129-140. In Hayden R, Carroll K, Tang Y, Wolk D (ed), Diagnostic Microbiology of the Immunocompromised Host. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815455.ch6
Generic image for table
Table 2.

FDA-approved rapid diagnostic tests for adenovirus

Citation: Ison M, Hayden R. 2009. Adenovirus, p 129-140. In Hayden R, Carroll K, Tang Y, Wolk D (ed), Diagnostic Microbiology of the Immunocompromised Host. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815455.ch6

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Please check the format of the address you have entered.
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error